Ralph Nader is an American political activist, author and attorney, noted for his involvement in consumer protection and government reform causes. The son of Lebanese immigrants to the United States, Nader was educated at Princeton and Harvard and first came to prominence in 1965 with the publication of the bestselling book Unsafe at Any Speed, a critique of the safety record of American automobile manufacturers that became known as one of the most important journalistic pieces of the 20th century. Following the publication of Unsafe at Any Speed, Nader led a group of volunteer law students—dubbed "Nader's Raiders"—in a groundbreaking investigation of the Federal Trade Commission, leading directly to that agency's overhaul and reform. In the 1970s, Nader leveraged his growing popularity to establish a number of advocacy and watchdog groups including the Public Interest Research Group, the Center for Auto Safety, Public Citizen. Nader's activism has been directly credited with the passage of several landmark pieces of American consumer protection legislation including the Clean Water Act, the Freedom of Information Act, the Consumer Product Safety Act, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the Whistleblower Protection Act, the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act.
He has been named to lists of the "100 Most Influential Americans", including those published by Life Magazine, Time Magazine, The Atlantic, among others. He ran for President of the United States on several occasions as an independent and third party candidate, using the campaigns to highlight under-reported issues and a perceived need for electoral reform, his 2000 candidacy stirred controversy, with several studies suggesting that Nader's candidacy helped Republican George W. Bush win a close election against Democrat Al Gore. During the election, Nader had stated. A two-time Nieman Fellow, Nader is the author or co-author of more than two dozen books, was the subject of a documentary film on his life and work, An Unreasonable Man, which debuted at the 2006 Sundance Film Festival. Ralph Nader was born in Winsted, Connecticut, to Nathra and Rose Nader, both of whom were immigrants from Lebanon. After settling in Connecticut, Nathra Nader worked in a textile mill before opening a bakery and restaurant.
Ralph Nader helped at his father's restaurant, as well as worked as a newspaper delivery boy for the local paper, the Winsted Register Citizen. Nader graduated from The Gilbert School in 1951. Though offered a scholarship to Princeton, Nader's father forced him to decline the offer on the grounds that the family was able to pay Nader's tuition and the funds should go to a student who could not afford it. Nader graduated magna cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa with a Bachelor of Arts from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs in 1955. After graduating from Princeton, Nader began studying at Harvard Law School, though he became bored by his courses. While at Harvard, Nader would skip classes to hitchhike across the U. S. where he would engage in field research on migrant worker rights. He earned a LL. B. from Harvard in 1958. In his youth Nader identified with Libertarian philosophy. However, he changed his mind in his "early 20s", he "didn't like public housing because it disadvantaged landlords."
However, his view changed when he "saw the slums and what landlords did."After graduating from Harvard, Nader served in the U. S. Army as a cook and was posted to Fort Dix. In 1959 Nader was admitted to the bar and began practice as a lawyer in Hartford, while lecturing at the University of Hartford and traveling to the Soviet Union and Cuba, where he filed dispatches for the Christian Science Monitor and The Nation. In 1964, he moved to Washington, D. C. taking a position as a consultant to Assistant Secretary of Labor Daniel Patrick Moynihan. Nader was first propelled into the national spotlight with the 1965 publication of his journalistic expose Unsafe at Any Speed. Though he had expressed an interest in issues of automobile safety while a law student, Unsafe at Any Speed presented a critical dissection of the automotive industry by claiming that many American automobiles were unsafe to operate. Nader researched case files from more than 100 lawsuits pending against General Motors' Chevrolet Corvair to support his assertions.
The book became an immediate bestseller but prompted a vicious backlash from General Motors who attempted to discredit Nader by tapping his phone in an attempt to uncover salacious information and, when that failed, hiring prostitutes in an attempt to catch him in a compromising situation. Nader, by working as an unpaid consultant to United States Senator Abe Ribicoff, reported to the senator that he suspected he was being followed. Ribicoff convened an inquiry that called GM CEO James Roche who admitted, when placed under oath, that the company had hired a private detective agency to investigate Nader. Nader sued GM for invasion of privacy, settling the case for $425,000 and using the proceeds to found the activist organization the Center for the Study of Responsive Law. A year following the publication of Unsafe at Any Speed, Congress unanimously enacted the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act. Speaker of the United States House of Representatives John William McCormack said the passage of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act was due to the "crusading spirit of one individual who believed he could do something: Ralph Nader".
In 1968 Nader recruited seven volunteer law students, dubbed "Nader's Raiders" by the Washington press corps, to evaluate the eff
Green Party of the United States
The Green Party of the United States is a green federation of political parties in the United States. The party promotes green politics environmentalism. On the political spectrum, the party is seen as left-wing; the GPUS was founded in 2001 as the evolution of the Association of State Green Parties, formed in 1996. After its founding, the GPUS soon became the primary national green organization in the country, eclipsing the Greens/Green Party USA, which formed in 1991 out of the Green Committees of Correspondence, a collection of local green groups active since 1984; the ASGP had distanced itself from the G/GPUSA in the late 1990s. The Greens gained widespread public attention during the 2000 presidential election, when the ticket composed of Ralph Nader and Winona LaDuke won 2.7% of the popular vote. Nader was vilified by many Democrats and some Greens, who accused him of spoiling the election for Al Gore, the Democratic candidate. Nader maintains; the political movement that began in 1985 as the decentralized Committees of Correspondence evolved into a more centralized structure by 1990, opening a national clearinghouse and forming governing bodies, bylaws and a platform as the Green Committees of Correspondence and by 1990 The Greens.
The organization conducted grassroots organizing efforts, educational activities and electoral campaigns. Internal divisions arose between members who saw electoral politics as corrupting and supported the notion of an "anti-party party" formed by Petra Kelly and other leaders of the Greens in Germany vs. those who saw electoral strategies as a crucial engine of social change. A struggle for the direction of the organization culminated a "compromise agreement", ratified in 1990 at the Greens National Congress in Elkins, West Virginia and in which both strategies would be accommodated within the same 527 political organization renamed the Greens/Green Party USA, it was recognized by the FEC as a national political party in 1991. The compromise agreement subsequently collapsed and two Green party organizations have co-existed in the United States since; the Green Politics Network was organized in 1990 and the National Association of Statewide Green Parties formed by 1994. Divisions between those pressing to break onto the national political stage and those aiming to grow roots at the local level continued to widen during the 1990s.
The Association of State Green Parties encouraged and backed Nader's presidential runs in 1996 and 2000. By 2001, the push to separate electoral activity from the G/GPUSA issue-based organizing led to the Boston Proposal and subsequent rise of the Green Party of the United States; the G/GPUSA lost most of its affiliates in the following months and dropped its FEC national party status in 2005. In 2016, Mark Salazar set a new record for a Green Party nominee for Congress. Running in the Arizona 8th district against incumbent Republican Congressman Trent Franks, Salazar received 93,954 votes or 31.43%. The GPUS follows the ideals of green politics, which are based on the Four Pillars, namely ecological wisdom, social justice, grassroots democracy and nonviolence; the Ten Key Values, which expand upon the Four Pillars, are as follows: Grassroots democracy Social justice and equal opportunity Ecological wisdom Nonviolence Decentralization Community-based economics Feminism and gender equality Respect for diversity Personal and global responsibility Future focus and sustainabilityPeter Camejo was quoted in 2002 as claiming that he was a watermelon—green on the outside, but red on the inside.
In January 2004, he initiated the Avocado Declaration. "An avocado is Green on the outside and Green on the inside". The Declaration goes on to explain that Greens have a vital role in bringing democracy to the otherwise undemocratic two party system of the United States; the Green Party does not accept donations from corporations, political action committees, 527 organizations or soft money. The party's platforms and rhetoric harshly criticize corporate influence and control over government and society at large; the party supports the implementation of a single-payer healthcare system. They have called for contraception and abortion procedures to be available on demand; the Green Party calls for providing tuition-free college at public universities and vocational schools, increasing funding for after-school and daycare programs, cancelling all student loan debt, repealing the No Child Left Behind Act. They are against the dissolution of public schools and the privatization of education; the party favors the abolition of the death penalty, repeal of three-strikes laws, banning of private prisons, legalization of marijuana, decriminalization of other drugs.
The Green Party advocates for "complete and full" reparations to the African American community, as well the removal of the Confederate flag from all government buildings. The party supports same-sex marriage, the right of access to medical and surgical treatment for sex reassignment, withdrawing foreign aid to countries with poor LGBT+ rights records; the Green Party calls on the United States to join the International Criminal Court, sign the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and Non-Proliferation Treaty. Additionally, it supports cutting the defense budget
Federal Election Commission
The Federal Election Commission is an independent regulatory agency whose purpose is to enforce campaign finance law in United States federal elections. Created in 1974 through amendments to the Federal Election Campaign Act, the commission describes its duties as "to disclose campaign finance information, to enforce the provisions of the law such as the limits and prohibitions on contributions, to oversee the public funding of Presidential elections." The Commission is made up of six members, who are appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate. Each member serves a six-year term, two seats are subject to appointment every two years. By law, no more than three Commissioners can be members of the same political party, at least four votes are required for any official Commission action; the chairmanship of the Commission rotates among the members each year, with no member serving as chairman more than once during a six-year term. However, a member may serve as chairman more than once by serving beyond the six-year mark if no successor is appointed.
The Commission's role is limited to the administration of federal campaign finance laws. It enforces limitations and prohibitions on contributions and expenditures, administers the reporting system for campaign finance disclosure and prosecutes violations, audits a limited number of campaigns and organizations for compliance, administers the presidential public funding programs for presidential candidates and, until nominating conventions, defends the statute in challenges to federal election laws and regulations; the FEC publishes reports filed by Senate, House of Representatives and Presidential campaigns that list how much each campaign has raised and spent, a list of all donors over $200, along with each donor's home address and job title. This database goes back to 1980. Private organizations are prohibited from using these data to solicit new individual donors, but may use this information to solicit Political Action Committees; the FEC maintains an active program of public education, directed to explaining the law to the candidates, their campaigns, political parties and other political committees that it regulates.
Critics of the FEC, including campaign finance reform supporters such as Common Cause and Democracy 21, have complained that it is a classic example of regulatory capture where it serves the interests of the ones it was intended to regulate. The FEC's bipartisan structure, established by Congress, renders the agency "toothless." Critics claim that most FEC penalties for violating election law come well after the actual election in which they were committed. Additionally, some critics claim that the commissioners tend to act as an arm of the "regulated community" of parties, interest groups, politicians when issuing rulings and writing regulations. Others point out, that the commissioners divide evenly along partisan lines, that the response time problem may be endemic to the enforcement procedures established by Congress. To complete steps necessary to resolve a complaint – including time for defendants to respond to the complaint, time to investigate and engage in legal analysis, where warranted, prosecution – takes far longer than the comparatively brief period of a political campaign.
Critics including former FEC chairman Bradley Smith and Stephen M. Hoersting, executive director of the Center for Competitive Politics, criticize the FEC for pursuing overly aggressive enforcement theories that amount to an infringement on the First Amendment right to free speech. Division over the issue became prominent during the last several years of the Obama administration. Commissioners deadlocked on several votes over whether to regulate Twitter and other online mediums for political speech, as well as a vote to punish Fox News for the selection criteria it used in a presidential debate. Democrats argued for more regulation on the basis that it would protect consumers and encourage more inclusive political speech. Republicans opposed regulation, with former chairman Lee E. Goodman accusing Democrats of trying to alter the First Amendment by "administrative fiat." Critics of the Commission argue that the membership structure causes deadlocks on 3-3 votes, but others argue that deadlocks are quite rare, based on principle rather than partisanship.
Since 2008, 3-3 votes have become more common at the FEC. From 2008 to August 2014, the FEC has had over 200 tie votes, accounting for 14 percent of all votes in enforcement matters. Joan D. Aikens – April 1975 – September 1998. Thomas B. Curtis – April 1975 – May 1976. Thomas E. Harris – April 1975 – October 1986. Neil O. Staebler – April 1975 – October 1978. Vernon W. Thomson – April 1975 – June 1979. Robert Tiernan – April 1975 – December 1981. William L. Springer – May 1976 – February 1979. John Warren McGarry – October 1978 – August 1998. Max L. Friedersdorf – March 1979 – December 1980. Frank P. Reiche – July 1979 – August 1985. Lee Ann Elliott – December 1981 – June 2000. Danny L. McDonald – December 1981 – January 2006 (reappointed in July 1987
Boulder is the home rule municipality, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County, United States. It is the state's 11th most populous municipality; the city is 25 miles northwest of Denver. The population of the City of Boulder was 97,385 people at the 2010 U. S. Census, while the population of the Boulder, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area was 294,567. Boulder is known for its association with American frontier history and for being the home of the main campus of the University of Colorado, the state's largest university; the city receives high rankings in art, well-being, quality of life, education. Boulder City was a part of the Nebraska Territory until February 28, 1861, when the Territory of Colorado was created by the US Congress, it developed as a supply base for miners going into the mountains. Residents of Boulder City provided these miners with equipment, agricultural products and drinking establishments. On November 7, 1861, legislation was passed making way for the state university to be located in Boulder, on September 20, 1875, the first cornerstone was laid for the first building on the CU campus.
The university opened on September 5, 1877. Boulder adopted an anti-saloon ordinance in 1907. Statewide prohibition started in Colorado in 1916 and ended with the repeal of national prohibition in 1933; as of the 2010 census, there were 97,385 people, 41,302 households, 16,694 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,942.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 43,479 housing units at an average density of 1,760.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.0% White, 0.9% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 4.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.2% some other race, 2.6% from two or more races. 8.7% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 41,302 households, out of which 19.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% were headed by married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 59.6% were non-families. 35.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.1% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.16, the average family size was 2.84. Boulder's population is younger than the national average due to the presence of university students; the median age at the 2010 census was 28.7 years compared to the U. S. median of 37.2 years. In Boulder, 13.9% of the residents were younger than the age of 18, 29.1% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 8.9% were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females, there were 105.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and older, there were 106.2 males. In 2011 the estimated median household income in Boulder was $57,112, the median family income was $113,681. Male full-time workers had a median income of $71,993 versus $47,574 for females; the per capita income for the city was $37,600. 24.8% of the population and 7.6% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 17.4% of those under the age of 18 and 6.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Boulder housing tends to be priced higher than surrounding areas.
For the 2nd quarter of 2006, the median single-family home in Boulder sold for $548,000 and the median attached dwelling sold for $262,000. According to the National Association of Realtors, during the same period the median value of one-family homes nationwide was $227,500; the median price of a home exceeded $1 million in July 2016. The city of Boulder is in Boulder Valley. West of the city are slabs of sedimentary stone tilted up on the foothills, known as the Flatirons; the Flatirons are a recognized symbol of Boulder. The primary water flow through the city is Boulder Creek; the creek was named well ahead of the city's founding, for all of the large granite boulders that have cascaded into the creek over the eons. It is from Boulder Creek. Boulder Creek has significant water flow, derived from snow melt and minor springs west of the city; the creek is a tributary of the South Platte River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.7 square miles. 24.7 square miles of it is land and 1.0 square mile of it is water.
The 40th parallel runs through Boulder and can be recognized as Baseline Road today. Boulder lies in a wide basin beneath Flagstaff Mountain just a few miles east of the continental divide and about 25 miles northwest of Denver. Arapahoe Glacier provides water for the city, along with Boulder Creek, which flows through the center of the city. Denver International Airport is located 45 miles southeast of Boulder. Boulder has a temperate climate typical for much of the state and receives many sunny or sunny days each year. Under the Köppen climate classification, the city has a semi-arid climate. Winter conditions range from mild to the occasional bitterly cold, with highs averaging in the mid to upper 40s °F. There are 4.6 nights annually when the temperature reaches 0 °F. Because of orographic lift, the mountains to the west dry out the air passing over the Front Range shielding the city from precipitation in winter, though heavy falls may occur. Snowfall averages 88 inches per season, but snow depth is shallow.