Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Bella Coola, British Columbia
Bella Coola is a community in the Bella Coola Valley, in British Columbia, Canada. Bella Coola refers to the entire valley, encompassing the settlements of Bella Coola proper, Lower Bella Coola, Salloompt, Nusatsum and Stuie, it is the location of the head offices of the Central Coast Regional District. The entire Bella Coola Valley had a population of 2,010 as of the 2016 census; this was an increase of 5% from the 2011 census, when the population was 1,919. The primary geographical structure of the community, both in terms of physical structures and population distribution, is the long, narrow Bella Coola River valley. Highway 20 stretches from the Government wharf through the extent of the populated portion of the valley before climbing to the Chilcotin Plateau, the entire population of the community lives either on this road or near to it. In recent years, the mountainous terrain around the Bella Coola Valley has become a publicized destination for heliskiing, with a number of skiing movies filmed in the area and one local company advertising access to 1,500,000 acres of terrain.
"Bella Coola" is a corruption of the Heiltsuk bḷ́xʷlá, meaning "somebody from Bella Coola". Bella Coola's climate is a moderate oceanic climate due to its proximity to the Pacific Ocean, but its summers are warmer than coastal places much further south due to its semi-inland position; the maritime air is made warmer by the passage of the outer islands, but is stronger in terms of winter moderation. This results in a climate. There is a strong drying tendency in summer, but remains above the dry-summer climates that are referred to as cs climates; the highest temperature recorded in Bella Coola was 41.2 °C on 30 July 2009. The coldest temperature recorded was −28.9 °C on 15 January 1950. There is a 454 km paved road connection by Highway 20 to Williams Lake; the road was built in 1953 by local residents, features a 15 km ascent from the Valley floor to the Chilcotin plateau, gaining 1600m in elevation to the summit at Heckman Pass, via a number of steep grades & switchbacks. The construction of this road was described in the books "Bella Coola" and "A Road Runs West".
Bella Coola is served by the Bella Coola Airport, 14 km distant from the townsite which has a 1,280 metre asphalt runway. Pacific Coastal Airlines offers scheduled traffic to Anahim Lake. Charter services by both plane and helicopter are available. BC Ferries provides a vehicle/passenger service in the summer to Port Hardy on the northern tip of Vancouver Island; the voyage includes two connecting ferries: the Nimpkish from Bella Coola to Bella Bella the Northern Expedition to Port Hardy. Reservations are essential as the Nimpkish operates about twice a week. Travellers should be aware that Nimpkish has no amenities and the trip takes 9.5 hours, plus 7 hours on the Northern Expedition. In 2014, the large ferry Queen of Chilliwack which had provided direct service between Bella Coola and Port Hardy since 1995 was cancelled due to provincial government cutbacks. In 2017, BC Ferries announced the purchase of a 150 passenger, 35-vehicle vessel to again provide direct service between Port Hardy & Bella Coola starting 19 June 2018.
During the rest of the year, ferry service is provided twice a month and connects Bella Coola to the outlying coastal communities of Bella Bella and Ocean Falls, with passengers able to transfer at McLoughlin Bay to a ferry serving either Prince Rupert and Klemtu, or Port Hardy. The sailing schedule varies throughout the season; the Nuxalk people were present in the Bella Coola valley prior to any formal written history of the area. This is confirmed both by oral history that continues unbroken to present day, by written history of some of the first European explorers of the area. In 1793, Alexander MacKenzie arrived from the east, completing the first recorded crossing of the continent north of Mexico. Immigration to the region was sporadic and temporary for the next century. A Hudson's Bay fur trading post was set up at the mouth of the river, a handful of farmers were granted land farther up the valley; the trading trails of the Nuxalk and neighbouring nations became a popular route from the Pacific Ocean to central British Columbia during the Cariboo Gold Rush of the 1860s.
In the 1870s, the valley was surveyed as a potential Pacific terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway. In 1894, after their previously-existing community in Minnesota suffered an internal conflict, a group of Norwegian Lutheran settlers were given land grants in the valley, conditional upon land clearing and the construction of residences; the land they were granted, as well as other land granted to individuals was, in many cases, land, occupied by Nuxalk communities only a few decades earlier. However, a smallpox epidemic had decimated the Nuxalk population, the survivors had, for the most part, gathered on land close to the mouth of the river; the Norwegian settlement was named Hagensborg and remains one of the main communities of the Bella Coola Valley. Although much of the Norwegian colony's population did migrate away, others stayed to work in forestry and in t
Ocean Falls is a community on the Central Coast of British Columbia, Canada. A large company town owned by Crown Zellerbach, it is only accessible via boat or seaplane, is home for a few dozen full-time residents, with the seasonal population upwards of 100. Ocean Falls is noted for its abundance of rain - about 4,390 millimetres annually, its residents are sometimes referred to as the "Rain People." Situated around a waterfall from Link Lake straight into Cousins Inlet, it has considerable energy resources that are untapped. The Heiltsuk native speaking people inhabited the coastal region surrounding Ocean Falls for more than 9,000 years. In 1903, the Bella Coola Pulp and Paper Company surveyed the area and was impressed with the hydro power potential of the site. In 1906, following the company's acquisition of 260 acres of land, clearing began for the town and three years a sawmill and school were established. In 1912, the dam was erected and the pulp mill began operating; the Ocean Falls pulp and paper mill was the largest mill in British Columbia for many years.
The mill produced mechanical and sulphate pulp processed on two newsprint machines, two kraft paper machines and one tissue machine. Much of the electrical power for the mill and town was produced by four hydro turbines. Ocean Falls' population numbered 250 in 1912 and grew to 3,500 by 1950. By 1970, the number of inhabitants had dropped to 1,500. By 1990, only about 70 people loggers, remained; the profit structure of the original investment changed during the mill's many years of operation. Low labour costs, inexpensive hydro power and low infrastructure costs made the Ocean Falls mill a viable proposition; the remote location, rising labour costs and the high cost of operating a town site made further investment unattractive. The Ocean Falls pulp and paper mill was a large and complex production facility and modernization costs were prohibitive. By the early 1970s, the facility was uneconomical; the owner at that time, Crown Zellerbach, decided to close the plant and shut down the town by March 1973.
The provincial government bought the town and mill at a minimal cost a few weeks before the planned closure and kept the mill operating until 1980. The Ocean Falls mill thus joined the ranks of other older, remote pulp and paper mills in British Columbia shut down during the latter part of the twentieth century. Today, much of the town has been demolished, many of the remaining buildings are in decay. Ocean Falls maintains a residential community and a social network of former residents. Several disasters have struck the town. A major apartment fire in 1950 killed eight, a mudslide in 1965 killed seven and the town's Charleson school burned down on the night between December 21 and 22, 1969. Although no one was hurt in the school fire, the little community was traumatized nevertheless; the school was closed for only three days. The new school, with one of the largest indoor gymnasiums in British Columbia, opened in 1971. At its largest, Ocean Falls was the home to around 3900 people, a K-12 school system, its own hospital, one of the province's largest hotels and a swimming pool where several swimming champions trained.
Ocean Falls was a typical single-employer town where the company operated and maintained the complete town site. A town site manager, working in a town site office, managed the allocation of apartments and houses on behalf of the people living in town. Utilities such as water and heat were subsidized by the company; the rental cost of accommodation was quite reasonable permitting the residents of Ocean Falls to live rather inexpensively. In the nearby Martin Valley, residents could purchase their own single-family houses. However, in most cases the company offered a buy-back option to protect the purchaser; the town consisted of a blend of large apartments and single-family homes. Most of the buildings were located on the steep slope of the Caro Marion mountain; the town's main store and several other smaller businesses were located along the harbour front. The Ocean Falls Court House, the Legion Hall, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police building and the Post office are in the harbour area. Most of the roads leading up the hills away from the harbour area were constructed timber roads.
These roads were capable of carrying large vehicles such as trucks or fire engines. There were few cars in town and only one taxi cab. Most of the cars were owned by people; the harbour was well protected from most wind directions and there was plenty of dock space for local as well as visiting boaters. The harbour was kept dredged. There were float planes departing every day. Larger amphibious planes such as Grumman Goose and Mallards were flying passengers in from Vancouver and other larger settlements; the town was served by freighters which would bring in supplies from Vancouver. The only cruise ship that called at Ocean Falls was Holland America's SS Rotterdam on May 18, 1997; the ship was chartered by Wells Gray Tours. The town had only 50 residents, but they hosted 1,100 visitors. There was hope that other Alaska-bound cruise ships would start to visit Ocean Falls, but it never happened. There is a sign on the road that reads "July 13, 1929, Give to the world the best you have and the best
Sir Alexander Mackenzie Provincial Park
Sir Alexander Mackenzie Provincial Park is a provincial park in British Columbia, Canada. Located at the mouth of Elcho Harbour on Dean Channel, it enshrines the farthest point west reached by Alexander Mackenzie in 1793 and the rock he marked to commemorate his journey; the Park and monument can only be reached by boat. If seas are calm, a float plane landing may be possible. There are no facilities at this park; the nearest communities are Ocean Falls to the west. BC Parks webpage "Sir Alexander Mackenzie Park". BC Geographical Names
Kitimat is a district municipality in the North Coast region of British Columbia, Canada. It is a member municipality of the Regional District of Kitimat-Stikine regional government; the Kitimat Valley is part of the most populous urban district in northwest British Columbia, which includes Terrace to the north along the Skeena River Valley. The city was built by the Aluminum Company of Canada during the 1950s. Kitimat's municipal area is 242.63 km2. It is located on tidewater in one of the few flat valleys on the coast of British Columbia; the 2011 census recorded 8,335 citizens. The District of Kitimat Development Services situates the port of Kitimat as an integral part of the Northwest Corridor connecting North America to the Pacific Ocean and the Pacific Rim. "Kitimat" in the Tsimshian language refers to the Haisla First Nation as the "People of the Snow". Before 1950 the Kitimat township was a small fishing village at the head of the Kitimat Arm of the Douglas Channel, a deepwater fjord; the municipal town of Kitimat came into existence in the 1950s after the Provincial Government of British Columbia invited Alcan to develop hydroelectric facilities to support one of the most power-intensive of all industries – the aluminum smelting industry.
The company built a dam, 16 km tunnel, powerhouse, 82 km transmission line, a deep sea terminal and smelter. The company designed, laid out and assisted with the initial construction of the city. At the time, the combined development was considered "the most expensive project attempted by private industry."Alcan employed the services of city planner Clarence Stein in order to ensure the community design facilitated an environment that would attract and retain workers, although Alcan intended it to not be a company town. Today, Kitimat benefits from the quality of planning resulting from the Garden City design concept. Stein's design kept industry well separated from the community with large areas for expansion, he created looped streets surrounding an urban city centre mall and linked by over 45 km of walkways connecting to all areas of the community. The substantial greenspace areas and future expansion concepts designed by Stein have been upheld to this day by the city planners, thereby resulting in a low-density settlement pattern interspersed with forested patches.
The Alcan-based city origin and land provenance remain documented in the form of restrictive covenants registered on title. Aluminum producer Rio Tinto is the main employer in the municipality. Local government, small manufacturing and service/retail are secondary contributors. Secondary core activities include engineering, import of petrochemical products, metal fabrication. $5 billion in manufacturing investment is anticipated in the 2010–2015 period with a further $5 plus billion in the investigative stage over the next decade. Anticipated investment includes an $2 billion modernization to the Rio Tinto Alcan facilities and $3 billion in the Kitimat liquefied natural gas export development on Haisla Industrial Land at Bish Creek; the export facility would see natural gas piped in from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin and shipped to Asian markets. The LNG Canada project, a joint venture between Shell and affiliates of Mitsubishi Corp. Korea Gas Corp. and PetroChina Investment Ltd. would, if permitted, begin construction in 2015 of a gas pipeline from northeastern BC and a LNG export terminal with an expected lifespan of 30 years.
The terminal, located on the Douglas Channel near the aluminum refinery, would be able to accommodate two LNG vessels at a time. Annual volume would be 24 million tonnes. In July 2014 the Financial Post reported that Apache Corp. will "completely exit" the Kitimat LNG mega-project planned for B. C.'s West Coast. The U. S. hedge fund Jana Partners LLC has pressured Houston-based Apache to sell its 50% stake in the BC shale gas plays. Pending energy projects that have identified Kitimat as a strategic gateway include Pacific Northern Gas's Pacific Trail Pipeline and the Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipelines. Additional investigations into clean energy developments include a Kitimat port development project featuring break-bulk port facilities and consideration of the best uses for the former Eurocan Wharf. In addition, the decommissioning of the former Eurocan pulp and paper facilities or a slimmed down operation are still under consideration. There is renewed interest in mineral development potential in the Kitimat area.
The neighbouring community of Terrace is in advanced stages of approval for a number of clean energy projects along with the associated infrastructure for linking those projects to the provincial electrical grid. Air services for the community are provided through Northwest Regional Airport, with connections to Prince George and Vancouver. In the 1920s, the provincial government of British Columbia extensively evaluated the province's hydroelectric generating potential. In the late 1940s, the Canadian Government sought to tap the untapped resources of northwest British Columbia. All this led to the identification of the Eutsuk/Ootsa/Nechako River drainage basin as a potential site for a sizable reservoir; the potential of this vast system of rivers and lakes prompted British Columbia to invite Alcan to conduct a detailed investigation of the area. Alcan was searching for a site for a large aluminum smelter, an activity requiring vast amounts of electricity. Alcan concluded that the area was more than adequate to generate the required electricity, decided to build a smel
Williams Lake, British Columbia
Williams Lake is a city in the Central Interior of British Columbia, Canada. Located in the central part of a region known as the Cariboo, it is the largest urban centre between Kamloops and Prince George, with a population of 10,832 in city limits. Williams Lake hosts the annual Williams Lake Stampede, which takes place over the Canada Day long weekend, it is the home town of Rick Hansen, the Canadian paraplegic athlete and activist for people with spinal cord injuries, who became famous during his fundraising Man in Motion world tour. Williams Lake is named in honour of Secwepemc chief William, whose counsel prevented the Shuswap from joining the Tsilhqot'in in their uprising against the settler population; the story of Williams Lake begins as much as 4000 years ago. The story of Williams Lake written by those coming into the region from outside begins in 1860 during the Cariboo Gold Rush when Gold Commissioner Philip Henry Nind and William Pinchbeck, a constable with the British Columbia Provincial Police, arrived from Victoria to organize a local government and maintain law and order.
At the time, two pack trails led to the goldfields, one from the Douglas Road and the other through the Fraser Canyon. They met at Williams Lake, which made it a good choice for merchants. By 1861, Commissioner Nind had requested the funds to build a jail. With the centre of local government being at Williams Lake, the miners and businessmen all had to travel there to conduct their business and soon the town had a post office, a courthouse, a roadhouse and the jail that Nind had requested. Meanwhile, William Pinchbeck had not been idle and had built his own roadhouse and store, he would own most of the valley. In 1863, the town was excited by the news of the construction of Cariboo Road, believing it would pass through their established and important trading centre. However, the roadbuilder Gustavus Blin Wright rerouted the original trail so that it bypassed Williams Lake and went through 150 Mile House instead; the Williams Lake by-pass doomed the city and accusations flew that Gustavus Blin Wright had changed the route for his own personal benefit as he owned a roadhouse at Deep Creek along the new route.
Regardless of Wright's motives, Williams Lake was forgotten and wouldn't be reborn until over half a century in 1919 with the construction of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway BC Rail and now CN Rail. In July 2017, the province of British Columbia declared a state of emergency with more than 200 fires burning in the central region of the province. Residents from Williams Lake along with other communities in central British Columbia such as Ashcroft and 100 Mile House were given evacuation orders and most of those affected went to either Prince George or Kamloops. Below is the ethnic origin of people from Williams Lake. Note that percentages total more than 100% due to multiple responses e.g. German-East Indian, Norwegian-Irish-Polish; the primary industries in Williams Lake are forestry, sawmilling and ranching. Williams Lake has a humid continental climate with warm summers. Spring is the driest time of year, summer and winter are the wettest seasons respectively. Williams Lake receives about 2,000 hours of bright sunshine per year, more than most of the province.
It is located in the rain shadow of the coastal mountains. The lowest temperature recorded in Williams Lake was −42.8 °C on 22 January 1943, the highest temperature recorded was 41.1 °C on 16 & 17 July 1941. Williams Lake – along with Billings, nearby McLeese Lake – holds the record for the highest maximum temperature recorded in the province during the month of September; this occurred on September 4, 1988. The Williams Lake Airport weather station is at an elevation of 939.7 m while the Williams Lake River weather station is at 585.2 m, a difference of 354.5 m. Thus the average temperature is warmer in the city proper than the table below displays. Williams Lake is served by Cariboo-Chilcotin School District 27, it has five public elementary schools teaching up to three StrongStart BC centres. These are Cataline Elementary, Chilcotin Road Elementary, Marie Sharpe Elementary, Mountview Elementary, Nesika Elementary. There is SD 27 OR#1 Wildwood, a StrongStart Outreach Centre. One secondary school, Lake City Secondary School, formed by an merger of Columneetza Secondary School and Williams Lake Secondary School in 2013, teaches grade 7 to 12 students.
Alternative education provision is met by the Graduation Routes Other Ways centre and the Skyline Alternate School program. The GROW Centre offers grades 10–12 for adults. Anne Stevenson Secondary School was closed in 2003 due to falling numbers of students. There are four independent schools in Williams Lake, West Coast Adventist DL School, Sacred Heart Catholic School, Maranatha Christian School and Cariboo Adventist Academy. Thompson Rivers University has a campus in Williams Lake and offers a wide variety of programs and courses including university transfers and diploma programs and safety certification and technology, university and career preparation; the Cariboo Chilcotin Elder College is a local affiliate of Thompson Rivers University that offers programs and opportunities for people who are 50 years of age and older and interested in participating in the programs and special events run by the college. The Williams Lake Stampeders are the local ice hockey team, playing in the Central Interior Hockey League.
The Nuxalk people referred to as the Bella Coola, Bellacoola or Bilchula, are an Indigenous First Nation in Canada, living in the area in and around Bella Coola, British Columbia. Their language is called Nuxalk, their tribal government is the Nuxalk Nation. The name "Bella Coola" used in academic writing, is not preferred by the Nuxalk; the Nuxalk peoples, known today collectively as Nuxalkmc, are made up of lineages representing several ancestral villages within their territory. From Kimsquit, known as Sutslhm in the Nuxalk language, come the Sutslhmc. From the Dean River come the Nutl'lmc, as well as lineages from the upper Dean River. From South Bentinck Arm come the Talyumc of Tallheo, from the villages at the Nuwikw and Asiiqw rivers. From Kwalhna/Kwatna, Kwatna Inlet, come the Kwalhnmc, from several villages. From King Island come the Istamc, from the Bella Coola River come the Nuxalk-mc, from some twenty five Nuxalk villages extending all the way up to Stuwic and beyond up both the Atnarko and Talchako rivers.
These were all gathered in their current location in the Bella Coola Valley by a combination of negotiation with Chief Pootlass and through government pressure, settling together based on cultural and linguistic similarities, reinforced by a large number of marriages arranged to ease the transition. As all these communities now resided on the Nuxalk river, they took the collective name of Nuxalkmc, their language has come to be knows as ItNuxalkmc. Not everyone settled within the current communities in that valley, as such the Nuxalk share many family ties with their neighbours and beyond, most extensively with the Heiltsuk. Before contact, the Nuxalk population is estimated to have been 35,000, according to oral histories and academic research, although Mooney in 1928 estimated that there were 1,400 Nuxalk in 1780. In 1862 the great smallpox epidemic of that year reduced the Nuxalk to only 300 survivors by 1864. In 1902, according to Mooney, there were 302. Nuxalk people were scattered throughout the territory and either relocated on their own to survive, or were forcibly removed by the Department of Indian Affairs, to form a settlement in what is now known as the Bella Coola Valley.
Knowledge of family ancestry remains strong among the Nuxalk, including villages of descent, family crests, as well as songs and dances that recount the history and myth in smayustas. Nuxalk religion includes a belief in a father God, his son, a spirit deity. There is a goddess in Nuxalk spiritual beliefs, Qamayts. Many Nuxalk embraced the Christian religion because of strong similarities between this Trinity of Father and Holy Spirit shared by the Nuxalk religion and Christianity. Nuxalk society embraces traditional beliefs; the Nuxalk as a people and via their government maintain rights and title to their entire traditional territory and continue to strive to maintain their traditional systems of governance, basing it in their long and rich cultural history and continued use and occupation. The Nuxalk Nation has long asserted its rights and obligations and has never ceded, surrendered, nor lost traditional lands through act of war or by treaty; the Nuxalk remain against entering any treaty process.
Current Indian and Northern Affairs Canada population estimates indicate a total Nuxalk population of 1400 with nearly 900 of those living on the Nuxalk reserve in Bella Coola. However, according to the traditional Nuxalk government, the true Nuxalk population is closer to 3,000; this number includes people of Nuxalk ancestry who are not registered with the Nuxalk Nation or may be registered to another band government. Fort McLoughlin List of Nuxalk villages At Home With the Bella Coola Indians: T. F. McIlwraith's Field Letters, 1922... on Googlebooks, search for "Nuxalk" Nuxalk Nation Home Page map of Northwest Coast First Nations Nuxalk Peoples, Bella Coola Museum website