The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Grand Hotel Karel V
The Grand Hotel Karel V s a five-star hotel in Utrecht, Netherlands. It is located in the Duitse Huis complex of buildings, including part of the old monastery of the Bailiwick of Utrecht of the Teutonic Knights founded in 1348. Most of the rooms and suites are in a military hospital. The hotel contains a Roman-themed health center, conference rooms, a bar, Bistro Karel 5 and it is set in extensive grounds. In 1348 the Bailiwick of Utrecht of the Teutonic Order built the Duitse Huis as a monastery, napoleons brother Louis Bonaparte bought the property in 1807. During the reign of King William I of the Netherlands a military hospital was built on the property along the Geertebolwerk, for its time, the hospital was very modern. When the hospital became vacant in the late 1980s the Bailiwick of Utrecht was able to repurchase the property, a major renovation was started in 1992. In 1995 the Bailiwick of Utrecht moved back into the 15th century Commanders house on the corner of Springweg and Walsteeg, further renovations converted much of the rest of the complex into a hotel by 1999.
The building was restored with help from the National Restoration Fund, the hospitals wards were converted into hotel rooms and suites. As far as possible the old fabric and appearance were preserved, the garden wing was renovated and extended in 2007. During the excavation discovered the remains of a Roman cemetery dating to between 40 BC and 275 AD, which may be associated with the Roman fort of Traiectum. The wing was called the Roman wing after this discovery, the Roman Wing is called contemporary by reviewers, in contrast to the cleverly modernized main building. It was designed by the Heine & van de Rijt architectural firm, the wing has a modern pavilion and extension of the existing garden wing. It was formally opened in November 2008 with a ceremony that included marching Roman soldiers, the Grand Hotel Karel V opened in 1999. It is named after the Emperor Charles V, who visited the Duitse Huis. A formal opening ceremony with the mayor of Utrecht and a representative of the queen was held on 10 September 2000, at this ceremony the hotel received its five star rating, the first in the Utrecht region.
The hotel has 121 rooms, conference rooms, a center, bistro. There is a sound system in the conference facility and public areas of the hotel
Michelin Guides are a series of guide books published by the French company Michelin for more than a century. The acquisition or loss of a star can have effects on the success of a restaurant. Michelin publishes a series of guides to countries. In 1900, fewer than 3,000 cars graced the roads of France, four years later, in 1904, the brothers published a guide to Belgium similar to the Michelin Guide. The brothers subsequently introduced guides for Algeria and Tunisia, the Alps and the Rhine, Germany and Portugal, the British Isles, in 1909, the Michelin Guide for France saw its first English-language version published. During the First World War, publication of the guide was suspended, after the war, revised editions of the guide continued to be given away until 1920. The companys website recounts the story that André Michelin, visiting a tire merchant, based on the principle that man only truly respects what he pays for, the brothers decided to charge a price for the guide, which was about 750 francs or $2.15 in 1954.
They made changes, listing restaurants by specific categories, the debut of hotel listings. In 1926, the guide began to award stars for fine dining establishments, there was only a single star awarded. Then, in 1931, the hierarchy of zero, finally, In 1936, the criteria for the starred rankings were published, A very good restaurant in its category, Excellent cooking, worth a detour, Exceptional cuisine, worth a special journey. In 1931 the cover of the guide was changed from blue to red, publication of the annual guide resumed on 16 May 1945, a week after VE Day. The first Michelin Guide to Italy was published in 1956 and it awarded no stars in the first edition. In 1974, the first guide to Britain since 1931 was published, in November 2005 Michelin produced its first American guide, concentrating on New York, covering 500 restaurants in the citys five boroughs and 50 hotels. In 2007 a Tokyo Michelin Guide was launched, in the same year the guide introduced a magazine, Étoile. In 2008 a Hong Kong and Macau volume was added to the list of Michelin Guides, the Michelin website in 2013 notes that the guide is published in 14 editions covering 23 countries and sold in nearly 90 countries.
In 2008 the German restaurateur Juliane Caspar was appointed editor-in-chief of the French edition of the guide and she had previously been responsible for the Michelin guides to Germany and Austria. She became the first woman and first non-French national to occupy the French position, Red Guides have historically listed many more restaurants than rival guides have done, relying on an extensive system of symbols to describe each establishment in as little as two lines. Reviews of starred restaurants include two to three culinary specialities, short summaries have been added to enhance descriptions of many establishments
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Small, lower-priced hotels may offer only the most basic guest services and facilities, Hotel rooms are usually numbered to allow guests to identify their room. Some boutique, high-end hotels have custom decorated rooms, some hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. In the United Kingdom, a hotel is required by law to serve food, in Japan, capsule hotels provide a tiny room suitable only for sleeping and shared bathroom facilities. The precursor to the hotel was the inn of medieval Europe. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, inns began to cater to richer clients in the mid-18th century. One of the first hotels in a sense was opened in Exeter in 1768. Hotels proliferated throughout Western Europe and North America in the early 19th century, Hotel operations vary in size and cost. Most hotels and major hospitality companies have set standards to classify hotel types. Full service hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a number of full service accommodations, an on-site full service restaurant.
Boutique hotels are independent, non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities. Small to medium-sized hotel establishments offer a limited amount of on-site amenities, economy hotels are small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer basic accommodations with little to no services. Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized hotels that offer full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership involving ownership of a unit of accommodation for seasonal usage. A motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging with direct access to rooms from the car park. Boutique hotels are typically hotels with an environment or intimate setting. A number of hotels have entered the public consciousness through popular culture, some hotels are built specifically as a destination in itself, for example at casinos and holiday resorts. The organizational chart and volume of job positions and hierarchy varies by size and class
Kasteel Heemstede is a restaurant in Houten, Netherlands. It is a dining restaurant that was awarded one Michelin star for the periods 2003-2008. The restaurant is located in the souterrain of the eponymous castle, gaultMillau awarded the restaurant 16 out of 20 points. Owner and head chef of Kasteel Heemstede is André van Doorn, restaurant Kasteel Heemstede is a member of the Les Patrons Cuisiniers. The original building was built around 1645, after a chequered past, it burned down in 1987. New owners came and went, as no one could finance the rebuilding, finally it was sold to building company WCN, Phanos. They started the renovation of the building that was completed in 2002, list of Michelin starred restaurants in the Netherlands
A chef is a highly trained and skilled professional cook who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation of a particular cuisine. The word chef is derived from the chef de cuisine. Chefs can receive both formal training from an institution, as well as through apprenticeship with an experienced chef, the Brigade system is a system of hierarchy found in restaurants and hotels employing extensive staff, many of which use the word chef in their titles. Underneath the chefs are the kitchen assistants, a chefs standard uniform includes a hat called a toque, double-breasted jacket and shoes with steel or plastic toe-caps. The word chef is derived from the chef de cuisine. In English, the chef in the culinary profession originated in the haute cuisine of the 19th century. The culinary arts, among other aspects of the French language introduced French loan-words into the English language, various titles, detailed below, are given to those working in a professional kitchen and each can be considered a title for a type of chef.
Many of the titles are based on the brigade de cuisine documented by Auguste Escoffier, other names include executive chef, chef manager, head chef, and master chef. Chef de cuisine is the traditional French term from which the English word chef is derived and this is often the case for executive chefs with multiple restaurants. Involved in checking the sensory evaluation of dishes after preparation and they are aware of each sensory property of those specific dishes. The Sous-Chef de Cuisine is the second-in-command and direct assistant of the Chef de Cuisine and this person may be responsible for scheduling the kitchen staff, or substituting when the head chef is off-duty. Also, he or she will fill in for or assist the Chef de Partie when needed and this person is accountable for the kitchens inventory, cleanliness and the continuing training of its entire staff. A sous-chefs duties can include carrying out the head chefs directives, conducting line checks, smaller operations may not have a sous-chef, while larger operations may have more than one.
The sous chef is responsible when the Executive Chef is absent, a chef de partie, known as a station chef or line cook, is in charge of a particular area of production. In large kitchens, each chef de partie might have several cooks or assistants, in most kitchens, the chef de partie is the only worker in that department. Line cooks are often divided into a hierarchy of their own, starting with first cook, second cook, kitchen-hands assist with basic food preparation tasks under the chefs direction. They carry out relatively unskilled tasks such as peeling potatoes and washing salad, stewards/ kitchen porters are involved in the scullery, washing up and general cleaning duties. In a smaller kitchen, these duties may be incorporated, a communard is in charge of preparing the meal for the staff during a shift
Restaurant Auguste is a restaurant in Maarssen, Netherlands. It is a dining restaurant that was awarded one Michelin star for the period 2006-2008. In 2013, GaultMillau awarded the restaurant 14 out of 20 points, head chef of Auguste is Giulio Iadarola. Head chef in the period of the Michelin star was Karl van Baggem, Auguste was a member of the Alliance Gastronomique Néerlandaise in the period 2007-2008. List of Michelin starred restaurants in the Netherlands
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money. Meals are generally served and eaten on the premises, but many offer take-out and food delivery services. In Western countries, most mid- to high-range restaurants serve alcoholic beverages such as beer, some restaurants serve all the major meals, such as breakfast and dinner. Other restaurants may serve a single meal or they may serve two meals or even a kids meal. Restaurants may be classified or distinguished in different ways. The primary factors are usually the food itself, the cuisine and/or the style of offering, beyond this, restaurants may differentiate themselves on factors including speed, location, service, or novelty themes. In the former case, customers usually wear casual clothing, in the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal or formal wear. Typically, at mid- to high-priced restaurants, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, after eating, the customers pay the bill.
Another restaurant approach which uses few waiters is the buffet restaurant, customers serve food onto their own plates and pay at the end of the meal. Buffet restaurants typically still have waiters to serve drinks and alcoholic beverages, fast food restaurants are considered a restaurant. The travelling public has long been catered for with ships messes and railway restaurant cars which are, in effect, many railways, the world over, cater for the needs of travellers by providing railway refreshment rooms, a form of restaurant, at railway stations. In the 2000s, a number of travelling restaurants, specifically designed for tourists, have been created and these can be found on trams, buses, etc. A restaurants proprietor is called a restaurateur /ˌrɛstərəˈtɜːr/, like restaurant, professional cooks are called chefs, with there being various finer distinctions. Most restaurant will have various waiting staff to serve food and alcoholic drinks, including busboys who remove used dishes and cutlery.
In finer restaurants, this may include a host or hostess, a maître dhôtel to welcome customers and to them. A new route to becoming a restauranter, rather than working ones way up through the stages, is to operate a food truck, once a sufficient following has been obtained, a permanent restaurant site can be opened. This trend has become common in the UK and the US, a chefs table is a table located in the kitchen of a restaurant, reserved for VIPs and special guests. Patrons may be served a themed tasting menu prepared and served by the head chef, Restaurants can require a minimum party and charge a higher flat fee