Interstate 40 in Texas
In the U. S. state of Texas, Interstate 40 runs west–east through the panhandle in the northwest part of the state. The only large city it passes through is Amarillo, where it meets the north end of Interstate 27. Before the U. S. Route system, this system of interconnected highway from New Mexico to Oklahoma was part of the Texas highway system and a portion of the Ozark Trails which paralleled the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway; when the United States Numbered Highway system was introduced in 1926, Route 66 across the Texas Panhandle was designated along existing roads in the Texas highway network. The entire route was paved by 1938. There have been various realignments, including one in 1959 to allow expansion of the Amarillo Air Force Base. In 1956, the Interstate Highway Act designated US 66 through Texas as a section of highway eligible for limited access upgrades. During the next 20 years, most of the highway was upgraded in place. With the limited access of the Interstates, towns on the highway had to be bypassed.
Most towns requested to remain as close to the new highway as possible to minimize tourism losses. Bypassed towns included Glenrio, Vega, Groom, Alanreed, McLean, Shamrock. A new routing along the south end of downtown Amarillo was built, connecting with the already-built expressway leading south from downtown toward Canyon. In 1985, the entire designation of U. S. Route 66 was removed as the entire route had been displaced by Interstate 40. I-40 in Texas is one of a few Interstate Highways with at-grade intersections; the westernmost part of I-40 in Texas, near the New Mexico border, lacks the frontage roads typical to Texas freeways, several driveways for ranches directly intersect the main lanes of I-40, in violation of Interstate standards. The entirety of Interstate 40 in Texas is located in the panhandle. Interstate 40 enters Texas from New Mexico just north of Glenrio; the highway's first exit, exit 0, is for BL I-40-A. I-40 runs through Deaf Smith County before entering Oldham County; the interstate gains frontage roads between exits 15 and 18 and turns from a northeast direction into a straight east direction.
I-40 bypasses the town of Adrian before turning southeast. I-40 next bypasses the town of Vega, where it meets with US 385 at exit 36; the interstate runs in a east direction through the town of Wildorado before turning back to the southeast. I-40 has a rural route before becoming more suburban in Bushland, with housing developments becoming visible from the highway; the interstate passes by Cadillac Ranch before the Hope Road interchange and enters the city limits of Amarillo just west of Loop 335. I-40 expands from four lanes to six at Loop 335 and runs through a developed area of the city. Near downtown, the highway serves as the northern terminus for Interstate 27 at a turbine interchange and begins an overlap with US 287. I-40 runs through eastern Amarillo, passing by the American Quarter Horse Hall of Fame and The Big Texan Steak Ranch. Development along the route begins to lessen after S. Eastern Street as the highway passes near Rick Husband Amarillo International Airport. US 287 leaves I-40 at exit 78.
The highway runs through rural farm land after leaving the city and enters the town of Groom, passing near a 19–story cross and a leaning water tower. East of Groom, I-40 has an overlap with SH 70 between exits 121 and 124. After the overlap with SH 70 ends, the terrain along the interstate begins to change from flat plains to a rolling canyon ridge with an observation point near Alanreed. I-40 returns to flatland again after the town of McLean and bypasses the town of Shamrock before entering Oklahoma near Texola. I-40 has seven business routes in Texas, all of which are old alignments of US 66. A number of other old alignments of US 66 are present. Business Interstate Highway 40-A is a Business Spur that runs from I-40 at Glenrio, just east of the New Mexico state line, southwest to the border. In New Mexico, the road forks - the paved alignment has been cut by Interstate 40, the earlier alignment west to San Jon is now a dirt road, paved when it was US 66 prior to 1952 but the paving was removed by Quay County, NM commissioners due to high maintenance costs and low traffic volumes.
The old US 66/I-40 Business Loop through Glenrio was bypassed in 1973 by I-40. Business Interstate Highway 40-B is a Business Loop through Adrian; the road was bypassed c. 1969 by I-40, carried US 66 until its 1985 decommissioning. Business Interstate Highway 40-C is a Business Loop through Vega; the road was bypassed c. 1973 by I-40, carried US 66 until its 1985 decommissioning. Business Interstate Highway 40-D is a long Business Loop through Amarillo. An older alignment - Loop 279 - carried Business U. S. Highway 66. East of Amarillo, Farm to Market Road 2575 is old US 66, rerouted to today's Business I-40 in 1958 by the construction of Amarillo International Airport. Present Business I-40 was bypassed in 1968 by I-40, carried US 66 until its 1985 decommissioning. Farm to Market Road 2161 and State Highway 207 carry old US 66 through Conway; the road was bypassed c. 1966 by I-40, carried US 66 until its 1985 decommissioning. Business Interstate Highway 40-F is a Business Loop through Groom; the road was bypassed c. 1980 by I-40, carried US 66 until its 1985 decommissioning.
The short Loop 271, in addition to providing access to Farm to Market Road 291, is old US 66 through Alanreed. The road was bypassed in 1953 by US 66, but the bypass wa
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material. Radioactive waste is a by-product of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine. Radioactive waste is hazardous to all forms of life and the environment, is regulated by government agencies in order to protect human health and the environment. Radioactivity decays over time, so radioactive waste has to be isolated and confined in appropriate disposal facilities for a sufficient period until it no longer poses a threat; the time radioactive waste must be stored for depends on the type of radioactive isotopes. Current approaches to managing radioactive waste have been segregation and storage for short-lived waste, near-surface disposal for low and some intermediate level waste, deep burial or partitioning / transmutation for the high-level waste. A summary of the amounts of radioactive waste and management approaches for most developed countries are presented and reviewed periodically as part of the International Atomic Energy Agency Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management.
Radioactive waste comprises a number of radionuclides: unstable configurations of elements that decay, emitting ionizing radiation which can be harmful to humans and the environment. These isotopes emit different types and levels of radiation, which last for different periods of time; the radioactivity of all radioactive waste weakens with time. All radionuclides contained in the waste have a half-life—the time it takes for half of the atoms to decay into another nuclide—and all radioactive waste decays into non-radioactive elements. Certain radioactive elements will remain hazardous to humans and other creatures for hundreds of thousands of years. Other remain hazardous for millions of years. Thus, these wastes must be shielded for centuries and isolated from the living environment for millennia. Since radioactive decay follows the half-life rule, the rate of decay is inversely proportional to the duration of decay. In other words, the radiation from a long-lived isotope like iodine-129 will be much less intense than that of a short-lived isotope like iodine-131.
The two tables show some of the major radioisotopes, their half-lives, their radiation yield as a proportion of the yield of fission of uranium-235. The energy and the type of the ionizing radiation emitted by a radioactive substance are important factors in determining its threat to humans; the chemical properties of the radioactive element will determine how mobile the substance is and how it is to spread into the environment and contaminate humans. This is further complicated by the fact that many radioisotopes do not decay to a stable state but rather to radioactive decay products within a decay chain before reaching a stable state. Exposure to radioactive waste may cause serious death. In humans, a dose of 1 sievert carries a 5.5% risk of developing cancer, regulatory agencies assume the risk is linearly proportional to dose for low doses. Ionizing radiation causes deletions in chromosomes. If a developing organism such as a fetus is irradiated, it is possible a birth defect may be induced, but it is unlikely this defect will be in a gamete or a gamete-forming cell.
The incidence of radiation-induced mutations in humans is small, as in most mammals, because of natural cellular-repair mechanisms, many just now coming to light. These mechanisms range from DNA, mRNA and protein repair, to internal lysosomic digestion of defective proteins, induced cell suicide—apoptosisDepending on the decay mode and the pharmacokinetics of an element, the threat due to exposure to a given activity of a radioisotope will differ. For instance iodine-131 is a short-lived beta and gamma emitter, but because it concentrates in the thyroid gland, it is more able to cause injury than caesium-137 which, being water soluble, is excreted through urine. In a similar way, the alpha emitting actinides and radium are considered harmful as they tend to have long biological half-lives and their radiation has a high relative biological effectiveness, making it far more damaging to tissues per amount of energy deposited; because of such differences, the rules determining biological injury differ according to the radioisotope, time of exposure and sometimes the nature of the chemical compound which contains the radioisotope.
Radioactive waste comes from a number of sources. In countries with nuclear power plants, nuclear armament, or nuclear fuel treatment plants, the majority of waste originates from the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear weapons reprocessing. Other sources include medical and industrial wastes, as well as occurring radioactive materials that can be concentrated as a result of the processing or consumption of coal and gas, some minerals, as discussed below. Waste from the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle is alpha-emitting waste from the extraction of uranium, it contains radium and its decay products. Uranium dioxide concentrate from mining is a thousand or so times as radioactive as the granite used in buildings, it is refined from yellowcake converted to uranium hexafluoride gas. As a gas, it undergoes enrichment to increase the U-235 content from 0.7% to about 4.4%. It is turned into a hard ceramic oxide for assembly as reactor fuel elements; the main by-product of enrichment is depleted uranium, principally the U-238 isotope, with a U-235 content of ~0.3%.
It is stored, either as UF6 or as U3O8. Some is used in applications where its extreme
Randall County, Texas
Randall County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 120,725, its county seat is Canyon. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1889, it is named for Horace Randal, a Confederate brigadier general killed at the Battle of Jenkins Ferry. The reason the county name differs from his is because the bill creating the county misspelled Randal's name. Randall County is part of the Amarillo, Metropolitan Statistical Area. At one time, the large JA Ranch, founded by Charles Goodnight and John George Adair, which reached into six counties, held acreage in Randall County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 922 square miles, of which 912 square miles is land and 11 square miles is covered by water. Palo Duro Canyon, the second-largest canyon in the United States, is located in Randall County. Interstate 27 U. S. Highway 60 U. S. Highway 87 State Highway 217 Loop 335 Potter County Oldham County Armstrong County Carson County Swisher County Briscoe County Castro County Deaf Smith County Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, 104,312 people, 41,240 households, 28,785 families resided in the county.
The population density was 114 people per square mile. The 43,261 housing units averaged 47 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.44% White, 1.50% Black or African American, 0.65% Native American, 1.03% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.71% from other races, 1.64% from two or more races. About 10.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 41,240 households, 33.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.50% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.20% were not families. The average household size was 2.49, the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was distributed as 26.10% under the age of 18, 11.20% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 11.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,712, for a family was $52,420.
Males had a median income of $36,333 versus $25,358 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,840. About 5.70% of families and 8.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.50% of those under age 18 and 6.60% of those age 65 or over. Although once more Democratic-leaning, the county has become solidly Republican; the Republican candidate has carried the county in every presidential election since 1952 by overwhelming margins. In the last six elections, no Republican candidate has received less than 61% of the county's vote, since 2000, Randall has been the nation’s most Republican "metropolitan" county outside of predominantly Mormon counties in Utah. Randall County was one of the more than 200 counties in Texas to cast the majority of its votes for Republican John McCain. McCain received 41,895 votes, 81% of the total, while Democrat Barack Obama received 9,461 votes, or 18% of the total, far below his national percentage. Amarillo Canyon Happy Lake Tanglewood Palisades Timbercreek Canyon Cleta Ogg Umbarger Zita Cita National Register of Historic Places listings in Randall County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Randall County Randall County government’s website Randall County TX Genealogy Randall County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas Historic Randall County materials, hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
Http://www.city-data.com/county/Randall_County-TX.html Randall County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties List of museums in the Texas Panhandle National Register of Historic Places listings in Randall County, Texas
Smith County, Texas
Smith County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 209,714, its county seat is Tyler. Smith County is named for a general during the Texas Revolution. Smith County is part of the Tyler metropolitan statistical area as well as the Tyler–Jacksonville combined statistical area. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples occupied this area of present-day Texas; the first known inhabitants of the area now known as Smith County were the Caddo Indians, who were recorded here until 1819. That year a band of Cherokee Indians, led by The Bowl, migrated from Georgia and settled in what are now Smith and Rusk counties; the Treaty of Bowles Village on February 23, 1836, between the Republic of Texas and the Cherokee and twelve affiliated tribes, gave all of Smith and Cherokees counties as well as parts of western Rusk County, southern Gregg along with southeastern Van Zandt counties to the tribes. The Native Americans remained on these lands until the Cherokee War in the summer of 1839, as part of conflicts with Native Americans in Texas.
The Cherokee were driven out of Smith County, as others of their kin were forced from the Southeast United States during Indian Removal. After 1845 some Cherokee returned when Benjamin Franklin Thompson, a white man married to a Cherokee, purchased 10,000 aces of land in Rusk County; the Mount Tabor Indian Community developed here, some six miles south of present-day Kilgore. The Community grew and incorporated areas near Overton and Troup, Texas. In July 1846 Smith County separated from the Nacogdoches District and was named for James Smith, a General of the Texas Revolution. At this time Tyler was designated as the county seat. Camp Ford was the largest Confederate prisoner-of-war camp west of the Mississippi River during the American Civil War. Here Sheriff Jim Reed of Collin County and Judge McReynolds, former chief justice of the district, were seized and lynched by "Regulators." The original site of the Camp stockade is now a public historic park, owned by Smith County, managed by the Smith County Historical Society.
The park contains a kiosk, paved trail, interpretive signage, a cabin reconstruction, a picnic area. It is located on Highway 271, 0.8 miles north of Loop 323. The Smith County Historical Society, a 501 non-profit organization, was founded in 1959 by individuals and business firms dedicated to discovering and preserving data and other items relating to the history of Smith County, Texas. More information can be found at the Smith County Historical Society Website. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 950 square miles, of which 921 square miles is land and 28 square miles is water; the county infrastructure includes some 1,180 miles of two lane county road. Wood County Upshur County Gregg County Rusk County Cherokee County Henderson County Van Zandt County As of the census of 2010, there were 209,714 people and 76,427 households residing in the county; the population density was 227.6 people per square mile. There were 87,309 housing units; the racial makeup of the county was 70.1% White, 17.9% Black or African American, 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.2% Asian, 2.0% persons reporting two or more races.
17.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 76,427 households, out of which 34.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.8% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.7% were non-families. 25.3% of all households were made up of a householder living alone. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.13. The median income for a household in the county was $46,139; the per capita income for the county was $25,374. About 15.4% of families and 13.80% of the population were below the poverty line. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 9.80% from 18 to 24, 27.40% from 25 to 44, 22.10% from 45 to 64, 14.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 92.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.90 males. Conservative whites in Smith County began to ally with the Republican Party in 1964, making it one of three East Texas counties, along with Panola and Gregg, to vote for Barry Goldwater in 1964, when native son Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson won re-election.
At that time most blacks and Latinos in the county were still disenfranchised due to the state's discriminatory use of certain barriers. The last Democrat to carry Smith County was incumbent President Harry S. Truman in 1948. No Democrat has gained 30 percent of the county’s vote in the past five elections; the last Democrat to gain more than 40 percent was Jimmy Carter from Georgia in 1976. Smith County is represented in the Texas House of Representatives by Matt Schaefer of Tyler and the Texas Senate by Senator Bryan Hughes, its U. S. representative is Louie Gohmert. The county is governed by a Commissioners Court, made up of four members elected from single-member districts and a County Judge elected at-large; the county has been concerned about its roads since the early 21st century. It has some 1,180 miles of two-lane county roads. 70% of these county roads were rated as "bad" or "poor" in 2004. The county Commissioners Court appointed a new county engineer in 2005 and initiated an aggressive reconstruction campaign.
But after the election of 2006, the Commissioners Court cut back on the improvement campaign. During this period the county commissioners and judge passed what beca
Castro County, Texas
Castro County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 8,062; the county seat is Dimmitt. The county was named for Henri Castro, consul general to France for the Republic of Texas and the founder of a colony in Texas; the county was created in 1876. It was organized in 1891, a courthouse was built about the town square. Temporary county office space, was obtained from businessman J. N. Morrison; the ornate two-story courthouse was completed but was destroyed by lightning in 1906. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 899 square miles, of which 894 square miles is land and 4.9 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 60 U. S. Highway 385 State Highway 86 State Highway 194 Deaf Smith County Randall County Swisher County Hale County Lamb County Parmer County As of the census of 2000, there were 8,285 people, 2,761 households, 2,159 families residing in the county; the population density was 9 people per square mile. There were 3,198 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 75.35% White, 2.27% Black or African American, 1.17% Native American, 0.02% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 19.12% from other races, 2.05% from two or more races. 51.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,761 households out of which 40.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.10% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.80% were non-families. 20.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.98 and the average family size was 3.45. In the county, the population was spread out with 33.10% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 24.30% from 25 to 44, 20.90% from 45 to 64, 12.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 100.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,619, the median income for a family was $35,422.
Males had a median income of $25,379 versus $20,433 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,457. About 15.70% of families and 19.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.30% of those under age 18 and 13.90% of those age 65 or over. Dimmitt Hart Nazareth Hilburn Summerfield Sunnyside List of museums in the Texas Panhandle Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Castro County Castro County government's website Castro County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas Interactive Texas Map Texas Map Collection Castro County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
Deaf Smith County Historical Museum
The Deaf Smith County Historical Museum in Hereford in Deaf Smith County, seeks to preserve the West Texas pioneer heritage with a collection of both indoor and outdoor exhibits. The county is named for a famous scout during the Texas Revolution; the museum was organized in 1967 by the Deaf Smith County Historical Society. It is located north of the county courthouse at 400 Sampson Street in a red brick former Roman Catholic school building, listed as an "Official Texas Historical Site." The museum promotes the theme of "How Our Pioneers Lived and Played". School or group tours are available by appointment. An annual Christmas open house features seasonal entertainment, special activities, holiday refreshments. Other events are hosted to commemorate special occasions; the indoor exhibits on the first floor include recreations of a general store, which became a social wedding and engagement centre in the 19th century as well as the source of needed goods. A non-denominational chapel includes artefacts, including stained-glass windows, from the first churches built in the county.
It is sometimes used for small weddings. There is an early-day kitchen with a primitive ice box. A restored bedroom depicts furniture purchased from local stores in the early 1900s, including a washstand and bed. A parlour shows a period as Hereford had prospered to allow citizens to own nice furniture, a pump organ, other items for family entertainment; the museum has a display of arrow points, pottery and other Indian artifacts donated from a private collection. There is a one-room school. Items from an Italian POW camp during World War II near Hereford are highlighted. There are paintings, including portraits of Deaf Smith, Francisco Coronado, Ranald S. Mackenzie and scenes of a 19th-century homestead and a cattle drive; the outside exhibits include a half-dugout, a first residence for many settlers on the Great Plains, where the absence of forests and lack of available stone required digging into the ground. An Atchison and Santa Fe Railway caboose, a wooden windmill, early jail cells, farm implements, a wagon barn with a chuckwagon developed by Charles Goodnight, are displayed outside.
The historical society exhibits the E. B. Black House, a Victorian residence at 508 West Third Street in Hereford, it was built in 1909 by Mr. and Mrs. E. B. Black, ranchers who owned a furniture company. Jim Black, the oldest son of the E. B. Blacks, died in 1976, his widow, Prudish Black, donated the house to the historical society. The house has been renovated, a flower garden and gazebo were added; the Texas Historical Commission has designated the house a state landmark. It is entered in the National Register of Historic Places. National Register of Historic Places listings in Deaf Smith County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Deaf Smith County Media related to Deaf Smith County Museum at Wikimedia Commons
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census