Karyolysis is the complete dissolution of the chromatin of a dying cell due to the enzymatic degradation by endonucleases. The whole cell will stain uniformly with eosin after karyolysis, it is associated with karyorrhexis and occurs as a result of necrosis, while in apoptosis after karyorrhexis the nucleus dissolves into apoptotic bodies. Disintegration of the cytoplasm, pyknosis of the nuclei, karyolysis of the nuclei of scattered transitional cells may be seen in urine from healthy individuals as well as in urine containing malignant cells. Cells with an attached tag of preserved cytoplasm were described by Papanicolaou and are sometimes called comet or decoy cells, they may have some of the characteristics of malignancy, it is therefore important that they be recognized for what they are. Apoptosis Necrosis Pyknosis Karyorrhexis
A first responder is a person with specialized training, among the first to arrive and provide assistance at the scene of an emergency, such as an accident, natural disaster, or terrorist attack. First responders include paramedics, emergency medical technicians, police officers, firefighters and other trained members of organisations connected with this type of work. A certified first responder is one who has received certification to provide pre-hospital care in a certain jurisdiction, for example, the Certified First Responder in France. A community first responder is a person dispatched to attend medical emergencies until an ambulance arrives. A wilderness first responder is trained to provide pre-hospital care in remote settings and will therefore have skills in ad hoc patient packaging and transport by non-motorized means. First responders must be trained to deal with a wide array of potential medical emergencies; because of the high level of stress and uncertainty associated with the position, first responders must maintain physical and mental health.
With such preparation, first responders face unique risks of being the first people to aid those with unknown contagions. For example, in 2003 first responders were among the earliest victims of the unknown SARS virus, when they cared for patients affected with the virus. Trauma and first responders Some jurisdictions have special laws defining and establishing the rights and duties of first responders; the term first responder is defined in U. S. Homeland Security Presidential Directive, HSPD-8 and reads: The term "first responder" refers to those individuals who in the early stages of an incident are responsible for the protection and preservation of life, property and the environment, including emergency response providers as defined in section 2 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002, as well as emergency management, public health, clinical care, public works, other skilled support personnel that provide immediate support services during prevention and recovery operations. Emergency response providers are defined by 6 U.
S. C. § 101 as follows: The term “emergency response providers” includes Federal and local governmental and nongovernmental emergency public safety, law enforcement, emergency response, emergency medical services providers, related personnel and authorities. First aider Emergency medical responder levels by U. S. state
The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect the lives and possessions of citizens, to prevent crime and civil disorder. Their powers include the legitimized use of force; the term is most associated with the police forces of a sovereign state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are defined as being separate from the military and other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors. Police forces are public sector services, funded through taxes. Law enforcement is only part of policing activity. Policing has included an array of activities in different situations, but the predominant ones are concerned with the preservation of order. In some societies, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, these developed within the context of maintaining the class system and the protection of private property. Police forces have become ubiquitous in modern societies.
Their role can be controversial, as some are involved to varying degrees in corruption, police brutality and the enforcement of authoritarian rule. A police force may be referred to as a police department, police service, gendarmerie, crime prevention, protective services, law enforcement agency, civil guard or civic guard. Members may be referred to as police officers, sheriffs, rangers, peace officers or civic/civil guards. Ireland differs from other English-speaking countries by using the Irish language terms Garda and Gardaí, for both the national police force and its members; the word police is the most universal and similar terms can be seen in many non-English speaking countries. Numerous slang terms exist for the police. Many slang terms for police officers are centuries old with lost etymology. One of the oldest, "cop", has lost its slang connotations and become a common colloquial term used both by the public and police officers to refer to their profession. First attested in English in the early 15th century in a range of senses encompassing' policy.
This is derived from πόλις, "city". Law enforcement in ancient China was carried out by "prefects" for thousands of years since it developed in both the Chu and Jin kingdoms of the Spring and Autumn period. In Jin, dozens of prefects were spread across the state, each having limited authority and employment period, they were appointed by local magistrates, who reported to higher authorities such as governors, who in turn were appointed by the emperor, they oversaw the civil administration of their "prefecture", or jurisdiction. Under each prefect were "subprefects" who helped collectively with law enforcement in the area; some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives. Prefects could be women; the concept of the "prefecture system" spread to other cultures such as Japan. In ancient Greece, publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police. In Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control, assisted with dealing with criminals, handling prisoners, making arrests.
Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves. In the Roman empire, the army, rather than a dedicated police organization, provided security. Local watchmen were hired by cities to provide some extra security. Magistrates such as procurators fiscal and quaestors investigated crimes. There was no concept of public prosecution, so victims of crime or their families had to organize and manage the prosecution themselves. Under the reign of Augustus, when the capital had grown to one million inhabitants, 14 wards were created, their duties included capturing runaway slaves. The vigiles were supported by the Urban Cohorts who acted as a heavy-duty anti-riot force and the Praetorian Guard if necessary. In medieval Spain, Santa Hermandades, or "holy brotherhoods", peacekeeping associations of armed individuals, were a characteristic of municipal life in Castile; as medieval Spanish kings could not offer adequate protection, protective municipal leagues began to emerge in the twelfth century against banditry and other rural criminals, against the lawless nobility or to support one or another claimant to a crown.
These organizations became a long-standing fixture of Spain. The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, protect the pilgrims against robber knights. Throughout the Middle Ages such alliances were formed by combinations of towns to protect the roads connecting them, were extended to political purposes. Among the most powerful was the league of North Castilian and Basque ports, the Hermandad de las marismas: Toledo and Villarreal; as one of their first acts after end of the War of the Castilian Succession in 1479, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile established the centrally-organized and efficient Holy
A wanted poster is a poster distributed to let the public know of an alleged criminal whom authorities wish to apprehend. They will include either a picture of the alleged criminal when a photograph is available or of a facial composite image produced by police; the poster will include a description of the wanted person and the crime for which they are sought. There is a set monetary reward offered to whoever catches the wanted criminal, advertised on the poster. Wanted posters are produced by a police department or other public government bureaus intended for public display such as on a physical bulletin board or in the lobby of a post office. Today many wanted. However, wanted posters have been produced by vigilante groups, railway security, private agencies such as Pinkerton, or by express companies that have sustained a robbery. Wanted posters might include rewards for providing aid in the capture of the wanted person in the form of money; these types of posters were referred to as reward posters.
In 2007, the FBI began posting wanted posters on electronic billboards starting with 23 cities, have been working to expand this system in other states. This allows them to post a wanted notice in public view across the US. In 2014, the FBI claimed that at least 53 cases had been solved as a direct result of digital billboard publicity, many others had been solved through the Bureau's overall publicity efforts that included the billboards; the FBI now claims to have access to over 5,200 billboards nationwide. Wanted posters for notorious fugitives offer a bounty for the capture of the person, or for a person who can provide information leading to such capture. Bounties provided an incentive for citizens to aid law enforcement, either by providing information, or by catching the criminal themselves. More modern wanted posters may include images of the fugitive's fingerprints. People who, as a profession, chase wanted individuals with the intent to collect their bounties are referred to as bounty hunters.
Composite images for use in wanted posters can be created with various methods, including: E-FIT: Electronic Facial Identification Technique via computer Identikit PhotoFIT: Photographic Facial Identification Technique Historically, some wanted posters offering a reward contained the phrase "dead or alive". Thus one would get a reward for either bringing their body to the authorities; this could indicate that the person was an outlaw, that it was permissible to kill them. Alternatively, it might mean. While most issuers of wanted posters instead preferred the target to be taken alive in order to stand trial, some private organizations were willing to go to these extreme measures to protect their interests. Wanted posters have been used by media sources to cast prominent figures as wild west criminals. Popular examples of this include the September 4, 1939 Edition of the British newspaper the Daily Mirror, which cast Adolf Hitler as a ‘reckless criminal’ ‘wanted dead or alive’; this idea was used by The New York Post in their global search for Osama Bin Laden in 2001, shortly after President George W. Bush made the reference, "And there's an old poster out West, that I recall, that said,'Wanted: Dead or Alive'."
John Dillinger Billy the Kid Bonnie and Clyde Baby Face Nelson Jack the Ripper James Earl Ray John Wilkes Booth D. B. Cooper Pablo Escobar Jesse James Al Capone Lee Harvey Oswald Jack Ruby Zodiac Killer Pretty Boy Floyd All-points bulletin America's Most Wanted Pittura infamante Rewards for Justice Program Clarendon Mug shot publishing industry Most wanted list
Pyroptosis is a inflammatory form of programmed cell death that occurs most upon infection with intracellular pathogens and is to form part of the antimicrobial response. In this process, immune cells recognize foreign danger signals within themselves, release pro-inflammatory cytokines, swell and die; the released cytokines attract other immune cells to fight the infection and contribute to inflammation in the tissue. Pyroptosis promotes the rapid clearance of various bacterial and viral infections by removing intracellular replication niches and enhancing the host's defensive responses. However, in pathogenic chronic diseases, the inflammatory response does not eradicate the primary stimulus, as would occur in most cases of infection or injury, thus a chronic form of inflammation ensues that contributes to tissue damage; some examples of pyroptosis include Salmonella-infected macrophages and abortively HIV-infected T helper cells. The initiation of pyroptosis in infected macrophages is caused by the recognition of flagellin components of Salmonella and Shigella species by NOD-like receptors.
These receptors function like plasma membrane toll-like receptors, but recognize antigens located within the cell rather than outside of it. In contrast to apoptosis, pyroptosis requires the function of the enzyme caspase-1. Caspase-1 is activated during pyroptosis by a large supramolecular complex termed the pyroptosome. Only one large pyroptosome is formed within minutes after infection. Biochemical and mass spectroscopic analysis revealed that this pyroptosome is composed of dimers of the adaptor protein ASC. Unlike apoptosis, cell death by pyroptosis results in plasma-membrane rupture and the release of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules such as ATP, DNA and ASC oligomers into the extracellular milieu, including cytokines that recruit more immune cells and further perpetuate the inflammatory cascade in the tissue; these processes are in marked contrast to the packaging of cellular contents and non-inflammatory phagocytic uptake of membrane-bound apoptotic bodies that characterizes apoptosis.
This type of inherently proinflammatory programmed cell death was named'pyroptosis' in 2001 by Dr. Brad T. Cookson, an associate professor of microbiology and laboratory medicine of University of Washington; the Greek "pyro" refers to fire and "ptosis" means falling. The apparent meaning of the combined word "pyroptosis" is therefore "the falling of fire", which here refers to the process of pro-inflammatory chemical signals bursting out of a host cell. Pyroptosis has a distinct mechanism compared to other forms of cell death. However, this form of cell death is akin to necrosis, it was suggested. Infection can launch warning system in the host cell. Two types of receptors that belong to different families of pattern recognition receptors are present in the pyroptosis to sense intracellular and extracellular'danger' signals; these are Toll-like receptors. The'danger' signals can be given off by invasive pathogens, or by an injury to a tissue, which can all be recognised by the host cells' receptors.
That recognition will determine the fate of the host cell by a distinct mechanism, i.e. it will induce either the production of inflammatory chemical messengers termed'cytokines' or programmed cell death. Found cytokines are tumour necrosis factor, IL-6, IL-8, type I interferons and Interferon regulatory factor; the inflammatory response is cell-death independent. In terms of cell death, although the activation route of caspase-1 is varied, the downstream signalling pathway will converge to result in the pyroptotic cell death. Cell lysis occurs upon the formation of pores, of an estimated diameter of 1.1-2.4 nm, in the cell membrane, which disrupts the cellular ionic gradient. The resulting increase in osmotic pressure causes an influx of water followed by cell swelling and bursting. At the same time, the cytosolic contents release via the channels of the pores; the process is much like punctures in a water balloon. Subsequently, the inactive pro-inflammatory cytokines are further cleaved by caspase-1 and become activated.
Moreover, DNA cleavage with retained integrity and nuclear condensation has been found to be associated with the process. Toll like receptors recognize Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns that are located either in cell surface or within endosomes; the resulting recognition will initiate the signalling pathway, including the activation of transcription factors NF-κB and MAPKs. This in turn will be responsible for the production of inflammatory cytokines such as IFN α/β, TNF and IL-12. In addition, pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 will be released to be processed by cysteine-mediated caspase-1. NOD-like receptors consist of more than 20 subsets, including NOD1 and NOD2, NLRP3, NLRC4. All recognize bacterial and toxic foreign products that are introduced into the host cell cytosol. Upon recognition, NOD1 and NOD2 function to the TLRs, producing and processing inflammatory cytokines; some of these subsets such as NLRP3 could activate caspase-1 dependent cell death, accompanied by pore-forming and further stimulated by cellular potassium efflux.
NLRC4 can recognize flagellin and trigger caspase-1 dependent pyroptosis. NODs recognize molecular pattern danger signals and build up the infla