Deamination is the removal of an amino group from a molecule. Enzymes that catalyse this reaction are called deaminases. In the human body, deamination takes place in the liver, however it is deaminated in the kidney. In situations of excess protein intake, deamination is used to break down amino acids for energy; the amine group is converted to ammonia. The rest of the amino acid is made up of carbon and hydrogen, is recycled or oxidized for energy. Ammonia is toxic to the human system, enzymes convert it to urea or uric acid by addition of carbon dioxide molecules in the urea cycle, which takes place in the liver. Urea and uric acid can safely diffuse into the blood and be excreted in urine. Spontaneous deamination is the hydrolysis reaction of cytosine into uracil, releasing ammonia in the process; this can occur in vitro through the use of bisulfite, which deaminates cytosine, but not 5-methylcytosine. This property has allowed researchers to sequence methylated DNA to distinguish non-methylated cytosine and methylated cytosine.
In DNA, this spontaneous deamination is corrected for by the removal of uracil by uracil-DNA glycosylase, generating an abasic site. The resulting abasic site is recognised by enzymes that break a phosphodiester bond in the DNA, permitting the repair of the resulting lesion by replacement with another cytosine. A DNA polymerase may perform this replacement via nick translation, a terminal excision reaction by its 5'⟶3' exonuclease activity, followed by a fill-in reaction by its polymerase activity. DNA ligase forms a phosphodiester bond to seal the resulting nicked duplex product, which now includes a new, correct cytosine. Spontaneous deamination of 5-methylcytosine results in thymine and ammonia; this is the most common single nucleotide mutation. In DNA, this reaction, if detected prior to passage of the replication fork, can be corrected by the enzyme thymine-DNA glycosylase, which removes the thymine base in a G/T mismatch; this leaves an abasic site, repaired by AP endonucleases and polymerase, as with uracil-DNA glycosylase.
Deamination of guanine results in the formation of xanthine. Xanthine, in a manner analogous to the enol tautomer of guanine, however, it still pairs with cytosine. Deamination of adenine results in the formation of hypoxanthine. Hypoxanthine, in a manner analogous to the imine tautomer of adenine, selectively base pairs with cytosine instead of thymine; this results in a post-replicative transition mutation, where the original A-T base pair transforms into a G-C base pair. APOBEC1 APOBEC3A-H, APOBEC3G - affects HIV Activation-induced cytidine deaminase Cytidine deaminase dCMP deaminase AMP deaminase Adenosine Deaminase acting on tRNA Adenosine Deaminase acting on dsRNA Adenosine Deaminase acting on mononucleotides Guanine Deaminase Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency type 1
San Sosti is a comune in the province of Cosenza, in Calabria, southern Italy. A decorated bronze axe-head was discovered near San Sosti in 1846; this votive offering was bought by the collector and goldsmith Alessandro Castellani, from whom it was acquired by the British Museum in 1884. On the axe is inscribed an important dedication in the Achaean dialect of Ancient Greek that can be dated to the sixth century BC. In 1448, people from Albania migrated to San Sosti. Sanctuary of Madonna del Pettoruto, founded in 1274 by the monks of the Abbey of Acquaformosa, it was rebuilt after the 1783 Calabrian earthquakes. It houses a 17th-century stone sculpture of a Madonna with Child The Abbey of San Sozonte The ruins of the Rocca, a 10th-century castle, which according to tradition was used by Hannibal during the Punic Wars. Official website circolocalabrese.org unionevalli.it
No. 2503 Squadron RAuxAF Regiment is a Royal Auxiliary Air Force RAF Regiment reserve squadron based at RAF Waddington, in Lincolnshire close to the city of Lincoln and RAF Cranwell. Gunners are recruited both from ex-regulars in the RAF Regiment and civilians in a 50 miles radius surrounding RAF Waddington; the squadron is an infantry squadron in the dismounted close-combat force protection role. The squadron was formed on 1 July 1979 at RAF Scampton to provide force protection to the Vulcans being maintained there at the time; the squadron was deployed to Iraq during the Iraq War as part of Operation Telic, gunners from the squadron have been deployed to Germany, the Balkans and Afghanistan as part of Operation Herrick. The squadron standard was backdated to July of the previous year. In 2015, the squadron was tasked with assisting on an archaeological dig, searching for a lost spitfire. Main Website
Dried persimmon is a type of traditional dried fruit. Known as shìbǐng in Chinese, hoshigaki in Japanese, gotgam in Korean, it is traditionally made in the winter, by air drying Oriental persimmon, it is a popular snack food in East Asia, is used to make wine, in creating other desserts. Dried persimmons are made from various varieties of Oriental persimmon. Persimmons, when ripe, are thin-skinned and sweet. Persimmons used to create dried persimmons are harvested when they are under-ripe, firm and bitter. In China, the persimmon fruit dried on wooden trays after harvesting. In Japan, the fruit are peeled and suspended by strings from their stems, they are massaged daily. This gives the dried persimmon from Japan a distinctive shape and texture, different from those from China and Korea. In Korea, the persimmons are peeled and dried, tied with saekki and hung in sunny, well-ventilated place, for example to the eaves of the house; when the color turns brown and the outer part hardens, the seeds are removed and the persimmons are sealed again and flattened.
After around three weeks, when the fruits reach 75% of their original weight, they are covered in dried rice straw and stored in a box in a cool place until the drying process is completed, a white powdery crust of persimmon sugar forms on the outside. Sangju in North Gyeongsang Province is famous for its dried persimmons. Korean gotgam consists of 32% moisture, 6.3% protein, 0.44% fat, 44.8% carbohydrate, 15% fiber, 1.99% ash. Calories: 75.8kcal In Korean cuisine, dried persimmons can be consumed themselves, or used as an ingredient in other foods. For example, gotgam-ssam is made by wrapping a walnut with dried persimmon. Dried persimmon with pine nuts inserted are served with fresh fruits. Dried persimmons are one of the main ingredients for sujeonggwa; the Korean folktale "The Tiger and the Dried Persimmon" features a tiger scared of dried persimmon. Dried apricot Dried cherry Dried cranberry List of dried foods
Sayyid Abdul-Nabi Mousavi Fard is an Iranian Twelver Shi'a cleric, appointed as the representative of Wali-Faqih in Khuzestan province and as the Imam of Friday Prayer of Ahwaz by the order of Sayyid Ali Khamenei, the supreme leader of Iran, in 30 April 2019. Mousavi Fard, known as "Hujjatul-Islam Mousavi Fard", went to Qom after Iran-Iraq war; this Shia cleric was the Imam of Friday Prayer in the cities of Ramhormoz and Khorramshahr in Khuzestan. Afterwards, Seyyed Ali Khamenei appointed him as Wali-Faqih representative in Khuzestan and Ahwaz Imam Jom'a after the resignation of Seyyed Mohammad Ali Mousavi Jazayeri, running in these positions before
Bijela is a coastal town in Herceg Novi Municipality, Montenegro. It is north of Herceg Novi, by the Verige strait of the Bay of Kotor; the 2003 census recorded a population of 3,748. The chronicler Andrija Zmajević claimed that the 16th-century Pope Sixtus V was descended from a family originating in the area of Bijela. According to Andrija Zmajević, the future Pope's father, Piergentile di Giacomo, was born in the village Bjelske Kruševice near Bijela and moved to Italy to escape the Ottoman conquest. Bijela is the home of the Jadransko brodogradilište Bijela, the largest maintenance and repair shipyard dock in Montenegro. In December 2001 the turbo-electric car ferry Alexander the Great was towed to the shipyard in December 2001 to be converted into a cruise ship, but the project came to a halt and it was not until January 2005 that the ship was towed away. FK Bijela Adriatic Shipyard Bijela Hotel Delfin, Bijela Official web site of Herceg Novi municipality