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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Stanley Embankment

The Stanley Embankment is a railway and cycleway embankment that crosses the Cymyran Strait in Wales, connecting the Island of Anglesey and Holy Island. It carries both the North Wales Coast Line for trains, which runs from Crewe to Holyhead and the A5 road between London and Holyhead; the embankment was designed by, its construction overseen by, Thomas Telford and was named after the Stanley family who were significant benefactors to the area. Prior to its construction the fastest route to Holyhead from the island's mainland was via the old stone bridge at Four Mile Bridge; when the A5 road was being constructed between London and the Port of Holyhead a more direct route was needed. Construction started in 1822 and completed a year and is a total of 3⁄4 mile long, it is wider at the base than at the top. The embankment to Holy Island was constructed using rock and materials excavated from a site on the Anglesey side. A workers’ hamlet grew up around the artificially-created depression, nicknamed “the valley”.

After work ended, the settlement remained developing into a medium-sized village known as Valley. A year after opening, the embankment was damaged in a storm in 1824. In the 1840s, the embankment was chosen to carry the North Wales Coast Line to the Port of Holyhead. Work to widen the structure was completed in 1848. To allay concerns that passing trains might startle horse drawn traffic using the embankment, a tall stone dividing wall was built between the road and the railway; the embankment remained the only major crossing between Holy Island and Anglesey for more than 175 years. In 2001 it was superseded by a new wider embankment, built as part of the final section of the A55 North Wales Expressway; the section bypassed Valley and the old A5 at this point. The new crossing, which carries the modern A55 dual carriageway, was built parallel to the Stanley Embankment, following its north-south alignment

Macon's Bill Number 2

Macon's Bill Number 2, which became law in the United States on May 14, 1810, was intended to motivate Great Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during the Napoleonic Wars. This was a revision of the original bill by Representative Nathaniel Macon, known as Macon's Bill Number 1. Macon neither approved it; the law lifted all embargoes with France. It stated that if either one of the two countries ceased attacks upon American shipping, the United States would end trade with the other, unless that other country agreed to recognize the rights of the neutral American ships as well. Napoleon saw a chance to exploit the bill in order to further his Continental Plan, a form of economic warfare he believed would destroy Britain's economy. A message was sent to the United States, stating the rights of the American merchant ships as neutral carriers would be recognized. President James Madison, a staunch opponent of the bill, grudgingly accepted Napoleon's offer. However, Napoleon had no intention of following through on his promise, Madison soon realized this as well, ignoring the French promise.

The British were still offended by the agreement and threatened force, thus motivating Napoleon to withdraw altogether. Still, the damage had been done and soon the U. S. and Britain were entangled in the War of 1812 due to the continued harassment of American ships and escalated tensions between the United States and the nations of Europe. A general consensus among historians is that this bill was useless, as it was seen that the European economies played upon the weaknesses that the bill created; as a result, the bill's parameters were never enforced because of Madison's correct interpretation of France's deviation. Macon's Bill Number 2 responded to the ineffectiveness of the Non-Intercourse Act and the Embargo Act before it

Student Bill of Rights

A Student Bill Rights or Charter of Student Rights and Freedoms is a document adopted by a student group, university or college or government at a local, state or national level. It outlines a population's basic beliefs regarding student rights; these statements of belief are the foundation future legislative efforts or collaborative efforts to create joint statements between organizations. The European Students' Union, for example, uses their Student Rights Charter when lobbying for student rights in the European Union Higher Education Area as a document representing the student will; the historic National Student Association in the United States used their Student Bill of Rights to help create dialogue between the American Association of University Professors and to initiate the creation of a joint statement on student rights. This collaborative effort gave credence to the demands of students and helped normalize student rights on campuses across North America. While the United States Student Association does not have a student bill of rights of its own, it upholds the 1947 student bill of rights put forth by the National Student Association.

These documents tend to do several things. They can be statements of policy or law; when put forth by a student organization or third party organization they tend to be statements of belief because these organizations do not have the ability to enforce their beliefs. Though they are not binding they are important because they help policy and lawmakers understand what students expect and believe to be ethical treatment. At the institutional level they tend to be policy statements; these are binding as a promise from the institution to the students who attend and have been found in court to be considered to be part of the educational contract. At any level these documents provide students with an understanding of their civil or legal rights which are contained in legislation; these include rights pertinent to all citizens and to students in the educational setting and provide procedural rights to inform students how institutions should be respecting their legal rights. When used as a statement of belief, they include rights an organization feels students should have and the procedural rights institutions must follow to ensure these rights are fulfilled.

There are a number of student petitions calling for the creation of national student bills in various countries. While there have been some attempts to create subject specific student bills in the United States, like the Academic Bill of Rights, these have not been successful due for demand for a document, wider in scope and deals with students constitutional, civil and consumer rights. No country in North America has yet adopted a National Student Bill of Rights, Charter of Rights and Freedoms or Code of Rights and Responsibilities. In the United States there have been several national student bill of rights drafted by student organizations including the historic National Student Association and the American Association of University Professors and other non-governmantal organizations but as yet none have been institutionalized. In 1947 the National Student Association NSA in the United States adopted a student bill of rights; the text of this document is not accessible. In 1967, the NSA put forth a joint statement on the rights and freedoms of students with the American Association of University Professors AAUP.

This statement was endorsed by a number of professional organizations. This document included the following rights: Constitutional Rights Exercise of rights of citizenship Freedom of association Right to due processSpeech and Association Rights Student participation in institutional government Student publicationsDue Process Rights Standards for investigation of student conduct Investigation of student conduct Hearings for student conductClassroom Rights Protection of freedom of inquiry and expression Protection from improper academic evaluation Protection from improper student information disclosure The United States Student Association does not have an official student bill of rights; the USSA was formed when the historic NSA merged with the National Student Lobby NSL in 1978. They did not adopt the student bill of rights put forth in 1947, they text of this document is not on their website and cannot be found with a search of the internet. In 2003, Georgia Congressman Kingston proposed the first national student bill of rights, House Bill #318.

This bill, rejected in congress, was not an all encompassing student bill of rights but was narrowly defined to address academic freedom. It was the first attempt at the creation of national legislation; the congressman found that "at every American university, conservative professors are drastically outnumbered." This bill was intended to secure the intellectual freedom of students and faculty. It did not address whether teachers would have the freedom to determine all course goals, assignments, grading schemes and course timeline; these issues are of major importance because students in Europe are calling for rights which protect students from teachers having complete academic freedom in the classroom and which regulate them to ensure students have minimum educational quality standards. In the United States individual institutions have their own Student Bill of Rights, Charter of Rights and Freedoms or Code of Rights and Responsibilities. In elementary and secondary education these codes are drafted by school board officials with the input of parent or parent teacher associations.

In post secondary institutions these are drafted by the academic senate with the contributi

South Australia (song)

South Australia is a sea shanty known under such titles as "Rolling King" and "Bound for South Australia". As an original worksong it was sung in a variety of trades, including being used by the wool and the wheat traders who worked the clipper ships between Australian ports and London. In adapted form, it is now a popular song among folk music performers, recorded by many artists and is present in many of today's song books. Information on the age and practical use of the shanty is sparse. However, the evidence at hand does not suggest there is anything or locally "Australian" about the song, contrary to how it has become popularly envisioned since the late 20th century, it was first noted by sea music author L. A. Smith, who collected it "from a coloured seaman at the'Home'" in London and published it in her 1888 collection, The Music of the Waters. In the 1930s or 1940s, at Sailors' Snug Harbor, New York, shanty collector William Main Doerflinger recorded veteran sailor William Laurie of Greenock, who began a career in sailing ships in the late 1870s.

The one verse sung by Laurie was published, in Doerflinger's 1951 book. The shanty is not mentioned again until the 1900s. Patterson mentions a heaving chanty titled "Bound to Western Australia," and the veteran African-American sailor James H. Williams mentioned the song in a 1909 article; this shanty is not attested in writing again until Lydia Parrish's study of the music tradition of Georgia Sea Islanders, published in 1942. In 1946, J. T. Hatfield shared his recollections of a much earlier, 1886 voyage as a passenger traveling from Pensacola to Nice. During this voyage, Hatfield had noted the shanties sung by the crew, who were all Black men from Jamaica; this version, which includes both tune and text, includes the unusual phrase, "Hooray! You're a lanky!", which may have been a mishearing by Hatfield. Another remembered version comes in F. P. Harlow's Chanteying Aboard American Ships, in which the author recalls shanties sung aboard the ship Akbar on a trip from Massachusetts to Melbourne, Australia in 1876.

A crew mate "Dave" is said to have taught this to the crew while pumping at the windlass. As no references to the song put it any earlier than the mid-1870s, it may well be that the song was new at the time. Smith said it was a capstan chanty, as evidenced by the refrain which indicates, "Heave away! Heave away!" Parrish found that stevedores hauling heavy timber used the song with the chorus, "Haul away, I’m a rollin’ king." Like most shanties of this type, "South Australia" was sung to a flexible combination of customary verses, floating verses from within the general chanty repertoire, verses improvised in the moment or particular to individual singers. The song was of indefinite length, created by supplying solo verses to a two-part refrain followed by a grand chorus; the following is a sample after Stan Hugill: Oh South Australia is me home Heave away! Heave away! South Australia is me home An'. Heave away, heave away Oh heave away, you rolling king, We're bound for South Australia Solo verse couplets documented to have been sung to "South Australia" include the following from sailors of the 19th century.

I see my wife standing on the quay. I'll tell you the truth and I'll tell you no lie, and now I'm bound With a bottle of whisky in my hand. I'll drink a glass to the foreign shore And one to the girl that I adore. In the 1940s, "South Australia" became popular as a camp song, and by the second decade of the 20th century, it had been adopted by several college glee clubs. A different version of the song was published by Doerflinger in 1951. English folk revival singer A. L. Lloyd recorded the song, without citing a source, on the 1957 album "Blow Boys Blow." He used Doerflinger's melody and the phrase "hear me sing," which are unique to that collection, which Lloyd used for other shanties he performed. The Clancy Brothers recorded the song in 1962, in a version similar to A. L. Lloyd's. Patrick Clancy, one of the Clancy Brothers, had edited Lloyd's "Blow Boys Blow" album, released by Tradition Records, a label that Clancy managed; the Clancy Brothers rendered Lloyd's phrase "lollop around Cape Horn" as the unintelligible "wallop around Cape Horn."

The Clancy Brothers' version is the most common one sung by folk shanty performers. The song has been recorded many times in both modern arrangements. A traditional Morris Dance of the same name is performed from the style of Adderbury. A. L. Lloyd on his 1958 Australian album Across the Western Plains and on his 1960 UK album Outback Ballads A. L. Lloyd and Ewan MacColl on their 1957 album Blow Boys Blow The Clancy Brothers & Tommy Makem on their 1962 album The Boys Won't Leave The Girls Alone; the Seekers on their 1964 UK album, The Seekers Trevor Lucas on his 1966 Australian album Overlander The Corries on their album Live from Scotland Volume 4 Liam Clancy, Robbie O'Connell, Donal Clancy on the 1998 collection of shanties and sea songs and Wasteful Ocean The Poxy Boggards on their 2004 album Liver Let Die Nathan Carter on his 2013 Irish album Where I Wanna Be The Clumsy Lovers on their album Live! Do a rock charged version of the song as the first part of a medley with Let the Sunshine In.

The Pogues on their 1987 album If I Should Fall from Grace with God The Wiggles as "Bound for South Australia" on their 1992 album Here Comes A Song Churchfitters on their album New Tales for Old Chanticleer on their album Wondrous Love - A Folk Song Collection Gaelic Storm on their 1999 a

David Cushman

David Cushman was born in Indianapolis, Indiana. He married to Linda L. Kranch, they have two children together named Laura Cushman. Dr. Cushman was an American chemist who co-invented captopril, the first of the ACE inhibitors used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. With Miguel A. Ondetti, he won the 1999 Lasker Award for: "developing an innovative approach to drug design based on protein structure and using it to create the ACE inhibitors, powerful oral agents for the treatment of high blood pressure, heart failure, diabetic kidney disease." In high school Dr. Cushman didn’t have a drive or reason to succeed academically, until he found a class he enjoyed because of the teacher, he went on to Wabash College in Crawfordsville, Indiana where he majored in Zoology and minored in Chemistry. His tenacious attitude gave him the boost to get magna cum laude, he grew up poor. He stated that growing up poor is what made him strive for better, stating “being poor is a great stimulus for wanting to achieve something.”

After earning his Ph. D. in 1966 from the University of Illinois, Dr. Cushman joined the Squibb Institute for Medical Research, his and Dr. Ondetti's research began with the Brazilian pit viper, one of the world's deadliest snakes. Something in the venom inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme, which helps regulate blood pressure. At first the idea of this drug was controversial and many believed that the drug would be ineffective. There were multiple instincts. Despite that, Dr. Cushman, Dr. Ondetti paid no attention to them and continued their research. Dr. Cushman considered Zola Horovitz as a hero for is support. Dr. Cushman says captopril's significance from a basic research point of view is that it was developed through pure chemical design, he credits Dr. John Vane with suggesting angiotensin converting enzyme as a target for research at The Squibb Institute; as Dr. Ondetti put it in an interview, "Capoten was the first example of rational drug design based on a hypothetical biological mechanism."

Dr. Cushman and Dr. Ondetti were not expecting as much publicity from discovering the captopril drug or the importance of the drug it was in that field; the captopril became available to the public in 1982. An issue that occurred was, it was stated that the captopril is “an oral drug that reduces hypertension in more than eighty percent of users and has no side effects on the central or autonomic nervous systems.” Retired at 54 Dr. Cushman does many things in his free time like golfing and traveling around the world