Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups. Witchcraft is a broad term that varies culturally and societally, thus can be difficult to define with precision, cross-cultural assumptions about the meaning or significance of the term should be applied with caution. Witchcraft occupies a religious divinatory or medicinal role, is present within societies and groups whose cultural framework includes a magical world view; the concept of witchcraft and the belief in its existence have persisted throughout recorded history. They have been present or central at various times and in many diverse forms among cultures and religions worldwide, including both "primitive" and "highly advanced" cultures, continue to have an important role in many cultures today; the predominant concept of witchcraft in the Western world derives from Old Testament laws against witchcraft, entered the mainstream when belief in witchcraft gained Church approval in the Early Modern Period.
It posits a theosophical conflict between good and evil, where witchcraft was evil and associated with the Devil and Devil worship. This culminated in deaths and scapegoating, many years of large scale witch-trials and witch hunts in Protestant Europe, before ceasing during the European Age of Enlightenment. Christian views in the modern day are diverse and cover the gamut of views from intense belief and opposition to non-belief, in some churches approval. From the mid-20th century, witchcraft – sometimes called contemporary witchcraft to distinguish it from older beliefs – became the name of a branch of modern paganism, it is most notably practiced in the Wiccan and modern witchcraft traditions, no longer practices in secrecy. The Western mainstream Christian view is far from the only societal perspective about witchcraft. Many cultures worldwide continue to have widespread practices and cultural beliefs that are loosely translated into English as "witchcraft", although the English translation masks a great diversity in their forms, magical beliefs and place in their societies.
During the Age of Colonialism, many cultures across the globe were exposed to the modern Western world via colonialism accompanied and preceded by intensive Christian missionary activity. Beliefs related to witchcraft and magic in these cultures were at times influenced by the prevailing Western concepts. Witch hunts and killing or shunning of suspected witches still occurs in the modern era, with killings both of victims for their magical body parts, of suspected witchcraft practitioners. Suspicion of modern medicine due to beliefs about illness being due to witchcraft continues in many countries to this day, with tragic healthcare consequences. HIV/AIDS and Ebola virus disease are two examples of often-lethal infectious disease epidemics whose medical care and containment has been hampered by regional beliefs in witchcraft. Other severe medical conditions whose treatment is hampered in this way include tuberculosis, leprosy and the common severe bacterial Buruli ulcer. Public healthcare requires considerable education work related to epidemology and modern health knowledge in many parts of the world where belief in witchcraft prevails, to encourage effective preventive health measures and treatments, to reduce victim blaming and stigmatization, to prevent the killing of people and endangering of animal species for body parts believed to convey magical abilities.
The word witch is of uncertain origin. There are numerous etymologies. One popular belief is that it is "related to the English words wit, wisdom," so "craft of the wise." Another is from the Old English wiccecræft, a compound of "wicce" and "cræft". In anthropological terminology, witches differ from sorcerers in that they don't use physical tools or actions to curse; this definition was pioneered in a study of central African magical beliefs by E. E. Evans-Pritchard, who cautioned that it might not correspond with normal English usage. Historians of European witchcraft have found the anthropological definition difficult to apply to European witchcraft, where witches could use physical techniques, as well as some who had attempted to cause harm by thought alone. European witchcraft is seen by historians and anthropologists as an ideology for explaining misfortune; the witchcraft label has been applied to practices people believe influence the mind, body, or property of others against their will—or practices that the person doing the labeling believes undermine social or religious order.
Some modern commentators believe. The concept of a magic-worker influencing another person's body or property against their will was present in many cultures, as traditions in both folk magic and religious magic have the purpose of countering malicious magic or identifying malicious magic users. Many examples appear in early texts, such as those from ancient Babylonia. Malicious magic users can become a credible cause for disease, sickness in animals, bad luck, sudden death, impo
In religion and folklore, Hell is an afterlife location, sometimes a place of torment and punishment. Religions with a linear divine history depict hells as eternal destinations while religions with a cyclic history depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations; these traditions locate hell in another dimension or under the Earth's surface and include entrances to Hell from the land of the living. Other afterlife destinations include Heaven, Purgatory and Limbo. Other traditions, which do not conceive of the afterlife as a place of punishment or reward describe Hell as an abode of the dead, the grave, a neutral place located under the surface of Earth; the modern English word hell is derived from Old English hel, helle reaching into the Anglo-Saxon pagan period. The word has cognates in all branches of the Germanic languages, including Old Norse hel, Old Frisian helle, Old Saxon hellia, Old High German hella, Gothic halja. All forms derive from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic feminine noun *xaljō or *haljō.
In turn, the Proto-Germanic form derives from the o-grade form of the Proto-Indo-European root *kel-, *kol-:'to cover, save'. Indo-European cognates including Latin cēlāre and early Irish ceilid. Upon the Christianization of the Germanic peoples, extension of Proto-Germanic *xaljō were reinterpreted to denote the underworld in Christian mythology, for which see Gehenna. Related early Germanic terms and concepts include Proto-Germanic *xalja-rūnō, a feminine compound noun, *xalja-wītjan, a neutral compound noun; this form is reconstructed from the Latinized Gothic plural noun *haliurunnae, Old English helle-rúne, Old High German helli-rūna'magic'. The compound is composed of two elements: *xaljō and *rūnō, the Proto-Germanic precursor to Modern English rune; the second element in the Gothic haliurunnae may however instead be an agent noun from the verb rinnan, which would make its literal meaning "one who travels to the netherworld". Proto-Germanic *xalja-wītjan is reconstructed from Old Norse hel-víti'hell', Old English helle-wíte'hell-torment, hell', Old Saxon helli-wīti'hell', the Middle High German feminine noun helle-wīze.
The compound is a compound of * * wītjan. Hell appears in several religions, it is inhabited by demons and the souls of dead people. A fable about Hell which recurs in folklore across several cultures is the allegory of the long spoons. Hell is depicted in art and literature most famously in Dante's Divine Comedy. Punishment in Hell corresponds to sins committed during life. Sometimes these distinctions are specific, with damned souls suffering for each sin committed, but sometimes they are general, with condemned sinners relegated to one or more chamber of Hell or to a level of suffering. In many religious cultures, including Christianity and Islam, Hell is depicted as fiery and harsh, inflicting suffering on the guilty. Despite these common depictions of Hell as a place of fire, some other traditions portray Hell as cold. Buddhist - and Tibetan Buddhist - descriptions of Hell feature an equal number of hot and cold Hells. Among Christian descriptions Dante's Inferno portrays the innermost circle of Hell as a frozen lake of blood and guilt.
But cold played a part in earlier Christian depictions of Hell, beginning with the Apocalypse of Paul from the early third century. The Sumerian afterlife was a dark, dreary cavern located deep below the ground, where inhabitants were believed to continue "a shadowy version of life on earth"; this bleak domain was known as Kur, was believed to be ruled by the goddess Ereshkigal. All souls went to the same afterlife, a person's actions during life had no effect on how the person would be treated in the world to come; the souls in Kur were believed to eat nothing but dry dust and family members of the deceased would ritually pour libations into the dead person's grave through a clay pipe, thereby allowing the dead to drink. Nonetheless, funerary evidence indicates that some people believed that the goddess Inanna, Ereshkigal's younger sister, had the power to award her devotees with special favors in the afterlife. During the Third Dynasty of Ur, it was believed that a person's treatment in the afterlife depended on how he or she was buried.
The entrance to Kur was believed to be located in the Zagros mountains in the far east. It had seven gates; the god Neti was the gatekeeper. Ereshkigal's sukkal, or messenger, was the god Namtar. Galla were a class of demons, they are fr
Doctor of Medicine
A Doctor of Medicine is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States and other countries, the MD denotes a professional graduate degree awarded upon graduation from medical school. In the United Kingdom and other countries, the MD is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who hold a professional degree in medicine. In 1703, the University of Glasgow's first medical graduate, Samuel Benion, was issued with the academic degree of Doctor of Medicine. University medical education in England culminated with the MB qualification, in Scotland the MD, until in the mid-19th century the public bodies who regulated medical practice at the time required practitioners in Scotland as well as England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees. North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the ancient universities of Scotland and began granting the MoD title rather than the MB beginning in the late 18th century.
The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York was the first American university to grant the MD degree instead of the MB. Early medical schools in North America that granted the Doctor of Medicine degrees were Columbia, Harvard, McGill; these first few North American medical schools that were established were founded by physicians and surgeons, trained in England and Scotland. A feminine form, "Doctress of Medicine" or Medicinae Doctrix, was used by the New England Female Medical College in Boston in the 1860s. In most countries having a Doctor of Medicine degree does not mean that the individual will be allowed to practice medicine. A doctor must go through a residency for at least four years and take some form of licensing examination in their jurisdiction. In Afghanistan, medical education begins after high school. No pre-medicine courses or bachelor's degree is required. Eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the public university entrance exam held every year throughout the country.
Entry to medical school is competitive, only students with the highest ranks are accepted into medical programs. The primary medical degree is completed in 7 years. According to the new medical curriculum, during the 12th semester, medical students must complete research on a medical topic and provide a thesis as part of their training. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, regarded "MD" and validated by the "Ministry of Higher Education of Afghanistan". All physicians are to obtain licensing and a medical council registration number from the "Ministry of Public Health" before they begin to practice, they may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications. After graduation, students may complete residency; the MD specification: Before the civil wars in Afghanistan, medical education used to be taught by foreign professors or Afghan professors who studied medical education abroad. The Kabul medical institute certified the students as "Master of Medicine".
After the civil wars, medical education has changed, the MD certification has been reduced to "Medicine Bachelor". In Argentina, the First Degree of Physician or Physician Diplomate is equivalent to the North American MD Degree with six years of intensive studies followed by three or four years of residency as a major specialty in a particular empiric field, consisting of internships, social services and sporadic research. Only by holding a Medical Title can the postgraduate student apply for the Doctor degree through a Doctorate in Medicine program approved by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation. Australian medical schools have followed the British tradition by conferring the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery to its graduates whilst reserving the title of Doctor of Medicine for their research training degree, analogous to the PhD, or for their honorary doctorates. Although the majority of Australian MBBS degrees have been graduate programs since the 1990s, under the previous Australian Qualifications Framework they remained categorized as Level 7 Bachelor's degrees together with other undergraduate programs.
The latest version of the AQF includes the new category of Level 9 Master's degrees which permits the use of the term'Doctor' in the styling of the degree title of relevant professional programs. As a result, various Australian medical schools have replaced their MBBS degrees with the MD to resolve the previous anomalous nomenclature. With the introduction of the Master's level MD, universities have renamed their previous medical research doctorates; the University of Melbourne was the first to introduce the MD in 2011 as a basic medical degree, has renamed its research degree to Doctor of Medical Science. In French-speaking Belgium, the medical degree awarded after six years of study is "Docteur en Médecine". Physicians would have to register with the Ordre des Medicins to practice medicine in the country. At the end of the six-year medical programs from Bulgarian medical schools, medical students are awarded the academic degree Master in Medicine and the professional title Physician - Doctor of Medicine.
After 6 years of general medical education, all students will graduate with
Pieter Holsteyn II
Pieter Holsteyn, was a Dutch Golden Age watercolor painter and engraver. According to Houbraken who called him "Holstein", his father Pieter Holsteyn I was a good glass painter and his brother Cornelis was a good painter. Houbraken quoted Samuel Ampzing who mentioned Holstein together with Johannes Boeckhorst as good glasspainters who painted the scenes of the damiaatjes story in the magistrate's room in the Haarlem City Hall. In his biographical sketch of Rochus van Veen Houbraken mentioned the auction of watercolor paintings in Haarlem in 1706 of insects and birds that were painted in the style of Pieter Holsteyn. According to the RKD he was the brother of Cornelis, he worked in Haarlem, Amsterdam and Enkhuizen and was the teacher of the painter Josua Breckerveld. He signed his works with the monogram "PH"; the painter Herman Henstenburgh was influenced by his watercolors. Pieter Holsteyn on Artnet
Johann Weyer or Johannes Wier was a Dutch physician and demonologist, disciple and follower of Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa. He was among the first to publish against the persecution of witches, his most influential work is De Praestigiis Daemonum et Incantationibus ac Venificiis. Weyer was born in a small town in the Duchy of Brabant in the Habsburg Netherlands, he attended the Latin schools in's-Hertogenbosch and Leuven and when he was about 14 years of age, he became a live-in student of Agrippa, in Antwerp. Agrippa had to leave Antwerp in 1532 and he and Weyer settled in Bonn, under the protection of prince-bishop Hermann von Wied.. From 1534, Weyer studied medicine in Paris and in Orléans, but it appears unlikely that he obtained the title of Doctor through these studies, he practiced as a physician in his native Grave. Weyer was appointed town physician of Arnhem in 1545. In this capacity, he was asked for advice on witchcraft in a 1548 court case involving a fortune teller. In spite of a subsidy from emperor Charles V, the town of Arnhem was no longer able to pay Weyer's salary.
Weyer moved to Cleves in 1550, where he became court doctor to duke William the Rich, through mediation by humanist Konrad Heresbach. Weyer published his major works on demons and witchcraft, in which he applied a skeptical medical view to reported wonders and supposed examples of magic or witchcraft, he was succeeded by his son, Galenus Wier. After retirement he completed a medical work on a subject unrelated to witchcraft, he died on 24 February 1588 at the age of 73 in Tecklenburg, while visiting an individual who had fallen ill. He was buried in the local churchyard. Weyer's works include medical and moral works as well as his more famous critiques of magic and witchcraft: De Praestigiis Daemonum et Incantationibus ac Venificiis, 1563. Pseudomonarchia Daemonum, an appendix to De Praestigiis Daemonum, 1577. Medicarum Observationum rararum liber, 1567, translated into German as: Artzney-Buch von etlichen biß anher unbekandten unnd unbeschriebenen Kranckheiten, 1580 De lamiis liber item de commentitiis jejuniis 1577, translated into German as: De Lamiis, Das ist: Von Teuffelsgespenst Zauberern und Gifftbereytern, kurtzer doch gründtlicher Bericht... 1586 De ira morbo 1577.
Translated into German as: Vom Zorn, iracundiae antidotum...: Buch. Von der gefehrlichen Kranckheit dem Zorn, und desselbigen philosophischer, und theologischer Cur oder Ertzney 1585 De scorbuto epitome, 1564 Histoire Disputes et Discours des Illusions et Diables, des Magiciens Infame, Sorcieres et Empoisonneurs: des Ensorcelez et Demoniaques et de la Guerison D'Iceux: Item de la Punition que Meritent les Magiciens les Empoisonneurs et les Sorcieres, 1579. 1885 translation printed Paris France. Two volume set."About 40 people at Casale in Western Lombardy smeared the bolts of the town gates with an ointment to spread the plague. Those who touched the gates where infected and many died; the heirs of the dead and diseased had paid people at Casale to smear the gates in order to obtain their inheritances more quickly." -From The Deceptions of Demons, 1583 Weyer criticised the Malleus Maleficarum and the witch hunting by the Christian and Civil authorities. In a time when witch trials and executions were just beginning to be common, he sought to derogate the law concerning witchcraft prosecution.
He claimed that not only were examples of magic incredible but that the crime of witchcraft was impossible, so that anyone who confessed to the crime was to be suffering some mental disturbance. Some scholars have said that Weyer intended to mock the concept of the hellish hierarchy that previous grimoires had established by writing those two books and entitling his catalogue of demons Pseudomonarchia Daemonum. While he defended the idea that the Devil's power was not as strong as claimed by the orthodox Christian churches in De Praestigiis Daemonum, he defended the idea that demons did have power and could appear before people who called upon them, creating illusions. Moreover, Weyer did not only write the catalogue of demons Pseudomonarchia Daemonum, but gave their description and the conjurations to invoke them in the appropriate hour and in the name of God and the Trinity, not to create illusions but to oblige them to do the conjurer's will, as well as advice on how to avoid certain perils and tricks if the demon was reluctant to do what he was commanded or a liar.
In addition, he wanted to abolish the prosecution of witches, when speaking on those who invoke demons he used the word exorcist. Weyer never denied the existence of the Devil and a huge number of other demons of high and low order, his work
A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft involving moral panic or mass hysteria. The classical period of witch-hunts in Early Modern Europe and Colonial North America took place in the Early Modern period or about 1450 to 1750, spanning the upheavals of the Reformation and the Thirty Years' War, resulting in an estimated 35,000 to 100,000 executions; the last executions of people convicted as witches in Europe took place in the 18th century. In other regions, like Africa and Asia, contemporary witch-hunts have been reported from Sub-Saharan Africa and Papua New Guinea and official legislation against witchcraft is still found in Saudi Arabia and Cameroon today. In current language, "witch-hunt" metaphorically means an investigation conducted with much publicity to uncover subversive activity, disloyalty and so on, but to weaken political opposition; the wide distribution of the practice of witch-hunts in geographically and culturally separated societies since the 1960s has triggered interest in the anthropological background of this behaviour.
The belief in magic and divination, attempts to use magic to influence personal well-being are human cultural universals. Belief in witchcraft has been shown to have similarities in societies throughout the world, it presents a framework to explain the occurrence of otherwise random misfortunes such as sickness or death, the witch sorcerer provides an image of evil. Reports on indigenous practices in the Americas and Africa collected during the early modern age of exploration have been taken to suggest that not just the belief in witchcraft but the periodic outbreak of witch-hunts are a human cultural universal. One study finds that witchcraft beliefs are associated with antisocial attitudes: lower levels of trust, charitable giving and group participation. Another study finds that income shocks lead to a large increase in the murder of "witches" in Tanzania. Punishment for malevolent sorcery is addressed in the earliest law codes; the Code of Hammurabi prescribes that If a man has put a spell upon another man and it is not yet justified, he upon whom the spell is laid shall go to the holy river.
If the holy river overcome him and he is drowned, the man who put the spell upon him shall take possession of his house. If the holy river declares him innocent and he remains unharmed the man who laid the spell shall be put to death, he that plunged into the river shall take possession of the house of him who laid the spell upon him. No laws concerning magic survive from Classical Athens. However, cases concerning the harmful effects of pharmaka – an ambiguous term that might mean "poison", "medicine", or "magical drug" – do survive those where the drug caused injury or death. Antiphon's speech "Against the Stepmother for Poisoning" tells of the case of a woman accused of plotting to murder her husband with a pharmakon; the most detailed account of a trial for witchcraft in Classical Greece is the story of Theoris of Lemnos, executed along with her children some time before 338 BC for casting incantations and using harmful drugs. In 451 BC, the Twelve Tables of Roman law had provisions against evil incantations and spells intended to damage cereal crops.
In 331 BC, 170 women were executed as witches in the context of an epidemic illness. Livy emphasizes. In 186 BC, the Roman senate issued a decree restricting the Bacchanalia, ecstatic rites celebrated in honor of Dionysus. Livy records that this persecution was because "there was nothing wicked, nothing flagitious, that had not been practiced among them". Consequent to the ban, in 184 BC, about 2,000 people were executed for witchcraft, in 182–180 BC another 3,000 executions took place, again triggered by the outbreak of an epidemic. There is no way to verify the figures reported by Roman historians, but if they are taken at face value, the scale of the witch-hunts in the Roman Republic in relation to the population of Italy at the time far exceeded anything that took place during the "classical" witch-craze in Early Modern Europe. Persecution of witches continued in the Roman Empire until the late 4th century AD and abated only after the introduction of Christianity as the Roman state religion in the 390s.
The Lex Cornelia de sicariis et veneficiis promulgated by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 81 BC became an important source of late medieval and early modern European law on witchcraft. This law banned the trading and possession of harmful drugs and poisons, possession of magical books and other occult paraphernalia. Strabo, Gaius Maecenas and Cassius Dio all reiterate the traditional Roman opposition against sorcery and divination, Tacitus used the term religio-superstitio to class these outlawed observances. Emperor Augustus strengthened legislation aimed at curbing these practices, for instance in 31 BC, by burning over 2,000 magical books in Rome, except for certain portions of the hallowed Sibylline Books. In AD 354, while Tiberius Claudius was emperor, 45 men and 85 women, who were all suspected of sorcery, were executed; the Hebrew Bible condemns sorcery. Deuteronomy 18:10–12 states: "No one shall be found among you who makes a son or daughter pass through fire, who practices divination, or is a soothsayer, or an augur, or a sorcerer, or one that casts spells, or who consults gh
The Malleus Maleficarum translated as the Hammer of Witches, is the best known and the most thorough treatise on witchcraft. It was written by the discredited Catholic clergyman Heinrich Kramer and first published in the German city of Speyer in 1487, it endorses extermination of witches and for this purpose develops a detailed legal and theological theory. It was a bestseller, second only to the Bible in terms of sales for 200 years, it has been described as the compendium of literature in demonology of the fifteenth century. The top theologians of the Inquisition at the Faculty of Cologne condemned the book as recommending unethical and illegal procedures, as well as being inconsistent with Catholic doctrines of demonology; the Malleus elevates sorcery to the criminal status of heresy and prescribes inquisitorial practices for secular courts in order to extirpate witches. The recommended procedures include torture to obtain confessions and the death penalty as the only sure remedy against the evils of witchcraft.
At that time, it was typical to burn heretics alive at the stake and the Malleus encouraged the same treatment of witches. The book had a strong influence on culture for several centuries. Jacob Sprenger's name was added as an author beginning in 1519, 33 years after the book's first publication and 24 years after Sprenger's death. Kramer wrote the Malleus following his expulsion from Innsbruck by the local bishop, due to charges of illegal behavior against Kramer himself, because of Kramer's obsession with the sexual habits of one of the accused, Helena Scheuberin, which led the other tribunal members to suspend the trial, it was used by royal courts during the Renaissance, contributed to the brutal prosecution of witchcraft during the 16th and 17th centuries. Witchcraft had long been forbidden by the Church, whose attitude on the subject was explained in the Canon Episcopi written in about AD 900, it stated that witchcraft and magic were just delusions and that those who believed in such things "had been seduced by the Devil in dreams and visions".
However, in the same period supernatural intervention was accepted in the form of ordeals that were also used during witch trials. Possessions by the Devil are considered real in present times by some Christians and it is a part of doctrine that demons may be cast out by appropriate sacramental exorcisms. In the Malleus, exorcism is, for example, one of the five ways to overcome the attacks of incubi. Prayer and transubstantiation are traditionally excluded by Christians from the category of magical rites. In 1484 clergyman Heinrich Kramer made one of the first attempts at prosecuting alleged witches in the Tyrol region, it was not a success: he was expelled from the city of Innsbruck and dismissed by the local bishop as "senile and crazy". According to Diarmaid MacCulloch, writing the book was Kramer's act of self-justification and revenge. Ankarloo and Clark claim that Kramer's purpose in writing the book was to explain his own views on witchcraft, systematically refute arguments claiming that witchcraft did not exist, discredit those who expressed skepticism about its reality, claim that those who practised witchcraft were more women than men, to convince magistrates to use Kramer's recommended procedures for finding and convicting witches.
Some scholars have suggested that following the failed efforts in Tyrol, Kramer requested explicit authority from the Pope to prosecute witchcraft. Kramer received a papal bull Summis desiderantes affectibus in 1484, it gave full papal approval for the Inquisition to prosecute what was deemed to be witchcraft in general and gave individual authorizations to Kramer and Dominican Friar Jacob Sprenger specifically. Other scholars have disputed the idea that Sprenger was working with Kramer, arguing that the evidence shows that Sprenger was a persistent opponent of Kramer going so far as to ban him from Dominican convents within Sprenger's jurisdiction while banning him from preaching. In the words of Wolfgang Behringer: "Sprenger had tried to suppress Kramer's activities in every possible way, he forbade the convents of his province to host him, he forbade Kramer to preach, tried to interfere directly in the affairs of Kramer's Séléstat convent... The same day Sprenger became successor to Jacob Strubach as provincial superior, he obtained permission from his general, Joaquino Turriani, to lash out adversus m Henricum Institoris inquisitorem."
The preface includes an alleged unanimous approbation from the University of Cologne's Faculty of Theology. Many historians have argued that it is well established by sources outside the Malleus that the university's theology faculty condemned the book for unethical procedures and for contradicting Catholic theology on a number of important points: "just for good measure Institoris forged a document granting their unanimous approbation." The book became the handbook for secular courts throughout Renaissance Europe, but was not used by the Inquisition, which "denied any authority to the Malleus" in the words of historian Wolfgang Behringer. In modern times, the book has been viewed as a typical inquisitorial manual, a perception that many historians have refuted. According to historian Jenny Gibbons:in the 1970s, when feminist and Neo-Pagan authors turned their attention to the witch trials, the Malleus Maleficarum was the only manual available in translation. Authors naively assumed that the book painted an accurate picture of how the Inquisition tried