Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
Reichshoffen is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Église Saint-Michel de Reichshoffen was built in 1772. Battle of Wörth known as the Battle of Reichshoffen Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file
Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
Brussels the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita, it covers 161 km2, a small area compared to the two other regions, has a population of 1.2 million. The metropolitan area of Brussels counts over 2.1 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people. Brussels grew from a small rural settlement on the river Senne to become an important city-region in Europe. Since the end of the Second World War, it has been a major centre for international politics and the home of numerous international organisations, politicians and civil servants.
Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union, as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions, including its administrative-legislative, executive-political, legislative branches and its name is sometimes used metonymically to describe the EU and its institutions. The secretariat of the Benelux and headquarters of NATO are located in Brussels; as the economic capital of Belgium and one of the top financial centres of Western Europe with Euronext Brussels, it is classified as an Alpha global city. Brussels is a hub for rail and air traffic, sometimes earning the moniker "Crossroads of Europe"; the Brussels Metro is the only rapid transit system in Belgium. In addition, both its airport and railway stations are the busiest in the country. Dutch-speaking, Brussels saw a language shift to French from the late 19th century; the Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual in French and Dutch though French is now the de facto main language with over 90% of the population speaking it. Brussels is increasingly becoming multilingual.
English is spoken as a second language by nearly a third of the population and a large number of migrants and expatriates speak other languages. Brussels is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, as well as its historical and architectural landmarks. Main attractions include its historic Grand Place, Manneken Pis and cultural institutions such as La Monnaie and the Museums of Art and History; because of its long tradition of Belgian comics, Brussels is hailed as a capital of the comic strip. The most common theory of the origin of the name Brussels is that it derives from the Old Dutch Bruocsella, Broekzele or Broeksel, meaning "marsh" and "home" or "home in the marsh". Saint Vindicianus, the bishop of Cambrai, made the first recorded reference to the place Brosella in 695, when it was still a hamlet; the names of all the municipalities in the Brussels-Capital Region are of Dutch origin, except for Evere, Celtic. In French, Bruxelles is pronounced and in Dutch, Brussel is pronounced. Inhabitants of Brussels are known in French in Dutch as Brusselaars.
In the Brabantian dialect of Brussels, they are called Brusseleirs. The written x noted the group. In the Belgian French pronunciation as well as in Dutch, the k disappeared and z became s, as reflected in the current Dutch spelling, whereas in the more conservative French form, the spelling remained; the pronunciation in French only dates from the 18th century, but this modification did not affect the traditional Brussels' usage. In France, the pronunciations and are heard, but are rather rare in Belgium. See also: History of Brussels The history of Brussels is linked to that of Western Europe. Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone Age, with vestiges and place-names related to the civilisation of megaliths and standing stones. During late antiquity, the region was home to Roman occupation, as attested by archaeological evidence discovered near the centre. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Frankish Empire; the origin of the settlement, to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus' construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580.
The official founding of Brussels is situated around 979, when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of Saint Gudula from Moorsel to the Saint Gaugericus chapel. Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island. Lambert I of Leuven, Count of Leuven, gained the County of Brussels around 1000, by marrying Charles' daughter; because of its location on the shores of the Senne, on an important trade route between Bruges and Ghent, Cologne, Brussels became a commercial centre specialised in the textile trade. The town grew quite and extended towards the upper town, where there was a smaller risk of floods; as it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. Around
NI Railways known as Northern Ireland Railways and for a brief period Ulster Transport Railways, is the railway operator in Northern Ireland. NIR is a subsidiary of Translink, whose parent company is the Northern Ireland Transport Holding Company, is one of four publicly owned train operators in the United Kingdom, the others being Network Rail, Direct Rail Services and LNER, it has a common Board of Management with the other two companies in the group and Metro. The rail network in Northern Ireland is not part of the National Rail network of Great Britain, nor does it use Standard Gauge, instead using Irish Gauge in common with the rest of Ireland. NIR is the only commercial non-heritage passenger operator in the United Kingdom to operate a vertical integration model, with responsibility of all aspects of the network including running trains, maintaining rolling stock and infrastructure, pricing. However, since the Single European Railway Directive 2012, the company has allowed open access operations by other rail operators.
NIR jointly runs the Enterprise train service between Dublin with Iarnród Éireann. There is no link to the rail system in Great Britain. From the early 20th century until 1948, the three main railway companies in Northern Ireland were the Great Northern Railway Ireland, which had around one half of its network north of the border; the Transport Act 1948 created the Ulster Transport Authority, which took over the BCDR that year, followed by the NCC in 1949 as a result of the Ireland Act 1949. In 1958, the GNRI was dissolved and its lines north of the border were taken over by the UTA. Under the UTA's management, the railway network of Northern Ireland underwent substantial reduction in size, shrinking from 900 miles to 225 miles; the UTA was split into rail and road operations in 1967, the rail operations were taken over by the present company Northern Ireland Railways. Suffering frequent disruption and damage to infrastructure caused by the Troubles and starved of investment by successive political administrations, the NIR network had become badly run down by the 1960s, with old rolling stock and poorly maintained track.
NIR's last steam locomotives were withdrawn in 1970. In 1970, NIR re-launched the once-popular Enterprise between Dublin and Belfast with three new NIR Class 101 diesel locomotives built by Hunslet in England and Mark 2B carriages built by British Rail Engineering Limited. Despite frequent interruptions due to bomb scares, the service has remained a more or less constant feature of the NIR network; as older trains became obsolete in the 1970s, the Class 80 slam-door diesel-electric multiple unit was introduced. BREL built these units between 1974 and 1977 to British Rail's Mark 2 design with some trailer cars rebuilt from hauled stock; the power cars were powered by an English Electric 4SRKT engine, nicknamed'Thumpers' due to their characteristic sound, had two English Electric 538 traction motors. These entered service on the suburban lines around Belfast, becoming a stalwart on the whole network, they remained in service until 2012, latterly on the Larne-Belfast line and the Coleraine-Portrush Line.
In the early 1980s, NIR purchased one of the prototype LEV Railbuses built to test the railbus concept. This was intended for the Coleraine-Portrush branch, but was withdrawn due to the capacity constraints of a single car. A plan was mooted to use it on the Lisburn-Antrim line to prevent it from being closed; this proposal failed, again because of the limited capacity. NIR has three EMD class 111 locomotives, 111–113, for freight and passenger use, built in October 1980 and December 1984. During the eighties it was apparent. BREL built nine 450 Class sets on former Mark 1 underframes between 1985 and 1987; the power cars had an English Electric 4SRKT engine recovered from former 70 Class units and had two English Electric 538 traction motors. The sets were three-car diesel-electric multiple units, based on a more modern British design, with air-operated sliding doors, they were replaced by new 4000 Class diesel multiple units. In 1994, NIR bought two EMD 208 Class locomotives identical to Iarnród Éireann's 201 Class.
These haul the cross-border Enterprise dedicated trains of modern carriages. Since 2002, NIR has modernised its rolling stock, with a full fleet replacement of new trains built by the Spanish company CAF. 23 Class 3000 diesel multiple units made up the first batch of trains ordered at a cost of £80m. They offered greater capacity and accessibility than their predecessors when they were delivered in 2004 and 2005; the next order was for 20 Class 4000s, built 2010-2012. These completed the fleet replacement. Additionally, NIR has said that it will be purchasing 23 new carriages, via an option in the existing Class 4000 train procurement contract, for delivery in 2021; the latest performance figures for NIR according to Translink are 99% of trains arriving at the final destination within 5 minutes and 100% within 10 minutes of the scheduled time. Among other accolades, NIR won the UK Rail Business of the Year Award for 2008. NIR carried 13.4 million passengers in 2014–15, re
Rail transport in France
Rail transport in France is operated by SNCF, the French national railway company. France has the second largest European railway network, with a total of 29,901 kilometres of railway. However, the railway system is a small portion of total travel, accounting for less than 10% of passenger travel. Since 1981, the SNCF has operated the TGV service, a high-speed rail network, expanded in subsequent years. France is a member of the International Union of Railways; the UIC Country Code for France is 87. In 1814, the French engineer Pierre Michel Moisson-Desroches proposed to Emperor Napoleon to build seven national railways from Paris, in order to travel "short distances within the Empire", but the history of the railroad in France begins in 1827 with the first trains operated on the Saint-Etienne to Andrezieux Railway, the first French line granted by order of King Louis XVIII in 1823. Since Legrand Star rail plan of 1842, French railway is polarized by Paris. Traffic is concentrated on the main lines: 78% of activity is done on 30% of the network when the 46% smaller lines only drive 6% of the traffic.
The 366 largest stations make 85% of passenger activity, the smallest 56% of stations take only 1.7% of traffic. Freight transport has declined since the early 1980s. Today the network is predominantly passenger centric. Since 1 January 2007, the freight market has been open to conform to European Union agreements. New operators had reached 15% of the market at the end of 2008; the Transport express régional is directed by the administrative Regions of France. They contract with the SNCF for lines exploitation; the SNCF directly manage this class of trains. The TGV is used on the most important destinations, while Intercités carriages are still used for other lines; the French railway network, as administered by SNCF Réseau, as of June 2007, is a network of commercially usable lines of 29,213 kilometres, of which 15,141 km is electrified. 1,876 km of those are 16,445 km dispose of two or more tracks. 5,905 km are supplied with 1,500 V DC, 9,113 km with 25 kV AC at 50 Hz. 122 km are electrified by third rail or other means.1,500 V is used on the south, HSR lines and the northern part of the country use 25 kV electrification.
Trains drive on the left, except in Alsace and Moselle where tracks were first constructed while those regions were part of Germany. Same gauge Belgium — voltage change 25 kV AC/3 kV DC Germany — voltage change 25 kV AC/15 kV AC Great Britain via the Channel Tunnel — voltage change 25 kV AC/750 V DC third rail Italy — voltage change 25 kV AC or 1.5 kV DC/3 kV DC Luxembourg — same voltage Monaco — same voltage Spain via the LGV Perpignan-Figueres — same voltage Switzerland — voltage change 25 kV AC or 1.5 kV DC/15 kV AC Break-of-gauge, 1,435 mm /1,668 mm Spain — voltage change 1.5 kV DC/3 kV DC No rail link to Andorra The French non-TGV intercity service is in decline, with old infrastructure and trains. It is to be hit further as the French government is planning to remove the monopoly that rail has on long-distance journeys by letting coach operators compete. Travel to the UK through the Channel Tunnel has grown in recent years, from May 2015 passengers have been able to travel direct to Marseille and Lyon.
Eurostar is introducing new Class 374 trains and refurbishing the current Class 373s. The International Transport Forum described the current status of the French railways in their paper "Efficiency indicators of Railways in France": The success of the TGV is undeniable. Work started in September 1975 on the first high-speed rail line, between Paris and Lyon, it was inaugurated in September 1981. New high-speed lines were opened in 1993, etc.. The high-speed network now covers 2,000 km, will reach over 2,600 km in 2017 with the opening of the four lines being built; the regionalisation of intercity and local services was tested in 1997 and deployed in the early 2000s. Since TERs have seen traffic rise steeply as, to a lesser extent, have services in the Ile de France region. Rail freight has been far less successful; the French network carried 55 billion tonne-km in 2001, but this figure scarcely reached 32 billion tonne-km in 2013. This weak performance contrasts with the ambitious public policy of the last fifteen years.
The Grenelle Environment Forum oversaw the deployment of a costly freight plan, no more effective than its predecessors. Like roads, the French railways receive rail subsidies from the state; those amounted to €13.2 billion in 2013. Alstom is the manufacturer of the TGV, is behind many regional train models Transport in France Narrow gauge railways in France Rail transport in Europe Rail transport by country RFF – Réseau Ferré de France. Updated in June 2007
The history of the de Dietrich family has been linked to that of France and of Europe for over three centuries. To this day, the company that bears the family name continues to play a major role in the economic life of Alsace. De Dietrich is a holding company based in France which traces its history back to 1684; the incumbent chairman of the supervisory board Marc-Antoine de Dietrich represents the 11th consecutive generation at the helm of the company. De Dietrich has been active in the automobile and industrial equipment industry amongst others. 1684: Johann von Dietrich acquires the Jaegerthal forge. 1719: The family is made Baron by the Holy Roman Empire. 1749-1751: Baron Jean de Dietrich has the castle and gardens of Château de la Cour d'Angleterre built in Bischheim near Strasbourg 1761: Baron Jean de Dietrich is made Count du Ban de la Roche by Louis XV. He becomes the largest land owner in Alsace and expands the family's industrial empire by building or acquiring forges and furnaces. 1778: Louis XVI grants Jean de Dietrich the use of a hunting horn trademark to deter counterfeiters.
This logo still serves as a symbol of quality today. 1792: Philippe-Frédéric de Dietrich, first mayor of Strasbourg in republican France, orders captain Rouget de Lisle to compose a military hymn for the Army of the Rhine. First sung in Philippe-Frederic's parlor on Place Broglie, "La Marseillaise" became France's national anthem. 1804: After the havoc left by the French Revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte helps De Dietrich rebuild. 1848: De Dietrich embraces the industrial era by progressively reducing the production of cast irons in favor of mechanical and railroad equipment. 1870: Despite the annexation by Germany of Alsace-Lorraine, the Dietrich family decides to remain close to the factories and employees and stays in Alsace. This choice calls for a diversification of De Dietrich's activities in order to adapt to German market demands and having been shut out of the French railroad market; the company turns towards consumer durables: stoves, wooden furniture, enameled cast iron bathtubs – and urban or industrial equipment – tramways, distillation equipment, industry specific wagons.
1896: De Dietrich enters automobile manufacturing. Eugene, Baron de Turckheim, buys manufacturing rights to fils' design. During its automotive development it hired amongst others the services of famous car builder Ettore Bugatti to design of the cars and Émile Mathis to handle commercialization. 1905: De Dietrich decides to pull out of automobile manufacturing to focus on mechanical construction, railroad equipment, process systems, central heating equipment and appliances. 1992: De Dietrich assumes control of Cogifer, market leader fixed railroad installations and forgives control of the appliances business to Thomson, control on assumed by Fagor-Brandtuntil this day. 1995: De Dietrich sells its interest in rolling stock railroad equipment manufacturing "De Dietrich Ferroviaire" (DDF's factory is in Reichshoffen". A majority stake in DDF was acquired by Alstom and the company is now known as Alstom-DDF. 2000: After the successive acquisitions of Rosenmund-Guedu and QVF, De Dietrich renames its chemical equipment division "De Dietrich Process Systems".
De Dietrich is the object a Public Tender Offer by the la Société Industrielle du Hanau, controlled by ABN AMRO Capital Investissement France and the De Dietrich family. 2001: In July 2001, after 50 years of quotation, De Dietrich is pulled out the market. 2002: In September 2002, De Dietrich sells the control of Cogifer and Cogifer TF, to Vossloh a German Industrial group specialized in railroad equipment. In December 2002, the "Société Industrielles du Hanau" takes over De Dietrich & Cie and assumes the name "De Dietrich". 2004: In July 2004, De Dietrich divests from "De Dietrich Thermique", market leader in water heating equipment to Remeha. The new entity formed De Dietrich Remeha, becomes one of Europe's largest heating industry player in the fields of condensing boilers and renewable energies. In December 2004, the family regained 100% control of the holding company; this operation represents one of Europe's largest family re-investments in recent years. De Dietrich today focuses on De Dietrich Process Systems.
DDPS is a leading worldwide provider of API process and other process equipment to the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries. With an industrial presence in Asia, Europe and USA; the latest factories added to the Group are located in Wuxi. Demange Dietrich, Strasbourg bourgeois x Anne Heller │ └── Jean Dietrich and merchant in Strasbourg x Agnès Meyer │ └── Dominique Dietrich, "amnestre" of Strasbourg x Ursule Wencker │ └── Jean-Nicolas Dietrich, banker x Marie-Barbe Kniebs │ └── Jean de Dietrich, Count of the "Ban de la Roche" x Amélie Hermanny │ ├── Jean de Dietrich │ x Louise-Sophie de Glaubitz │ └── Philippe-Frédéric de Dietrich, mayor of Strasbourg x Sybille-Louise Ochs │ └── Jean-Albert de Dietrich, head of Bas-Rhin region x Amélie de Berckheim │ ├── Amélie de Dietrich │ x Guillaume de Turckheim, Major │ ├── Baron Albert de Dietrich, │ x 1828 Octavie von Stein