The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Stu Phillips (composer)
Stuart Phillips is an American composer of film scores and television-series theme music and record producer. He is best known for composing the themes to the television series Knight Rider and Battlestar Galactica. Phillips studied music at The High School of Music & Art in New York City, New York, at the Eastman School of Music in Rochester, New York. While at Eastman, he began arranging music for the Rochester Civic Orchestra. In 1958, Phillips began composing film scores. One of his first scores was for Columbia's 1964 movie, he founded Colpix Records and produced hits for Nina Simone, The Skyliners and Shelley Fabares. Stu Phillips produced "Johnny Angel" for Shelly Fabares, who played the teen-age daughter on The Donna Reed Show. According to Joel Whitburn's'Billboard Book of Top 40 Hits' "Johnny Angel" was released March 17, 1962 and was a #1 hit from April 7–20, 1962 staying on the charts for 13 weeks. There was a follow-up hit to "Johnny Angel" called "Johnny Loves Me" which made the Top 40 in July of'62.
In the mid-1960s, he worked for Capitol Records and created and arranged for the Hollyridge Strings. Excerpts from The Beatles Song Book can be heard in the 1964 Capitol documentary album The Beatles' Story. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Phillips continued scoring films and television series including music for the films Beyond the Valley of the Dolls, The Seven Minutes and the television series The Monkees and Get Christie Love!. In 1974, he began working at Universal Studios scoring television series. During this time, he scored music for the television series The Six Million Dollar Man, McCloud, Battlestar Galactica, his Battlestar Galactica theme was featured prominently in the film Airplane II: The Sequel. He composed music for the television series The Amazing Spider-Man during this time. In the 1980s, Phillips left Universal and began working at 20th Century Fox, again being a favorite composer of Glen Larson, where he composed music for the television series The Fall Guy and Automan.
Both programs were Larson productions. Phillips went into semi-retirement in the 1990s at his home in California. Since that time, he has appeared at fan conventions for Battlestar Galactica and has attended cult-film screenings for Beyond the Valley of the Dolls. In 2002, Phillips published his autobiography Stu Who?: Forty Years of Navigating the Minefields of the Music Business. In 2006, he participated in a documentary film featured on the special edition DVD re-release of Beyond the Valley of the Dolls. Long a "serious" musician, Phillips has orchestrated pieces by Ludwig van Beethoven and Sergei Rachmaninoff for symphony orchestra. Phillips can be heard on FaLaLaLaLa.com discussing the history of The Hollyridge Strings's Christmas album, which it released in 2008. Grammy Award Nominated: 1964 Best Instrumental Performance - Non Jazz, The Beatles Song Book Nominated: 1979 Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture or a Television Special, Battlestar GalacticaBMI Film & TV Awards Won: 2005 Best Ringtone, Knight Rider Phillips, Stu.
2002. Stu Who?: Forty Years of Navigating the Minefields of the Music Business. Studio City, California. Cisum Press. ISBN 978-0-9720363-3-7 stuwho.com, official website Stu Phillips on IMDb
Los Angeles Police Department
The Los Angeles Police Department the City of Los Angeles Police Department, is the police department of Los Angeles, California. With 9,988 officers and 2,869 civilian staff, it is the third-largest municipal police department in the United States, after the Chicago Police Department and the New York City Police Department; the department operates in a population of 4,030,904 people. The LAPD has been fictionalized in numerous films and television shows throughout its history; the department has been associated with a number of controversies concerned with racism, police brutality, police corruption. The first specific Los Angeles police force was founded in 1853, as the Los Angeles Rangers, a volunteer force that assisted the existing County forces; the Rangers were soon succeeded by another volunteer group. Neither force was efficient and Los Angeles became known for its violence and vice; the first paid force was created in 1869, when six officers were hired to serve under City Marshal William C. Warren.
By 1900, under John M. Glass, there were one for every 1,500 people. In 1903, with the start of the Civil Service, this force was increased to 200; the CBS radio show Calling All Cars hired LAPD radio dispacher Jesse Rosenquist to be the voice of the dispatcher. Rosenquist was famous because home radios could tune in to early police radio frequencies; as the first police radio dispatcher presented to the public ear, he was the voice that actors went to when called upon for a radio dispatcher role. During World War II, under Clemence B. Horrall, the overall number of personnel was depleted by the demands of the military. Despite efforts to maintain numbers, the police could do little to control the 1943 Zoot Suit Riots. Horrall was replaced by retired United States Marine Corps general William A. Worton, who acted as interim chief until 1950, when William H. Parker succeeded him and would serve until his death in 1966. Parker advocated police autonomy from civilian administration. However, the Bloody Christmas scandal in 1951 led to calls for civilian accountability and an end to alleged police brutality.
The iconic television series Dragnet, with LAPD Detective Joe Friday as the primary character, was the first major media representation of the department. Real LAPD operations inspired Jack Webb to create the series and close cooperation with department officers let him make it as realistic as possible, including authentic police equipment and sound recording on-site at the police station. Due to Dragnet's popularity, LAPD Chief Parker "became after J. Edgar Hoover, the most well known and respected law enforcement official in the nation" at that time. In the 1960s, when the LAPD under Chief Thomas Reddin expanded its community relations division and began efforts to reach out to the African-American community, Dragnet followed suit with more emphasis on internal affairs and community policing than solving crimes, the show's previous mainstay. Under Parker, LAPD created the first SWAT team in United States law enforcement. Officer John Nelson and then-Inspector Daryl Gates created the program in 1965 to deal with threats from radical organizations such as the Black Panther Party operating during the Vietnam War era.
The old headquarters for the LAPD was Parker Center, named after former chief William H. Parker, which still stands at 150 N. Los Angeles St; the new headquarters is 300 yards west in the purpose built Police Administration Building located at 100 W. 1st St. south of Los Angeles City Hall, which opened in October 2009. The Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners known as the Police Commission, is a five-member body of appointed officials which oversees the LAPD; the board is responsible for setting policies for the department and overseeing the LAPD's overall management and operations. The Chief of Police reports to the board; the Office of the Inspector General is an independent part of the LAPD that has oversight over the department's internal disciplinary process and reviewing complaints of officer misconduct. It was created by the recommendation of the Christopher Commission and it is exempt from civil service and reports directly to the Board of Police Commissioners; the current Inspector General is Mark P. Smith, the Constitutional Policing Advisor for the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department.
The OIG receives copies of every complaint filed against members of the LAPD as well as tracking specific cases along with any resultant litigation. The OIG conducts audits on select investigations and conducts regular reviews of the disciplinary system in order to ensure fairness and equality; as well as overseeing the LAPD's disciplinary process, the Inspector General may undertake special investigations as directed by the Board of Police Commissioners. The Office of the Chief of Police has the responsibility for assisting the Chief of Police in the administration of the department; the Chief of Staff is responsible for coordinating the flow of information from command staff to ensure that the Chief is informed prior to making decisions and coordinating special administrative audits and investigations, assisting and submitting recommendations to the Chief of Police in matters involving employee relations. The Office of the Chief of Staff is composed of the Board of Police Commissioners Liaison, the Public Communications Group, the Media Relations Division, the Employee Relations Group.
The Director of the Office of Constitutional Policing and Policy Police Administrator III Arif Alikhan reports directl
Marian McCargo Bell was an American actress and champion tennis player who found success in film and television roles. She was sometimes credited as Marian Moses. Born in Pittsburgh, McCargo attended Boston's West Hills College. In 1951, she married Richard Cantrell Moses, who became an advertising executive in Los Angeles, they had four sons: actors William R. Moses, they were divorced in 1963. McCargo first entered acting as a supporting player on such popular television shows as Perry Mason Her other television show appearances included: Hawaii Five-O, Hogan's Heroes, Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, Gomer Pyle, USMC, The Man from U. N. C. L. E.. McCargo made her feature film debut in the crime comedy Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round in 1966, the debut film of Harrison Ford. Subsequent film roles included: Buona Sera, Mrs. Campbell in 1968. McCargo became known for her television role as Harriet Roberts on the nighttime soap, Falcon Crest. In 1970, McCargo married U. S. Congressman Alphonzo E. Bell Jr. of California, a widower with three sons of his own.
They had met while she was starring with John Wayne in The Undefeated, Wayne being a close personal friend of Bell's. She retired from acting to become a political wife. Using the married name Marian McCargo Bell, she was active politically during his eight-term congressional career and campaigned for her husband, including during his unsuccessful bid for the U. S. Senate in 1976. McCargo died of pancreatic cancer in 2004, in Santa Monica, just eighteen days before her husband Alphonzo. Marian McCargo on IMDb
Todd Armstrong was an American actor in ten films and several television series. He is best known for playing the titular role of Jason in the film Jason and the Argonauts, he had starred, during 1961, in the segments of the syndicated crime drama Manhunt. Todd Armstrong was born John Harris Armstrong in St. Louis, Missouri on July 25, 1937, his parents were Harris Armstrong. Armstrong’s father was born in St. Louis, he was a well-known architect that designed many civil landmarks in St. Louis, such as The Shanley Building at 7800 Maryland Avenue in Clayton, its design won Armstrong the silver medal at the Paris Exposition of 1937. In 1956, Armstrong graduated from Ladue High School, where one of his classmates was Auggie Busch, a great-grandson of Anheuser-Busch brewing magnate Adolphus Busch, he moved to California and trained drama at the prestigious acting school Pasadena Playhouse College of Theatre Arts, where he changed his first name to Todd. He graduated in 1958 with classmates including Gene Hackman.
Armstrong's parents supported him financially but after struggling a few years with no success landing acting roles, he took part-time work as a landscape gardener. During his time as a landscaper he was discovered by actress Gloria Henry, who played the mother on the Dennis the Menace television series. Henry learned of her gardener's acting aspirations and was dazzled enough by Armstrongs’s good looks to arrange for him to get a screen test at Columbia Pictures, where she was under contract, he landed a supporting role in the third season of the television show Manhunt, playing Detective Carl Spencer in 13 episodes in the 1961 season. In 1962, Armstrong made his film debut with a small role in director Edward Dmytryk’s drama Walk on the Wild Side, in which he was billed as "Todd Anderson", his first starring role was the title character in Jason and the Argonauts, a mortal who betrays the god of Zeus in search of the golden fleece, but his voice was dubbed by British actor Tim Turner, since a majority of the cast were British.
Armstrong had only one additional leading role, in the 1965 World War II film King Rat. In 1992, he suffered an injury while working, soon became addicted to painkillers. After this, he committed suicide by gunshot on November 7, he was 55. Armstrong appeared in the following film and television roles: Todd Armstrong at AllMovie Todd Armstrong on IMDb
Nina Rae Wayne is an American actress. She first appeared on the Tonight Show in October 1964. Wayne, the younger sister of fellow actress Carol Wayne, started working in television in 1965, first appearing in twelve episodes of the series Camp Runamuck and in an episode of Bewitched; the first movie that she appeared in was Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round. She was cast in Fantastic Voyage, but the lead female role went to Raquel Welch, launching her successful movie career, but Wayne's big movie break came when she starred opposite Jack Lemmon and Peter Falk in the 1967 romantic comedy Luv. She followed this up with an appearance in The Comic with Dick Van Mickey Rooney, her last appearance came in the 1972 TV supernatural drama The Night Strangler. In 1974, she appeared on the cover of TV Guide. Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round - as Frieda Schmid Luv - as Linda The Comic - as Sybil Atlas The Night Strangler - as Charisma Beauty Nina Wayne on IMDb
Rose Marie was an American actress, singer and vaudeville performer with a career that spanned over nine decades — and included film, records, night clubs and television. As a child performer during the years just after the silent film era, she had a successful singing career as Baby Rose Marie; as an adult, she became one of the first major stars to be known by her first names. Marie was known for her role on the CBS situation comedy The Dick Van Dyke Show, as television comedy writer Sally Rogers, "who went toe-to-toe in a man’s world." She portrayed Myrna Gibbons on The Doris Day Show and was a 14-year panelist on The Hollywood Squares. She is the subject of a 2017 documentary film, Wait for Your Laugh, which includes interviews with her and her co-stars including Carl Reiner, Dick Van Dyke, Peter Marshall, Tim Conway. Marie was born Rose Marie Mazzetta in Manhattan, New York, on August 15, 1923, to Italian-American vaudeville actor Frank Mazzetta, who went by the name of Frank Curley, Polish-American Stella Gluszcak.
At the age of three, she started performing under the name "Baby Rose Marie." At five, she made a series of films. At her height of fame as a child singer, from late 1929 to 1934, she had her own radio show, made numerous records, was featured in a number of Paramount films and shorts, she continued to appear in films through the mid-1930s, making shorts and one feature picture, International House, with W. C. Fields for Paramount; as she entered adulthood, Marie turned to lounge performances. According to her autobiography, Hold the Roses, she was assisted in her career by many members of organized crime, including Al Capone and Bugsy Siegel. Rose Marie secured work at the Flamingo Hotel in Las Vegas, built by Siegel; because of the Flamingo's organized crime ties, she had to seek permission to perform in other casinos and remained loyal to "the boys" at the Flamingo for the rest of her life. Concurrently with her nightclub work, the young adult Marie continued to work in radio, earning the nickname "Darling of the Airwaves."
In 1929, the 5-year-old singer made a Vitaphone sound short titled Baby Rose Marie the Child Wonder. Between 1930 and 1938, she made 17 recordings, her first issued record, recorded on March 10, 1932, featured accompaniment by Fletcher Henderson's band, one of the leading African American jazz orchestras of the day. Henderson and the band were said to be in the RCA Victor studios recording the four songs they were intending to produce that day and were asked to accompany Baby Rose Marie, reading from a stock arrangement, her recording of "Say That You Were Teasing Me" featured Henderson's orchestra and was a national hit in 1932. According to Joel Whitburn, Marie was the last surviving entertainer to have charted a hit before World War II. In the 1960–1961 season, Marie co-starred with Shirley Bonne, Elaine Stritch, Jack Weston, Raymond Bailey, Stubby Kaye in My Sister Eileen, she played Bertha, a friend of the Sherwood sisters: Ruth, a magazine writer, played by Stritch, Eileen, an aspiring actress, Bonne's role.
After five seasons as Sally Rogers on The Dick Van Dyke Show, Marie co-starred in two seasons of The Doris Day Show as Doris Martin's friend and co-worker Myrna Gibbons. She appeared in two episodes of The Monkees in the mid-1960s, she had a semi-regular seat on the original version of The Hollywood Squares. Rose Marie performed on three 1966 and 1967 episodes of The Dean Martin Show on NBC and twice on The Hollywood Palace on ABC. In the mid-1970s, she appeared in the recurring role of Hilda on the police drama S. W. A. T.. Hilda brought fresh doughnuts, made coffee for the team, provided some comic relief. In the early 1990s, she had a recurring role as Frank Fontana's mother on Murphy Brown, she appeared as Roy Biggins' domineering mother Eleanor "Bluto" Biggins in an episode of Wings. Marie and Morey Amsterdam appeared together in an October 1993 episode of Herman's Head and guest-starred in a February 1996 episode of Caroline in the City, shortly before Amsterdam's death in October of that same year.
Marie appeared opposite Phil Silvers in Top Banana in 1951 appearing in the 1954 film adaptation. Her musical numbers were cut from the film in retaliation for her publicly refusing the producers' sexual advances. In 1965, she appeared in the Dallas production of Bye Bye Birdie as Mae Peterson, the mother of the character played by Dick Van Dyke on Broadway and in the film. From 1977 to 1985, Marie co-starred with Rosemary Clooney, Helen O'Connell, Margaret Whiting in the musical revue 4 Girls 4, which toured the United States and appeared on television several times, she was the celebrity guest host of a comedy play, Grandmas Rock!, written by Gordon Durich. It was broadcast on radio in 2010 on KVTA and KKZZ, rebroadcast on KVTA and KKZZ again in September 2012 in honor of National Grandparents Day. A CD of the show was produced, featuring audio clips from The Dick Van Dyke Show. Marie was married to trumpeter Bobby Guy from 1946 until his death in 1964; the couple had Georgiana. She was active on social media developing a following on Twitter, where she offered support for women who like her had suffered from sexual harassment.
Her contemporaries and modern performers offered their remembrances and condolences on the same platform.