The Manor (Los Angeles)
The Manor known as Spelling Manor, is a mansion located in the Holmby Hills neighborhood of Los Angeles, across the street from Holmby Park. Constructed in 1988 for television producer Aaron Spelling, it is the largest home in Los Angeles County, it is owned by British heiress Petra Stunt, daughter of Formula One racing magnate Bernie Ecclestone. Stunt purchased the home in 2011 for $85 million after it had been on the market for two years with an asking price of $150 million, making it the most expensive residential real estate listing in the US at the time; the Manor is a French chateau-style mansion with 123 rooms and 56,000 square feet of space on more than 4.6 acres. It is the largest home in Los Angeles County. Aaron Spelling—widely known as the television producer of series including Dynasty, Charlie's Angels, The Love Boat, Fantasy Island, Beverly Hills, 90210 and Charmed—built The Manor as his private residence. Designed by architects James Langenheim & Associates and built in 1988 at a cost of $12 million, the two-story house is 51.5 feet high with a basement and an intermediate level for closets between the second story and attic.
The house includes a screening room, bowling alley, three rooms for wrapping presents, four two-car garages, tennis court, pool. The parking lot accommodates 100 vehicles, there are 16 carports. Spelling razed the mansion which occupied the site and had been built in 1932 by Gordon Kaufmann and owned by Bing Crosby. At the time of its construction, the project spawned a controversy over its massive size and ostentatious architecture. In April 1988, the Los Angeles Times asked: What's bigger than a football field, smaller than Hearst Castle, has a bowling alley and an entire floor of closets, is making some people annoyed? Aaron and Candy Spelling's 56,500-square-foot mansion in Holmby Hills; the French chateau, under construction now for two years, has turned the corner of Mapleton and Club View drives into a gawker's paradise. Sprawled across 6 acres on what once was the Bing Crosby estate, the house dwarfs the sizable mansions on the block and looms large over tranquil Holmby Park near Wilshire Boulevard.
After its completion, Los Angeles Times architecture critic Sam Hall Kaplan panned the structure as one of the region's worst projects built in the 1980s: Aaron Spelling residence, which at 56,500 square feet, should be considered a congregate living facility and not a single-family home, therefore in violation of Holmby Hills zoning. What Spelling's folly is, of course, is a sad commentary on the distorted values that have taken the architectural form of monster mansions at a time when tens of thousands of persons are homeless; the Spelling mansion has been referenced in popular culture. People magazine ran a feature on the massive home, performer John Perry composed a calypso/rap novelty song about the house called "The Ballad of Aaron and Candy"; some of the lyrics were: See Candy's jewels, see Aaron's money,Aaron doesn't think being picked on is funny. See Candy's clothes, see Candy's castle make the neighbors mad, but they're livin' in splendor high above the crowds 60,000 square feet of heaven.
That's Spelling's dwelling, I said Spelling's Dwelling…." In the movie Legally Blonde, Elle Woods described her social standing to Warner Huntington III this way: "I grew up in Bel Air, Warner. Across the street from Aaron Spelling."In the sitcom Will & Grace several episodes of season five make reference to "a gift-wrapping room like Candy Spelling has". Spelling died in the mansion on June 23, 2006, from complications of a stroke, at age 83; the house was discussed in his obituary: Mr. Spelling himself, though a self-effacing and shy man in private, put his own vast wealth on display in the late 1980s when he and his wife, supervised the construction of their home in the Holmby Hills section of Los Angeles; the structure, which like his shows drew scathing reviews contained 123 rooms over about 56,000 square feet. It was said to include a bowling alley, an ice rink and an entire wing devoted to his wife's wardrobe; the Manor was listed for sale in 2009 at an asking price of $150 million—making it the most expensive home listing in America.
When the house was listed, Candy Spelling called it the "greatest entertainment house ever" with a "kitchen where you can cook for two or 800". In her 18 years living at The Manor, Spelling recalled, "All the stars came through, Prince Rainier, Prince Charles, Jackie Kennedy—every star from every one of Aaron's shows."In July 14, 2011, the house was sold to 23-year-old socialite Petra Stunt, daughter of Formula One racing magnate Bernie Ecclestone for $85 million—one of the largest real estate sales in Los Angeles County. The sale was brokered by celebrity real estate agent Sally Forster Jones along with Rick Hilton and Jeff Hyland. Subsequently the chandeliers, wall lights and fireplace mantels were removed by the new owner and the interior was updated, but by July 2014, it was reported. In October 2016, the Manor was relisted with Rick Hilton and David Kramer of Hilton & Hyland with an asking price of $200 million. In February 2017, it was reported that singer Beyoncé and her husband Hip-hop mogul Jay Z had secretly visited the property.
List of largest houses in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area List of largest houses in the United States
Los Angeles Public Library
The Los Angeles Public Library system serves the residents of the City of Los Angeles. The system holds more than six million volumes, with over 18 million residents in the Los Angeles Metropolitan area, it serves the largest population of any publicly funded library system in the United States; the system is overseen by a Board of Library Commissioners with five members appointed by the mayor of Los Angeles in staggered terms in accordance with the city charter. Library cards are free to California residents. Circulating books, periodicals, computer access and audiovisual materials are available to patrons. Books and audiobooks are loaned for 3 weeks. Music cassettes, music CDs, documentary videos, documentary DVDs are loaned for 1 week. Entertainment videos and entertainment DVDs are loaned for 4 days. Fines are charged. There is a loan limit of 10 books, 10 magazines, 4 DVDs or videos at one time up to maximum of 30 items on the patron's record. Items checked out from Los Angeles Public Library may be returned to any of its 72 branches or to the Central Library.
Most items may be renewed a maximum of two times. Entertainment DVDs and videos may be renewed one time; the Los Angeles Public Library has many community support organizations which work with the library to raise funds and sponsor programs to enhance library service throughout the community. The Library's Rare Books Department is located in its downtown Los Angeles location. There is an extensive selection of databases covering a wide variety of topics, many of which are available to remote users who hold an LAPL library card. Examples include full-text databases of periodicals, business directories, language learning tools; the Central Library at 630 West 5th Street, between Grand Avenue and Flower Street in Downtown Los Angeles, remains an important research library, despite the development of accessible databases and public access to the Internet. The library offers an online program that allows adult patrons who have not completed high school to earn their high school diploma; the Los Angeles Library Association was formed in late 1872, by early 1873, a well-stocked reading room had opened under the first librarian, John Littlefield.
Aggressive expansion and growth of the system began in the 1920s. Under Library Board of Commissioners Chairman Orra E. Monnette, the system was improved with a large network of branch libraries with new buildings. Thelma Jackman founded the Business & Economics section of the library sometime prior to 1970; the historic Central Library Goodhue building was constructed in 1926 and is a Downtown Los Angeles landmark. The Central Library was designed by Bertram Goodhue; the Richard Riordan Central Library complex is the third largest public library in the United States in terms of book and periodical holdings. Named the Central Library, the building was first renamed in honor of the longtime president of the Board of Library Commissioners and President of the University of Southern California, Rufus B. von KleinSmid. The new wing of Central Library, completed in 1993, was named in honor of former mayor Tom Bradley; the complex was subsequently renamed in 2001 for former Los Angeles Mayor Richard Riordan, as the Richard Riordan Central Library.
The Los Angeles Public Library received the National Medal for Museum and Library Service, the nation's highest honor given to museums and libraries for service to the community. City Librarian John F. Szabo and community member Sergio Sanchez accepted the award on behalf of the library from First Lady Michelle Obama during a White House Ceremony on May 20, 2015; the Los Angeles Public Library was selected for its success in meeting the needs of Angelenos and providing a level of social and cultural services unmatched by any other public institution in the city. The award recognizes the library's programs that help people on their path to citizenship, earn their high school diploma, manage personal finances and access health and well-being services and resources. Architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue designed the original Los Angeles Central Library with influences of ancient Egyptian and Mediterranean Revival architecture; the central tower is topped with a tiled mosaic pyramid with suns on the sides with a hand holding a torch representing the "Light of Learning" at the apex.
Other elements include sphinxes and celestial mosaics. It has sculptural elements by the preeminent American architectural sculptor Lee Lawrie, similar to the Nebraska State Capitol in Lincoln, Nebraska designed by Goodhue; the interior of the library is decorated with various figures, statues and grilles, notably a four-part mural by illustrator Dean Cornwell depicting stages of the History of California, completed around 1933. The building is a designated Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, is on the National Register of Historic Places; the Central Library was extensively renovated and expanded in a Modernist/Beaux-Arts architecture, according to Norman Pfeiffer, the principal architect of the renovation by Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates from 1988 through 1993. It included an eight-story atrium wing dedicated to former mayor Tom Bradley. Now, the library contains an area of 538,000 square feet, has nearly 89 miles of shelves and seating for over 1,400 people; the building's limited access had caused a number of problems.
The accessible public stacks in the reading rooms only displayed about 10 to 20 percent of the actual collections of the Central Library. For anything else, a patron had to submit a request slip and a clerk would retrieve the desired material from the internal stacks. Internal stacks
Felipe de Neve
Felipe de Neve was the fourth governor of Las Californias, a province of New Spain,from 1775 to 1782. Neve is considered a founder of Los Angeles and helped to settle towns of Santa Barbara and San José whose surrounding communities became California cities. In 1781, Neve issued the first rules regarding governance of secular pueblos like Los Angeles, the "Regulations for the Government of the Province of the Californias" Felipe de Neve was appointed governor of the Californias in 1775. For two years he was based at Loreto, Baja California moved to Monterey, California. Las CaliforniasIt was during Neve's administration that Lieutenant José Joaquín Moraga is credited with building the Presidio of San Francisco, after the site was selected by Juan Bautista de Anza in 1776. Moraga is known as the founder of El Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the present day city of San Jose, California. On 29 November 1777, Moraga founded San José on orders from Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, the Spanish Viceroy of New Spain.
It was the first Spanish colonial pueblo in the northern region of Las Californias Province, which became its own Alta California Province in 1804. The city served as a farming community to support the Presidio of San Francisco and the Presidio of Monterey. In 1781 in Neve's tenure, he founded the Pueblo de Los Ángeles. Neve had applied to Viceroy Bucareli for permission to establish a settlement near the Los Angeles River, where Father Juan Crespí had met local Tongva Indians. With the viceroy's approval, Neve was granted authority from The Crown, Charles III of Spain, to found and establish the second pueblo in upper Las Californias, El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles del Río de Porciúncula, the present day city of Los Angeles, California. During Neve's tenure as governor, he quarreled with the missionaries' leader, padre Junípero Serra, over the secularization of the Missions and the redistribution of land to the Mission Indian neophytes and soldiers. During his tenure four missions were founded: Mission San Francisco de Asís called Mission Dolores, Mission San Juan Capistrano, Mission Santa Clara de Asís and Mission San Buenaventura.
Neve's success as provincial governor won him promotion in 1783 to succeed Teodoro de Croix as Comandante General of the Provincias Internas, a position that had authority over all the northern provinces. He held that position until his death in 1784. A 7½ foot cast bronze statue of Felipe De Neve by Henry Lion was installed in 1932 at Plaza Park in the El Pueblo district of Los Angeles, California, by the City of Los Angeles; the statue is mounted on a 4-foot boulder and includes a bronze plaque with the following inscription: "FELIPE DE NEVE. SPANISH GOVERNOR OF THE CALIFORNIAS 1775-82. IN 1781, ON ORDERS OF KING CARLOS III OF SPAIN, FELIPE DE NEVE SELECTED A SITE NEAR THE RIVER PORCIUNCULA AND LAID OUT THE TOWN OF EL PUEBLO DE LA REINA DE LOS ANGELES, ONE OF TWO SPANISH PUEBLOS HE FOUNDED IN ALTA CALIFORNIA." History of Los Angeles Clyde Arbuckle. Clyde Arbuckle's History of San Jose. Smith McKay Printing. ISBN 978-9996625220; the Town of Our Lady Reina of the Angels on the Porciúncula river.
Edwin A. Beilharz. Felipe de Neve, first Governor of California. San Francisco: California Historical Society. Public Art in Public Places | "Felipe de Neve" by Henry Lion USC Libraries: Felipe de Neve California History - Felipe de Neve
Los Angeles Community College District
The Los Angeles Community College District is the community college district serving Los Angeles, United States and some of its neighboring cities and certain unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County. Its headquarters are in Downtown Los Angeles. Over the past seventy-seven years LACCD has served as educator to more than three million students. In addition to typical college aged students, the LACCD serves adults of all ages. Indeed, over half of all LACCD students are older than 25 years of age, more than a quarter are 35 or older. LACCD educates three times as many Latino students and nearly four times as many African-American students as all of the University of California campuses combined. Eighty percent of LACCD students are from underserved populations; the Los Angeles Community College District is the largest community college district in the United States and is one of the largest in the world. The nine colleges within the district offer educational opportunities to students in Los Angeles.
It serves students located in the Alhambra, Beverly Hills, Culver City, Las Virgenes, Los Angeles, Palos Verdes and San Gabriel school districts. The district covers the Los Angeles city limits, San Fernando, Agoura Hills, Hidden Hills, West Hollywood, Beverly Hills, Culver City, Monterey Park, San Gabriel, Montebello, Vernon, Huntington Park, Cudahy, Bell Gardens, South Gate, Carson, Palos Verdes Estates, Rolling Hills, Rancho Palos Verdes, numerous unincorporated communities, including East Los Angeles, Florence-Firestone and Walnut Park; the LACCD covers an area of more than 882 square miles. East Los Angeles College Los Angeles City College Los Angeles Harbor College Los Angeles Mission College Los Angeles Pierce College Los Angeles Trade-Technical College Los Angeles Valley College Los Angeles Southwest College West Los Angeles College The Los Angeles Community College District is governed by an elected Board of Trustees first established in 1969; the board meets twice a month. The District is modernizing all of its facilities, including all nine of its colleges, through a $6 billion Building Program.
The program is funded through bond measures approved by voters in 2001, 2003, 2008, plus additional funding from the State of California. As of its most recent report $3.1 billion of the $6 billion has been spent or committed. Official website
Harvard-Westlake School is an independent, co-educational university preparatory day school consisting of two campuses located in Los Angeles, with 1,600 students enrolled in grades seven through 12. Its two predecessor organizations began as for-profit schools before turning non-profit, merging, it is not affiliated with Harvard University despite being named after it. The school has two campuses, the middle school campus in Holmby Hills and the high school, or what Harvard-Westlake refers to as their Upper School, in Studio City, it is a member of the G20 Schools group. The Harvard School for Boys was established in 1900 by Grenville C. Emery as a military academy, on the site of a barley field located at the corner of Western Avenue and Sixteenth Street in Los Angeles, California. Emery was from Boston, around 1900 he wrote to Harvard University to ask permission to use the Harvard name for his new secondary school, received permission from the university's then-President, Charles W. Eliot.
In 1911, it secured endorsement from the Episcopal Church. In 1937, the school moved to its present-day campus at the former Hollywood Country Club on Coldwater Canyon in Studio City after receiving a $25,000 loan from aviation pioneer Donald Douglas. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the Harvard School discontinued both boarding and its standing as a military academy, while expanding its enrollment, classes and curriculum; the Westlake School for Girls was established in 1904 by Jessica Smith Vance and Frederica de Laguna in what is now downtown Los Angeles, California, as an female institution offering both elementary and secondary education. It was so-named. At the time, the school was a for-profit alternative to the already-established Marlborough School, established as a non-profit before the turn of the century, it moved to its present-day campus located on North Faring Road in Holmby Hills, California, in 1927. The school was purchased by Sydney Temple, whose daughter, Helen Temple Dickinson, was headmistress until 1966, when Westlake became a non-profit institution.
The Temple family owned the school with Dickinson serving in an ex officio capacity. In 1968 Westlake became a secondary school; as both schools continued to grow in size towards the late 1980s, as gender exclusivity became less of a factor both in the schools' reputations and desirability, the trustees of both Harvard and Westlake effectuated a merger in 1989. The two institutions had long been de facto sister schools, interacted socially. Complete integration and coeducation began in 1991. In 2008, six sophomores were expelled and more than a dozen other students faced suspensions as a result of a cheating scandal; the school is split between the two campuses, with grades 7–9, the Middle School, located at the former Westlake campus in Holmby Hills and grades 10–12, the Upper School, located at the former Harvard campus in Studio City. The Middle School completed a four-year modernization in September 2008, replacing the original administration building, the library, the instrumental music building.
The campus now features a new library, two levels of classrooms in the Academic Center, the new Seaver Science Center, a turf field, a new administration office, a putting green, a long jump pit, a large parking lot. Another significant addition of the project was the Bing Performing Arts Center which features a two-level, 800-seat theater, a suite of practice rooms, a few large classrooms for band and choir classes, a black box theater, a dance studio, a room with atomic pianos for composing electronic music. Remnants of the former Middle School campus include the Marshall Center, which houses a gymnasium, weight room, wrestling room, a 25-yard swimming pool and diving boards, an outdoor basketball court, a tennis court. Reynolds Hall, an academic building, home to history, foreign language, visual arts classes, began a modernization effort in June 2014 to be completed by September 2015; the building was named Wang Hall in honor of two parents who donated $5,000,000 to fund the project. The Upper School features computer lab.
The athletic facilities include Taper Gymnasium, used for volleyball and basketball as well as final exams. In 2007, lights were added to Ted Slavin Field; the school maintains an off-campus baseball facility, the O'Malley Family Field, in Encino, California. The Upper School campus features the three-story Seeley G. Mudd Library and Saint Saviour's Chapel, a vestige from Harvard School for Boys' Episcopal days. In the early 1980s, annual tuition at the schools that
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a