The de Broglie–Bohm theory known as the pilot wave theory, Bohmian mechanics, Bohm's interpretation, the causal interpretation, is an interpretation of quantum mechanics. In addition to a wavefunction on the space of all possible configurations, it postulates an actual configuration that exists when unobserved; the evolution over time of the configuration is defined by the wave function by a guiding equation. The evolution of the wave function over time is given by the Schrödinger equation; the theory is named after Louis de David Bohm. The theory is deterministic and explicitly nonlocal: the velocity of any one particle depends on the value of the guiding equation, which depends on the configuration of the system given by its wave function; the theory results in a measurement formalism, analogous to thermodynamics for classical mechanics, that yields the standard quantum formalism associated with the Copenhagen interpretation. The theory's explicit non-locality resolves the "measurement problem", conventionally delegated to the topic of interpretations of quantum mechanics in the Copenhagen interpretation.
The Born rule in Broglie–Bohm theory is not a basic law. Rather, in this theory, the link between the probability density and the wave function has the status of a hypothesis, called the quantum equilibrium hypothesis, additional to the basic principles governing the wave function; the theory was developed in the 1920s by de Broglie, who, in 1927, was persuaded to abandon it in favour of the then-mainstream Copenhagen interpretation. David Bohm, dissatisfied with the prevailing orthodoxy, rediscovered de Broglie's pilot-wave theory in 1952. Bohm's suggestions were not widely received due to reasons unrelated to their content, but instead were connected to Bohm's youthful communist affiliations. De Broglie–Bohm theory was deemed unacceptable by mainstream theorists because of its explicit non-locality. Bell's theorem was inspired by Bell's discovery of the work of David Bohm and his subsequent wondering whether the obvious nonlocality of the theory could be eliminated. Since the 1990s, there has been renewed interest in formulating extensions to de Broglie–Bohm theory, attempting to reconcile it with special relativity and quantum field theory, besides other features such as spin or curved spatial geometries.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy article on Quantum decoherence groups "approaches to quantum mechanics" into five groups, of which "pilot-wave theories" are one. There are several equivalent mathematical formulations of the theory, it is known by a number of names; the de Broglie wave has a macroscopic analogy termed Faraday wave. De Broglie–Bohm theory is based on the following postulates: There is a configuration q of the universe, described by coordinates q k, an element of the configuration space Q; the configuration space is different for different versions of pilot-wave theory. For example, this may be the space of positions Q k of N particles, or, in case of field theory, the space of field configurations ϕ; the configuration evolves according to the guiding equation m k d q k d t = ℏ ∇ k Im ln ψ = ℏ Im = m k j k ψ ∗ ψ = Re , where j is the probability current or probability flux, P ^ is the momentum operator. Here, ψ is the standard complex-valued wavefunction known from quantum theory, which evolves according to Schrödinger's equation i ℏ ∂ ∂ t ψ = − ∑ i = 1 N ℏ 2 2 m i ∇ i 2 ψ + V ψ.
"Johnny B. Goode" is a 1958 rock-and-roll song written and first recorded by Chuck Berry; the song was a major hit, peaking at number two on Billboard magazine's Hot R&B Sides chart and number eight on its Hot 100 chart."Johnny B. Goode" is considered one of the most recognizable songs in the history of popular music. Credited as "the first rock & roll hit about rock & roll stardom", it has been recorded by many other artists and has received several honors and accolades; the song is ranked seventh on Rolling Stone's list of the "500 Greatest Songs of All Time". Written by Berry in 1955, the song is about an illiterate "country boy" from the New Orleans area, who plays a guitar "just like ringing a bell", who might one day have his "name in lights". Berry acknowledged that the song is autobiographical and that the original lyrics referred to Johnny as a "colored boy", but he changed it to "country boy" to ensure radio play; as well as suggesting that the guitar player is good, the title hints at autobiographic elements, because Berry was born at 2520 Goode Avenue, in St. Louis.
The song was inspired by Johnnie Johnson, the regular piano player in Berry's band, but developed into a song about Berry himself. Johnson played on many recordings by Berry; some sources state that Lafayette Leake played the piano on this song, but others give the credit to Johnson. The session was produced by Leonard and Phil Chess, the sound engineer was studio owner Jack Sheldon Wiener; the opening guitar riff of "Johnny B. Goode" is a note-for-note copy of the opening single-note solo on Louis Jordan's "Ain't That Just Like a Woman", played by guitarist Carl Hogan. Berry, in accordance with his custom, first recorded the intro and rhythm guitar and overdubbed the other solo runs. Berry wrote four more songs involving the character Johnny B. Goode, "Bye Bye Johnny", "Go Go Go", "Johnny B. Blues" and "Lady B. Goode". PersonnelChuck Berry – vocals, guitars Lafayette Leake or Johnnie Johnson – piano Willie Dixon – double bass Fred Below or Jasper Thomas – drums In The Guardian, Joe Queenan wrote that "Johnny B. Goode" is "probably the first song written about how much money a musician could make by playing the guitar", argued that "no song in the history of rock'n'roll more jubilantly celebrates the downmarket socioeconomic roots of the genre".
In Billboard, Jason Lipshutz stated that the song was "the first rock-star origin story", that it featured "a swagger and showmanship that had not yet invaded radio."When Chuck Berry was inducted during the first Rock and Roll Hall of Fame induction ceremony on January 23, 1986, he performed "Johnny B. Goode" and "Rock and Roll Music", backed by Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band; the Hall of Fame included these songs and "Maybellene" in their list of the 500 songs that shaped rock and roll. It was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1999, for its influence as a rock and roll single."Johnny B. Goode" has been recorded by a wide variety of artists in different genres. In 1969, country musician Buck Owens's version topped Billboard magazine's Hot Country Sides chart. In 1972, Jimi Hendrix had a posthumous hit with a live version, which peaked at number 35 on the UK Singles Chart. and number 13 on the New Zealand Top 50 in 1986. Peter Tosh's rendition peaked at number 84 on the Billboard Hot 100, number 48 on the UK Singles Chart, number 10 in the Netherlands, number 29 in New Zealand in 1983.
In 1988, Judas Priest's version reached number 64 on the UK Singles Chart
Concord Township is a non-functioning administrative division of Iredell County, North Carolina, United States. By the requirements of the North Carolina Constitution of 1868, the counties were divided into townships, which included Concord township as one of sixteen townships in Iredell county. By the requirements of the North Carolina Constitution of 1868, the county was divided into townships. Previous to that time, the subdivisions were Captain's Districts. While the Captain's Districts referred to the militia, it served for the election precinct, the tax listing and tax collecting district. Concord township is located in the central western portion of Iredell County, it borders Sharpesburg Township to the north, Alexander County to the west, Shiloh Township and Statesville Township to the south, Bethany Township to the east. Post offices and unincorporated towns Loray Scotts Stony Point Census Designated Place (Stoney Point Post Office was established on February 17, 1826 in Iredell County with James Thompson as postmaster.
The name was changed to Stony Point in 1832. The Stony Point populated place has existed in both Alexander and Iredell Counties since 1847 when Alexander County was created. Churches and Cemeteries Concord Presbyterian Church Logan Presbyterian Church Monticello Baptist Church Morrison Cemetery New Amity Associated Reformed Presbyterian Church New Sterling Associated Reformed Presbyterian Church Trinity United Methodist Church Unity Christian Church
Rock Python is a fictional character, a supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character is depicted as a member of the Serpent Society, he first appeared in Captain America vol. 1 #341 in May 1988, created by writer Mark Gruenwald and artist Kieron Dwyer. He has super hard bones and muscles and uses specially designed handgrenades that entangle his opponents in steel ribbons, he was first introduced as a henchman of Viper as she took control of the Serpent Society, deposing Sidewinder as the leader of the Society. Viper's ploy to take control of the United States was foiled by Captain America and members of the Society still loyal to Sidewinder. Rock Python was allowed to remain with the Society, he became a member of Serpent Solutions. Rock Python first appeared in Captain America vol. 1 #341 in May 1988, created by writer Mark Gruenwald and artist Kieron Dwyer. M'Gula was born in Viceroy, South Africa; as Rock Python he first joined the Serpent Society when the villainous Viper invaded, battled Nomad.
After she abandoned them, he took a test to prove his worthiness of being in the Society. He later battled the X-Men's Rogue and Colossus with the rest of the Serpent Society, but surrendered when he realized his opponents were much more powerful than him, he battled Captain America later. His greatest accomplishment was nearly killing Captain America after he, Puff Adder were attacked, he dropped him from a rooftop, but was ordered by King Cobra to flee as to not have their base revealed. He along with Puff Adder attacked Bad girls INC and was successful in capturing them. Only to be attacked and thrown from their craft by MODAM, he and Puff Adder are injured. Subsequently, M'Gula has appeared with the Serpent Society as they battled Jack Flag, but was defeated by Force Works, he was next seen with the organization as they captured Diamondback and Captain America, who they planned to ransome off. The pair soon escaped, in the ensuing battle, Rock Python was defeated, he appeared in "Brand New Day" as one of the villains in the bar.
As part of the "All-New, All-Different Marvel," Rock Python appears as a member of Viper's Serpent Society under its new name of Serpent Solutions. In a prelude to the "Hunted" storyline, several members of the Serpent Society were captured by Kraven the Hunter and Black Ant and forced to participate in a murderous hunt set up by Arcade. Black Mamba, Bushmaster, Black Racer, Puff Adder, Rock Python, Fer-de-Lance were placed in electric cages to wait for the hunt to commence. Rock Python has skin and bones that are rock-hard, much like a rock python snake, he is impervious to high caliber arms fire, powerful explosions, intense heat, deadly impacts. He carries little gimmick "snake eggs" which, upon impact, release various substances such as smoke bombs, plastic explosives, "snake wrap": explosive-launched inch wide, razor-sharp steel alloy metallic ribbons designed to ensnare opponents like bolas and immobilize them, are 25 feet in length. Rock Python at Marvel.com Rock Python at the Appendix to the Handbook of the Marvel Universe
Boris Artzybasheff was an American illustrator of Russian origin active in the United States, notable for his worked and surreal designs. Artzybasheff was born in son of the author Mikhail Artsybashev, he is said to have fought as a White Russian. During 1919 he arrived in New York City, his earliest work appeared in 1922 as illustrations for Verotchka's Tales and The Undertaker's Garland. A number of other book illustrations followed during the 1920s. Dhan Gopal Mukerji's Gay-Neck, with his illustrations, was awarded the Newbery Medal in 1928, his book Seven Simeons was a Caldecott Honor Book in 1938. Over the course of his career, he illustrated some 50 books, several of which he wrote, most notably As I See. During his lifetime, Artzybasheff was known best for his magazine art, he illustrated the major American magazines Life and Time.) He painted 219 Time covers from 1942 to 1966, including portraits of Louis Armstrong and Dave Brubeck. Other illustrators of Time covers during this period, called the golden age of Time covers, included Robert Vickrey, James Ormsbee Chapin, Bernard Safran and Boris Chaliapin.
During World War II, he served an expert advisor to the U. S. Department of State, Psychological Warfare Branch. After 1940, he devoted himself to commercial art, including advertisements for Xerox, Shell Oil, Pan Am, Casco Power Tools, Alcoa Steamship lines, Parke-Davis, Avco Manufacturing, Scotch Tape, Wickwire Spencer Steel Company, Vultee Aircraft, World Airways, Parker Pens, his graphic style is striking. In commercial work he explored grotesque experiments in anthropomorphism, where toiling machines displayed distinctly human attributes. Conversely, one of his works shows Buckminster Fuller's head in the form of Fuller's geodesic structure. In his personal work, he explored the depiction of vivid and extreme ranges of human psychology and emotion, his papers are collected at Syracuse University. Verotchka's Tales, by Dmitry Mamin-Sibiryak, OCLC 1544259 — Illustrations at Wikimedia The Undertaker's Garland, by John Peale Bishop and Edmund Wilson, OCLC 1416575 — Illustrations at Wikimedia Feats on the Fiord, by Harriet Martineau, 1802–1876 The Wonder Smith and His Son, by Ella Young Gay-Neck, the Story of a Pigeon, by Dhan Gopal Mukerji Orpheus: myths of the world, by Padraic Colum Son of the Sword, by Youel B.
Mirza, OCLC 28535329 All Things Are Possible: an apocryphal novel, by Lewis Browne, dust jacket The Circus of Dr. Lao, by Charles G. Finney Seven Simeons: a Russian tale, written by Artzybasheff Nansen, by Anne Gertrude Hall Land of Unreason, by Fletcher Pratt and L. Sprague de Camp The Tree of Life: selections from the literature of the world's religions, by Ruth Smith The Little Sister, by Raymond Chandler, dust jacket The Simple Art of Murder, by Raymond Chandler, dust jacket As the illustrator of Seven Simeons, which he wrote, Artzybasheff was one of two runners-up for the Caldecott Medal in 1938, when the American Library Association inaugurated its award for children's picture books. Mukerji won the 1928 Newbery Medal for Gay-Neck. Finney won one of the 1935 National Book Awards for The Circus of Dr. Lao. Iacono, Domenic J.. "The Art of Boris Artzybasheff". Scientific American. 269: 46–51. Works by Boris Artzybasheff at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Boris Artzybasheff at Internet Archive Boris Artzybasheff posters, hosted by the University of North Texas Libraries Digital Collections Gallery of classic graphic design featuring the illustrations of Boris Artzybasheff.
Jim Vadeboncoeur's biography of Boris Artzybasheff Boris Artzybasheff's out of print book, "As I See", republished by Ken Steacy Publishing Ken Steacy 1951 Christmas Card Boris Artzybasheff at Library of Congress Authorities, with 33 catalogue records
The kwacha is the currency of Malawi as of 1971, replacing the Malawian pound. It is divided into 100 tambala; the kwacha replaced other types of currency, namely the UK pound sterling, the South African rand and the Rhodesian dollar, that had circulated through the Malawian economy. The exchange rate of the kwacha undergoes fixed periodical adjustments, but since 1994 the exchange rate has floated. In 2005, administrative measures were put in place by Bingu wa Mutharika to peg the exchange rate with other currencies. Banknotes are issued by the Reserve Bank of Malawi. In May 2012, the Reserve Bank of Malawi devalued the kwacha by 34% and unpegged it from the United States dollar; the name kwacha was first used in Zambia where the Zambian kwacha was introduced in 1968. It derives from the Chinyanja or Chichewa word meaning "it has dawned", while tambala translates as "rooster" in Chichewa; the tambala was so named. The kwacha replaced the Malawian pound in 1971 at a rate of two kwacha to one pound.
As of 30 August 2019 one British pound sterling was equal to 883.43 kwachas, one US dollar was equal to 725.16 kwachas and one South African rand was equal to 47.69 kwachas. As of 30 August 2019 one Euro is equivalent to 797.42 Kwachas. The first coins introduced in 1971 were in denominations of one, five and twenty tambala. In 1986, fifty tambala and one kwacha coins were introduced. In January 2007, five and ten kwacha coins, which bear a mint date of 2006, were released into circulation. On 23 May 2012 new one and ten kwacha coins were released into circulationThe one and two tambala coins are composed of copper-plated steel; the five tambala coin is of nickel-plated steel. The fifty tambala and one kwacha coin are composed of brass-plated steel. In 1971, banknotes dated 1964 were introduced in denominations of 50 tambala, 2 and 10 kwacha. 5 kwacha notes were introduced in 1973. 20 kwacha notes were introduced in 1983. 50 tambala notes were last issued in 1986, with the last 1 kwacha notes printed in 1992.
In 1993, 50 kwacha notes were introduced, followed by 100 kwacha in 1993, 200 kwacha in 1995, 500 kwacha in 2001 and 2000 kwacha in November 2016 to ease desperate cash shortages. As of 2008, the following banknote denominations are in circulation: According to an article in the Nyasa Times dated 9 March 2012, within the next six months the Reserve Bank of Malawi would introduce a whole new series of notes, including a 1,000-kwacha note, twice the largest denomination in circulation; the notes were announced in Biantyre on 8 March by Governor Dr. Perks Ligoya; the new notes would be much smaller in size than the current notes, which served as a cost-cutting measure. The new 1,000-kwacha note was going to be printed by De La Rue. On 23 May 2012, the Nyasa Times reported that the Reserve Bank of Malawi introduced the new 1,000 kwacha note into circulation along with the proposed new notes; the new 1,000 kwacha note was valued at around US$4. The new kwacha had the face of the first president Kamuzu Banda on the front and the back carries a depiction of Mzuzu maize silos.
The new 20 kwacha note was found to contain an error. On the back of the note is a building identified as the Domasi Teacher's Training College. However, it is reported that the building is, in the Machinga Teacher's Training College; the Reserve Bank of Malawi is going to revise its new family of notes so that they are more "blind friendly". According to the Malawi Union of the Blind, the current notes have raised dots to aid in recognition of the denominations, but the dots are too small to be useful