New Mexico's 2nd congressional district
New Mexico's second congressional district to the United States House of Representatives serves the southern half of New Mexico, including Las Cruces and the southern fourth of Albuquerque. Geographically, it is the fifth largest district in the nation, the largest not to comprise an entire state, it is represented by Democrat Xochitl Torres Small. The 2nd district leans Republican, in contrast to New Mexico's other two districts, which lean Democratic. Election results from presidential races District created January 3, 1969 from the former at-large district. New Mexico's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Tolar, New Mexico
Tolar, New Mexico is a ghost town in the panhandle of northern Roosevelt County that existed in the 20th Century. The site is at the intersection of New Mexico State Road 86 and U. S. Routes 60 and 84 between Fort Sumner in De Baca County and Melrose in Curry County. Tolar was established as a stop on the Belen Cutoff of the Santa Fe Railway in 1907. A train carrying munitions exploded there in 1944, causing the largest accidental explosion in New Mexico history; the first settler in the vicinity of Tolar was Alvin Ellender Jeter, who applied for a patent on 160 acres of land under the Homestead Act in 1901. Jeter built a half-dugout house, his daughter Marvie Ellen Jeter, born July 9, 1903, was the first child born at Tolar. The Jeter family moved to Haskell, Texas in 1917. To bypass the steep grades on its line through the Raton and Glorieta Passes, the Santa Fe Railway in 1903 began work on the Belen Cutoff across East Central New Mexico, building a new line eastward from Belen through the Abo Pass to Texico on the state line with Texas.
Much sand and gravel for construction of the railroad came from the vicinity of Tolar. A race riot broke out in 1905 amongst the construction workers and railroad men that led to eight deaths; the cutoff was finished in December 1907. While still a tent city, the United States Post Office Department opened a post office at Tolar on August 18, 1905. J. W. Coleman, the first postmaster named the town for Tolar, where his daughter lived. In 1908, the town was platted. By 1911, 600 people lived there. Tolar had a school until 1926; the railroad station closed in March 1933. The population fell to 350 by 1941 and under 300 in 1944. Midday on November 30, 1944, an eighty-one-car west-bound mixed freight train derailed after a hot box on the seventh car of the train led to its axle breaking; the train carried airplane engines, canned corned beef, fuel oil, 165 five-hundred pound bombs bound for the Pacific Theatre. Thirty-six cars derailed; the oil car caught fire. After burning for twenty to thirty minutes, the munitions exploded.
The explosion dug a crater 10 feet deep. Most of the buildings in Tolar were destroyed, including the post office, the railroad station, the grocery; the blast was felt 120 miles away in Texas. Thirty miles to the southeast in Elida, dishes fell from their shelves and windows broke in Melrose, twelve miles to the east. One person was killed, Tolar resident Jess Brown, struck in the head by a piece of metal and died while being transported to the hospital in Melrose, his widow, Pauline Brown, received a $17,500 settlement from the railroad for his death. Because of the war, the Federal Bureau of Investigation sent Special Agent R. J. Untreiner to investigate; the Bureau that it was an accident. While The New York Times reported only a single paragraph about the accident, it was front page news in New Mexico newspapers; because of that news coverage, officials of the Manhattan Project issued a cover story of an ammunition explosion on the Alamogordo Air Force Base on July 16, 1945 after the test of the first atomic bomb.
While the town had been declining for years, the explosion hastened its demise. The post office was closed April 1946, mail being redirected to the Taiban post office. Today, there is nothing left of the community. Two locomotives and five freight cars of a BNSF Railroad freight train derailed at Tolar on September 21, 1997. On November 21, 2014, the New Mexico Department of Transportation dedicated a historical marker at Tolar ahead of the seventieth anniversary of the munitions explosion; the historical marker is at Mile Marker 344 on U. S. Routes 60 and 84, two miles east of the site of Tolar; the site of Tolar is in the Portales Micropolitan Statistical Area, part of the larger Clovis-Portales Combined Statistical Area. Lillian Bowe, "Story of blast memorialized by marker," Portales News-Tribune, October 29, 2014. Dixie Boyle, A History of Highway 60 & the Belen Cutoff: A Brief History. Parker, Colorado: Outskirts Press, 2010. ISBN 1432760904 "Derailed Train Blocks Track West of Clovis," Albuquerque Journal, September 23, 1997, p. C1.
ISSN 1526-5137 Francis L. & Roberta B. Fugate. Roadside History of New Mexico. Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press Publishing, 1989. ISBN 0-87842-242-0. Robert Julyan, The Place Names of New Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8263-1688-3. David F. Myrick, New Mexico’s Railroads: A Historical Survey. Rev. ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1990. ISBN 978-0-8263-1185-6. Temple Padon, “Rural Development in the Homestead Period,” in Roosevelt County History and Heritage, ed. by Jean M. Burroughs. Portales, N. M.: Bishop Printing, 1975. OCLC 1015585819 Keith Payne, “Town and Rural Post Offices,” in Roosevelt County History and Heritage, ed. by Jean M. Burroughs. Portales, N. M.: Bishop Printing, 1975. OCLC 1015585819 William Penner, Shawn Kelley & Nicholas Parker, Ho! To the Land of Sunshine: A History of the Belen Cutoff. Albuquerque: P3 Planning, 2013. ISBN 9780578134093 Wendel Sloan, “Tolar Before the Explosion,” New Mexico Magazine, October 1987, pp. 72-73. ISSN 0028-6249 Alabam Sumner, "One Death from Tolar Blast: War Brought Closer Home When Explosion Occurs," Clovis News-Journal, December 1, 1944, p. 1.
Ferenc M. Szasz, “The Tolar, New Mexico, Munitions Train Explosion,” Larger than Life: New Mexico in the Twentieth Century, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-8263-3883-9. United Press, “Car of Bombs Explodes,” The New York Times, December 1, 1944, at 25. ISSN 0
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Ezequiel Cabeza De Baca
Ezequiel Cabeza De Baca was the first Hispano elected for office as lieutenant governor in New Mexico's first election. His term as lieutenant governor was followed by his election as the second elected governor of New Mexico; this term was brief. He was the state's first elected Hispanic governor, the first governor born in New Mexico after its annexation by the United States, he was born in Las Vegas, New Mexico Territory on November 1, 1864. He studied at the Jesuit College, now Regis University, in Las Vegas, NM, he worked for the railroads before becoming an influential journalist and Editor of La Voz de Pueblo. Ezequiel C. de Baca was married on December 14, 1889 to Margarita C. de Baca at Peña Blanca, NM. He is a descendent of the original Spanish settlers who became part of the Baca Family of New Mexico. In 1891, he began working for the Las Vegas Spanish weekly newspaper La Voz del Pueblo, it was there that he became associated with the newspaper's publishers, Antonio Lucero and Felix Martinez.
De Baca served as a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1900. In 1912, after New Mexico became a state, he became its first Lieutenant Governor, serving from 1912 to 1917, it is during this period. He was a key to developing New Mexico's first state constitution which includes specific language about providing bilingual education to all citizens, his professional background as a journalist gave him deep insights into the needs of the citizens of New Mexico, which were further enriched by his travels around the state prior to being elected Lt. Governor, he did not want to pursue elected office to run for Governor but was vigorously lobbied by the party and consented. At the time the pay for these elected officials was small and he had by now a large family. Although his failing health prevented him from taking a significant part in his own campaign, he was elected the Governor of New Mexico on November 7, 1916. Inaugurated on January 1, 1917, he was sworn into office on his sick bed in St. Vincent Sanitarium in Santa Fe, with only a score of persons attending.
He died on February 1917 in office. He had been sick for a long period of time and had traveled to California for treatments which were not successful, he was buried in the Mount Calvary Cemetery in New Mexico. De Baca County is named for Governor de Baca. Ezequiel and Margarita Cabeza de Baca had 14 children. Adolfo Amado C de Baca 1875-1953 Alvar Nunez C de Baca 1892-1892 Horacio Virgilio C de Baca Margarita Esefan C de Baca de Martinez 1895-1969 Jose C de Baca 1897-1897 Horacio C de Baca 1898-1970 Maria Juana C de Baca 1900-1902 Celia C de Baca 1902-1996 Hortencia C de Baca 1903-1996 Alfonso C de Baca 1907-1951 Maria Natalia Adeleida C de Baca 1909-1973 Ezequiel C de Baca 1911-1911 Adelina C de Baca 1913-2009 Alicia C de Baca 1916-2010 Baca Family of New Mexico "Biography of Ezequiel C. de Baca". The University of New Mexico. Retrieved 2007-11-25. Ezequiel Cabeza De Baca at Find a Grave Biographical information - National Governors Association Biographical information by Anselmo F. Arellano Biographical information - University of New Mexico
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa