Flood (They Might Be Giants album)
Flood is the third studio album by Brooklyn-based alternative rock duo They Might Be Giants, released in January 1990. Flood was the duo's first album on the major label Elektra Records, it generated three singles: "Birdhouse in Your Soul", "Istanbul", the domestic promotional track "Twisting". The album is considered to be the band's definitive release, as it is their best-selling and most recognizable album. Despite minimal stylistic and instrumental differences from previous releases, Flood is distinguished by contributions from seasoned producers Clive Langer and Alan Winstanley. John Linnell and John Flansburgh took advantage of new equipment and recording techniques, including unconventional, home-recorded samples, which were programmed through Casio FZ-1 synthesizers; the album was recorded in New York City at Skyline Studios, better equipped than studios the band had worked in previously. Promotion for Flood included television appearances, promotional videos, an international tour; the album's mainstream promotion and success contributed to its status as the band's most well known album.
Many fans, including young viewers of Tiny Toon Adventures, were first exposed to They Might Be Giants's music through Flood. The album was issued on CD, LP, cassette. Upon its release, Flood was met with praise from critics and achieved moderate success on sales charts. In 2013, the album was reissued as part of a CD series spanning They Might Be Giants' four Elektra releases. In 2014, it was reissued on LP in Europe by Music On Vinyl and in the United States by Asbestos Records for Record Store Day and Black Friday, it was reissued again on LP in 2015 on the band's label, Idlewild Recordings. Flood was They Might Be Giants' first release on any major label. Elektra Records approached the band following the unexpected success of their second album, released on the independent Bar/None label; the record deal that Elektra presented was due to the work of Susan Drew, an A&R worker, following the band since 1986. Because of her confidence, the band was given an extensive level of creative control over their projects, in addition to the ability to take advantage of the label's strategies and resources.
Although They Might Be Giants recorded the album as a duo, they were joined by many guest musicians on brass and string instruments. The band enlisted Alan Bezozi to help program some of the drums for the album; the album was recorded at Skyline Studios in New York City. Skyline was only a few blocks away from the Public Access Synthesizer Studio, where the band had recorded their previous albums. Alan Bezozi and John Flansburgh worked together to create atypical drum tracks, including one that samples the sound of Flansburgh's kitchen sink and refrigerator being struck with a drum stick. An Alesis SR-16 drum machine was used to program the drums. Two-thirds of the album's budget was exhausted for the production of four songs: "Birdhouse in Your Soul", "Your Racist Friend", "We Want a Rock", "Istanbul"; these four tracks were produced by Alan Winstanley. Like many of They Might Be Giants' early releases, Flood features a range of stylistic eclecticism; the press release for the album notes the "rock rave-up'Twisting'... the inflected'Lucky Ball & Chain'... the existential oom-pah of'Particle Man'", "tender night-light metaphor and melody" of the lead single, "Birdhouse in Your Soul".
Jon Pareles wrote for The New York Times that the album "shrug off most typecasting". He added that through releases like Flood, They Might Be Giants and a new wave of alternative musicians were gainsaying the standard practice of sticking to only one genre. Regardless of the genre employed, They Might Be Giants are noted for unconventional lyrics, characterized by "bizarre" cleverness. Flood includes abundant examples of this style, manifested in unusual subject matter, unreliable narrators, wordplay. However, John Linnell and Flansburgh took care to avoid using humor excessively, acknowledging the requirement that recorded music withstand repeated listens without losing value. Linnell has pointed out; this stresses into each line. Linnell's melodies are based around scales. DX Ferris, with commentary from John Linnell and John Flansburgh, outlined each individual track from Flood in a retrospective article published in Rolling Stone."Theme From Flood" acts as a tongue-in-cheek introduction to the album.
The bombastic song is regarded by scholars Elizabeth Sandifer and Alex Reed to be one of the first in a recurring trend of processional tunes composed by John Linnell. The "Theme" is followed by the album's lead single, "Birdhouse in Your Soul". Although the melody for "Birdhouse" was written years prior to the lyrics, the lyrics were "shoehorned in to match the melody", according to Linnell; the narrative is given from the point of view of a child's nightlight. According to John Linnell, the song was "wrecked" when he attempted to underscore it with a more dramatic drum track. Producers Winstanley and Langer opposed the drum track was scrapped. Linnell speculates that had this not been the case, the entire album may have been different—and far less exceptional. Reed and Sandifer note that the song makes an unanticipated jump from the key of C major to E-flat major, back to C major; this may be a product of the album's digital composition and production. The track's shifts to F-sharp minor and A major lead to the d
Doolittle is the second studio album by American alternative rock band Pixies, released in April 1989 on 4AD. The album's offbeat and dark subject material, featuring references to surrealism, Biblical violence and death, contrasts with the clean production sound achieved by the newly hired producer Gil Norton. Doolittle was the Pixies' first international release, with Elektra Records as the album's distributor in the United States and PolyGram in Canada. Pixies released two singles from Doolittle, "Here Comes Your Man" and "Monkey Gone to Heaven", both of which were chart successes on the US chart for Modern Rock Tracks; the album itself reached number eight on an unexpected success for the band. In retrospect, album tracks such as "Debaser", "Wave of Mutilation", "Monkey Gone to Heaven", "Gouge Away", "Hey" are acclaimed by critics, while the album, along with debut LP Surfer Rosa, is seen as the band's strongest work. Doolittle has continued to sell well in the years since its release, in 1995 was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America.
The album has been cited as inspirational by many alternative artists, while numerous music publications have ranked it as one of the most influential albums ever. A 2003 poll of NME writers ranked Doolittle as the second-greatest album of all time, Rolling Stone placed the album at 227 on its list of "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time" and Pitchfork ranked it as the fourth best album of the 80s. Following their regarded but commercially unsuccessful 1988 album Surfer Rosa, the band embarked on a European tour with fellow Bostonians Throwing Muses, before beginning a tour of North American states. During this time Black Francis, the group's frontman and principal songwriter, began to write new material for a future album, with songs such as "Dead", "Hey", "Tame", "There Goes My Gun" emerging through the course of the year. Versions of the newly composed songs were recorded during several sessions for John Peel's radio show in 1988, while a live recording of "Hey" appeared on a free EP circulated with a 1988 edition of Sounds.
In mid-1988, the Pixies began to record demo sessions while on breaks from touring. The band headed to the Boston recording studio Eden Sound, which at the time comprised a small room in the basement of a hair salon, they recorded at the studio for a week, in circumstances similar to the previous year's the Purple Tape sessions. Francis gave the demo tape and upcoming album the provisional title of Whore, though he claimed his natural father had suggested the name. Francis has clarified that he was thinking of the word "in the more traditional sense... the operatic, biblical sense... as in the great whore of Babylon". After completing the demo tape, band manager Ken Goes suggested two producers for the album; the band had worked with Norton while recording the single version of "Gigantic" in May 1988. Francis had no preference, although Ivo Watts-Russell, head of the band's label 4AD, wanted Norton to produce the Pixies' next album, he was hired as producer, with Stasium not approached for the position.
Norton arrived in Boston on October 31, 1988, first visited Francis' apartment to review the album's demos. The two talked about arrangements, spent two days intensively analyzing the album's songs. Norton learned to gauge Francis' reaction to changing arrangements, observed that the frontman "doesn't like to do anything twice". Norton spent a further two weeks in pre-production to familiarise himself with the Pixies' sound. Recording sessions for the album began on October 31, 1988, at Downtown Recorders in Boston, Massachusetts, at the time a professional 24-track studio. 4AD allowed the Pixies a budget of $40,000, excluding producer's fees. This was a modest sum for a 1980s major label album. Along with Norton, two assistant recording engineers and two second assistants were assigned to the project; the sessions lasted three weeks, concluding on November 23, with "nearly a song a day" being recorded. Production and mixing began on November 28; the band relocated to Carriage House Studios, a residential studio in Stamford, Connecticut, to oversee production and record further tracks.
Norton recruited Steve Haigler as mixing engineer. During production and Norton added layers of guitars and vocals to songs, including overdubbed guitars on "Debaser" and double tracking vocals on "Wave of Mutilation". During the recordings, Norton advised Francis to alter several songs. However, at Norton's advice, Francis slowed down the tempo. Norton's suggestions were not always welcome, several instances of advice to add verses and increase track length contributed to the front man's building frustration. Francis took Norton to a record store, where he handed him a copy of Buddy Holly's Greatest Hits, in which most of the songs are about two minutes long, he told Norton, "If it's good enough for Buddy Holly..." In a Rolling Stone interview, Francis recalled that "this record is him trying to make us, shall I say, us trying to remain somewhat grungy". Production continued until December 12, 1988, with Norton and Haigler adding extra effects, including gated reverb to the mix; the master tapes were sent for final post-production that month.
Doolittle features an eclectic mix of musical styles. While tracks such as "Tame" and "Crackity Jones" are fast and aggressive, incorporate the band's trademark loud–quiet dynamic, other songs such as "Silver"
Per Yngve Ohlin, better known by his stage name Dead, was a Swedish black metal musician, best known as the lead vocalist and lyricist of the Norwegian black metal band Mayhem from 1988 until his death in 1991. He performed as vocalist of the Swedish death metal band Morbid on their demo December Moon. Dead was a popular figure of the Norwegian black metal scene. Roadrunner Records ranked him No. 48 out of 50 of The Greatest Metal Front-Men of All Time. Dead died on 8 April 1991 by slitting his wrists and throat before shooting himself in the forehead with a shotgun, he left a brief suicide note, with the first sentence on the note being: "Excuse the blood". His band mate Euronymous took a picture of Dead's corpse and made it into a cover for the album Dawn of the Black Hearts, his death marked a turning point in the history of the black metal scene which led to a wave of erratic behavior by the scene's members. Per Ohlin was born in 1969 in Sweden; as a young child, he suffered from sleep apnea.
At the age of ten, he suffered internal bleeding when his spleen ruptured, after what he alleged was an ice skating accident. In the Swedish metal book Blod eld död however, his brother said in an exclusive interview that Dead was bullied in school and one day the beatings got out of hand causing the ruptured spleen, he had to be rushed to a hospital. He developed his taste for heavy music, citing bands like Black Sabbath, Iron Maiden, Judas Priest, AC/DC, Motörhead, Venom and Mercyful Fate as his favorites. In early 1986, he founded the Swedish Black/Death metal group Morbid, with which he recorded a demo tape called December Moon. Shortly afterwards, he decided the band contacted the members of Mayhem. According to Mayhem bassist Jørn'Necrobutcher' Stubberud, he sent them a small package containing a demo tape, a letter detailing his ideas for the future, a crucified mouse. Although Necrobutcher lost the package itself, he kept the tape. Dead moved to Norway and joined the band in early 1988.
In interviews, fellow musicians described Dead as odd and introverted. Mayhem drummer Jan Axel'Hellhammer' Blomberg described Dead as "a strange personality depressed and dark". Mayhem guitarist Øystein'Euronymous' Aarseth once said: "I think Dead is mentally insane. Which other way can you describe a guy who does not eat, in order to get starving wounds? Or who has a T-shirt with funeral announcements on it?" Former Mayhem drummer Kjetil Manheim likened Dead's personality to that of Marvin the Paranoid Android. According to Emperor drummer Bård'Faust' Eithun: wasn't a guy you could know well. I think the other guys in Mayhem didn't know him well, he was hard to get close to. I met him two weeks. I'd met him maybe six to eight times, in all, he had lots of weird ideas. I remember Aarseth said he did not have any humor, he did, but it was obscure. I don't think he was enjoying living in this world, which of course resulted in the suicide; the cover of Mayhem's Live in Leipzig contains part of Dead's suicide note: Jag är inte en människa.
Det här är bara en dröm, och snart vaknar jag.. For concerts, Dead went to great lengths to achieve the atmosphere he wished. From the beginning of his career, he was known to wear "corpse paint", which involved covering his face with black and white makeup. According to Necrobutcher, "t wasn't anything to do with the way Kiss and Alice Cooper used makeup. Dead wanted to look like a corpse, he didn't do it to look cool". Hellhammer claimed that Dead "was the first black metal musician to use corpse paint". To complete his corpse-like image, Dead would bury his stage clothes and dig them up again to wear on the night of a concert. According to Hellhammer: Before the shows, Dead used to bury his clothes into the ground so that they could start to rot and get that grave scent, he was a corpse on a stage. Once he asked us to bury him in the ground — he wanted his skin to become pale. During one tour with Mayhem, he kept it in a plastic bag, he carried it about with him and would smell the bird before going onstage, to sing "with the stench of death in his nostrils".
He kept dead geese under his bed. Dead would cut himself while singing onstage. During a gig in 1990, he slashed his arm with a broken bottle. Faust claims that Dead had to be taken to hospital after the gig, but arrived too late and so "it was no use to give him stitches". In an interview done by Marduk guitarist Morgan'Evil' Håkansson and published in Slayer fanzine, Dead explained how he and the band tried to weed out poseurs at their concerts:Before we began to play there was a crowd of about 300 in there, but in the second song'Necro Lust' we began to throw around those pig heads. Only 50 were left. I liked that! We wanna scare those shouldn't be at our concerts and they will have to escape through the emergency exit with parts of their body missing, so we can have something to throw around. If someone doesn't like blood and rotten flesh thrown in their face they can FUCK OFF, that's what they do. Dead makes a brief appearance in the Candlemass music video "Bewitched". In time, Dead's social situation and his fascination with death caused his mental state to worsen greatly.
He would try to cut himself while with his friends, who would have to patch him up. Although this upset many of his fr
Law & Order: Criminal Intent (season 2)
The second season of Law & Order: Criminal Intent premiered September 29, 2002 and ended May 18, 2003 on NBC. Law & Order: Criminal Intent was renewed a second season in May 2002 and production began in Summer 2002. Show runner/executive producer René Balcer became head writer this season, writing every episode of the season. Peter Jankowski was promoted to executive producer this season. Co-executive producers this season were Fred Berner, Arthur W. Forney, Theresa Rebeck with John L. Roman and Michael Kewley serving as producers. Supervising producers were Marlane Gomard Meyer. Original Law & Order writer and co-executive producer at the time, Michael S. Chernuchin was consulting producer and Tim DeLuca as associate producer. Mary Rae Thewlis became co-producer starting with the 6th episode, "Malignant". Warren Leight, who became co-executive producer and show runner/executive producer, began as a producer with the 10th episode, "Con-Text". Balcer hired Leight from a recommendation by Theresa Rebeck.
Vincent D'Onofrio as Detective Robert Goren Kathryn Erbe as Detective Alexandra Eames Jamey Sheridan as Captain James Deakins Courtney B. Vance as ADA Ron Carver Leslie Hendrix as Chief Medical Examiner Elizabeth Rodgers Jay O. Sanders as Harry Rowan Jim Gaffigan as Russell Matthews Tim Guinee as David Bishop Liam Aiken as Robbie Bishop Lisa Eichhorn as Dr. Leonard Olivia d'Abo as Nicole Wallace / Elizabeth Hitchens Linda Emond as Dr. Christine Fellowes Peter Gerety as George Dawkins Daniel London as Mark Bayley Reg E. Cathey as Professor Roland Sanders David Marshall Grant as Assistant District Attorney Peter Bonham Susan Floyd as Attorney Linda Bonham Peter Frechette as Stuart Gaston Frank Wood as George Weems Kim Chan as Mr. Hsu Elizabeth Wilson as Lucille Mobray Stephen Tobolowsky as Jim Halliwell Paul Wesley as Luke Miller Deirdre Lovejoy as Penny Halliwell Tammy Blanchard as Sarah Eldon Merritt Wever as Hannah Price Rider Strong as Ethan Edwards Linda Lavin as Ursula Sussman Ned Eisenberg as Danny Sussman John Benjamin Hickey as Randall Fuller Mark Blum as Dr. Philip Oliver Karen Black as Vera Morgan Lee Tergesen as Keith Ramsey Amy Ryan as Julie Turner Hal Linden as Mr. Turner Christopher Welch as Dr. Thomas Dysart Victor Argo as Mr. Garcia Mark Linn-Baker as Wally Stevens Matthew Arkin as Ben Gergis Ken Cheeseman as Leo Gergis Isabel Glasser as Elaine Gergis Lance Reddick as Jack Bernard Adam Storke as Mark Dietrich Mike Starr as Ted Marston Joel Grey as Milt Winters Josef Sommer as Spencer Durning Paul Calderon as Jojo Rios Dennis Christopher as Roger Coffman Paul Dooley as Stan Coffman William Sadler as Kyle Devlin James McCaffrey as Daniel Croydon
Disgusting is the debut album by American hardcore punk band Beartooth. It was released on June 2014 through Red Bull Records and UNFD Records; the single "Beaten In Lips" was released on May 2014 along with the pre-order for the album. This album was released a year after the band's debut EP Sick was released. Before the announcement, the band toured with metalcore band Of Mice & Men in the UK, played a headline show in London on April 17, 2014; the album was announced by the band a month prior to its release on May 13 and stated that the album would be released on June 10 through Red Bull Records. The recording process, according to Shomo, was smooth since he has a studio in his house, would write songs whenever he was bored or couldn't sleep in the middle of the night. In an interview with the lead singer, Shomo, he explained that the album was written to "...get my head on straight. I’m not trying to write songs to change the world," and went on to say that "This band is just me being honest with myself.
I put in a whole lot of effort and time and more honesty and emotion than I’ve put into a record. I’m super-excited for people to hear that and for people to understand where I’ve been in the last year." He continued to say that he was writing these lyrics while he was in a miserable state during his time with his former band Attack Attack! and that Beartooth was his means of escapism and therapy. The title of the album was encouraged by how he felt when he wrote the record, stating he was in a "dark place"; the lyrics themselves seek to convey strong messages: "Beaten in Lips" for example tackles the topic of child abuse, encouraging victims to “keep living loud and proud”, while "Relapsing" deals with alcoholism, an issue Shomo has publicly commented on before. Many listeners and reviewers believed at first that "I Have a Problem" was about alcoholism. However, during an interview on Silverstein vocalist Shane Told's podcast "Lead Singer Syndrome", Shomo stated that "I Have a Problem" is about him quitting Attack Attack!.
Shomo went on to say that he wrote the song the day before his departure from the band and that it was the second Beartooth song he had written. The first new track to be heard from the album was'Dead' on April 30 as it was released with a live music video; as the band announced the album on May 13, the band released a music video for the album's first official single'Beaten In Lips', released on that day, along with the album made available for pre-orders. The single was featured in an article by Altpress titled'2 Songs You Need To Hear Before May 2014 Ends', promoting the band and the album. After the announcement, they started to stream each individual song on YouTube in order to promote the album's final release, with the entire album available by June 9, a day before the album's release. RollingStone issued out an online article titled'10 New Artists You Need to Know: June 2014', of which Beartooth where mentioned with a statement saying; the final video released from the album was for the song "Body Bag" in celebration for 2015.
On December 2, 2015 the album was released in Japan and included three new bonus tracks, including a live cover of Ramones song Blitzkrieg Bop. On December 25, the band released a deluxe edition containing the Japanese bonus tracks and an alternate version of "The Lines" labeled as "Low Gain Mix"; the band released another b-side called "Sick of It All" for free as part of the Red Bull: 20 before 16. Many have cited the album's significant thrash metal influence, to the point that multiple tracks have been described as punk thrash The album was met with a positive response from critics. Scott Heisel from Altpress stated that the band's sound is nothing like Shomo's previous band Attack Attack!. The album is praised for having double-time passages, straightforward verses and plenty of breakdowns. Justin Mabee of HM magazine expressed that the intensity of this album surpasses that from their EP, stating that "...even “I Have a Problem,” with the double kick furious in your ears, is tighter than before.", labeling the album having a mixture of thrash and hardcore music and praising Shomo's ability to create catchy chorus', great guitar riffs and how deep and meaningful the lyrics are.
Rocksound reviewer David McLaughlin applauded Shomo's instinctive and not stylised screams and complimented the lyrics, stating that they "...are like bloodstained diary entries." And went on to say that it was Shomo's best work he has created so far. The Review from Ultimate Guitar has so far given the album its lowest rating of 5/10, expressing that despite it avoiding the overly-chuggy riffs and throwing away the cheesy synths that Attack Attack! used, it still isn't all that different as it sticks to a metalcore formula, although further expressing that it is better in comparison. In the United States, the album first entered the Billboard 200 at No. 48, the Rock Albums chart at No. 19, selling around 8,000 copies in its first week. The album has sold 63,000 copies in the US as of May 2016. All songs composed by Caleb Shomo except where noted. ^ I "Finish Line" and "Give It Up" are two of the three known b-sides recorded during the original sessions for Beartooth's debut album Disgusting, the third being "Sick of It All"
Death is the permanent cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. Phenomena which bring about death include aging, malnutrition, suicide, starvation and accidents or major trauma resulting in terminal injury. In most cases, bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death. Death – the death of humans – has been considered a sad or unpleasant occasion, due to the affection for the being that has died and the termination of social and familial bonds with the deceased. Other concerns include fear of death, anxiety, grief, emotional pain, sympathy, solitude, or saudade. Many cultures and religions have the idea of an afterlife, hold the idea of reward or judgement and punishment for past sin; the word death comes from Old English dēaþ. This comes from the Proto-Indo-European stem *dheu- meaning the "process, condition of dying"; the concept and symptoms of death, varying degrees of delicacy used in discussion in public forums, have generated numerous scientific and acceptable terms or euphemisms for death.
When a person has died, it is said they have passed away, passed on, expired, or are gone, among numerous other accepted, religiously specific and irreverent terms. Bereft of life, the dead person is a corpse, cadaver, a body, a set of remains, when all flesh has rotted away, a skeleton; the terms carrion and carcass can be used, though these more connote the remains of non-human animals. As a polite reference to a dead person, it has become common practice to use the participle form of "decease", as in the deceased; the ashes left after a cremation are sometimes referred to by the neologism cremains, a portmanteau of "cremation" and "remains". Senescence refers to a scenario when a living being is able to survive all calamities, but dies due to causes relating to old age. Animal and plant cells reproduce and function during the whole period of natural existence, but the aging process derives from deterioration of cellular activity and ruination of regular functioning. Aptitude of cells for gradual deterioration and mortality means that cells are sentenced to stable and long-term loss of living capacities despite continuing metabolic reactions and viability.
In the United Kingdom, for example, nine out of ten of all the deaths that occur on a daily basis relates to senescence, while around the world it accounts for two-thirds of 150,000 deaths that take place daily. All animals who survive external hazards to their biological functioning die from biological aging, known in life sciences as "senescence"; some organisms experience negligible senescence exhibiting biological immortality. These include the jellyfish Turritopsis dohrnii, the hydra, the planarian. Unnatural causes of death include homicide. From all causes 150,000 people die around the world each day. Of these, two thirds die directly or indirectly due to senescence, but in industrialized countries – such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany – the rate approaches 90%. Physiological death is now seen as a process, more than an event: conditions once considered indicative of death are now reversible. Where in the process a dividing line is drawn between life and death depends on factors beyond the presence or absence of vital signs.
In general, clinical death is neither sufficient for a determination of legal death. A patient with working heart and lungs determined to be brain dead can be pronounced dead without clinical death occurring; as scientific knowledge and medicine advance, formulating a precise medical definition of death becomes more difficult. Signs of death or strong indications that a warm-blooded animal is no longer alive are: Respiratory arrest Cardiac arrest Brain death Pallor mortis, paleness which happens in the 15–120 minutes after death Algor mortis, the reduction in body temperature following death; this is a steady decline until matching ambient temperature Rigor mortis, the limbs of the corpse become stiff and difficult to move or manipulate Livor mortis, a settling of the blood in the lower portion of the body Decomposition, the reduction into simpler forms of matter, accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor. The concept of death is a key to human understanding of the phenomenon. There are many scientific approaches to the concept.
For example, brain death, as practiced in medical science, defines death as a point in time at which brain activity ceases. One of the challenges in defining death is in distinguishing it from life; as a point in time, death would seem to refer to the moment. Determining when death has occurred is difficult, as cessation of life functions is not simultaneous across organ systems; such determination therefore requires drawing precise conceptual boundaries between death. This is due to there being little consensus on how to define life; this general problem applies to the particular challenge of defining death in the context of medicine. It is possible to define life in terms of consciousness; when consciousness ceases, a living organism can be said to have died. One of the flaws in this approach is that there are many organisms which are alive but not conscious. Another problem is in defining consciousness, which has many different d
The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in Palo Alto, California. Ranging from quintet to septet, the band is known for its eclectic style, which fused elements of rock, country, blues, modal jazz, experimental music and space rock, for live performances of lengthy instrumental jams, for their devoted fan base, known as "Deadheads". "Their music", writes Lenny Kaye, "touches on ground that most other groups don't know exists". These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world"; the band was ranked 57th by Rolling Stone magazine in its The Greatest Artists of All Time issue. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994 and a recording of their May 8, 1977, performance at Cornell University's Barton Hall was added to the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress in 2012; the Grateful Dead have sold more than 35 million albums worldwide. The Grateful Dead was founded in the San Francisco Bay Area amid the rise of the counterculture of the 1960s.
The founding members were Jerry Garcia, Bob Weir, Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, Phil Lesh, Bill Kreutzmann. Members of the Grateful Dead had played together in various San Francisco bands, including Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions and the Warlocks. Lesh was the last member to join the Warlocks. Drummer Mickey Hart and non-performing lyricist Robert Hunter joined in 1967. With the exception of McKernan, who died in 1973, Hart, who took time off from 1971 to 1974, the core of the band stayed together for its entire 30-year history; the other official members of the band are Tom Constanten, John Perry Barlow, Keith Godchaux, Donna Godchaux, Brent Mydland, Vince Welnick. Bruce Hornsby was a touring member from 1990 to 1992, as well as a guest with the band on occasion before and after the tours. After the death of Garcia in 1995, former members of the band, along with other musicians, toured as the Other Ones in 1998, 2000, 2002, the Dead in 2003, 2004, 2009. In 2015, the four surviving core members marked the band's 50th anniversary in a series of concerts that were billed as their last performances together.
There have been several spin-offs featuring one or more core members, such as Dead & Company, the Rhythm Devils, Phil Lesh and Friends, RatDog, Billy & the Kids. The Grateful Dead began their career as the Warlocks, a group formed in early 1965 from the remnants of a Palo Alto, California jug band called Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions; the band's first show was at Magoo's Pizza located at 639 Santa Cruz Avenue in suburban Menlo Park, on May 5, 1965. They continued playing bar shows as the Warlocks, but changed its name after finding out that the Velvet Underground had put out a record under the same name; the first show under the name Grateful Dead was in San Jose on December 4, 1965, at one of Ken Kesey's Acid Tests. Earlier demo tapes have survived, but the first of over 2,000 concerts known to have been recorded by the band's fans was a show at the Fillmore Auditorium in San Francisco on January 8, 1966; that month, the Grateful Dead played at the Trips Festival, an early psychedelic rock concert.
The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen from a dictionary. According to Phil Lesh, in his autobiography, "... picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary...... In that silvery elf-voice he said to me,'Hey, how about the Grateful Dead?'" The definition there was "the soul of a dead person, or his angel, showing gratitude to someone who, as an act of charity, arranged their burial". According to Alan Trist, director of the Grateful Dead's music publisher company Ice Nine, Garcia found the name in the Funk & Wagnalls Folklore Dictionary, when his finger landed on that phrase while playing a game of Fictionary. In the Garcia biography, Captain Trips, author Sandy Troy states that the band was smoking the psychedelic DMT at the time; the term "grateful dead" appears in folktales of a variety of cultures. Other supporting personnel who signed on early included Rock Scully, who heard of the band from Kesey and signed on as manager after meeting them at the Big Beat Acid Test. "We were living off of Owsley's good graces at that time....
Trip was he wanted to design equipment for us, we were going to have to be in sort of a lab situation for him to do it", said Garcia. One of the group's earliest major performances in 1967 was the Mantra-Rock Dance—a musical event held on January 29, 1967, at the Avalon Ballroom by the San Francisco Hare Krishna temple; the Grateful Dead performed at the event along with the Hare Krishna founder Bhaktivedanta Swami, poet Allen Ginsberg, bands Moby Grape and Big Brother and the Holding Company with Janis Joplin, donating proceeds to the Krishna temple. The band's first LP, The Grateful Dead, was released on Warner Brothers in 1967. Classically trained trumpeter Phil Lesh performed on bass guitar. Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played r