A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
City Slickers is a 1991 American western comedy film, directed by Ron Underwood and starring Billy Crystal, Daniel Stern, Bruno Kirby, Jack Palance, with supporting roles by Patricia Wettig, Helen Slater, Noble Willingham. The film's screenplay was written by Lowell Ganz and Babaloo Mandel, it was shot in New York City. A sequel City Slickers II: The Legend of Curly's Gold was released in 1994, with the same cast, with the exception of Kirby, replaced by Jon Lovitz. In Pamplona, Mitch Robbins, a radio advertisement executive, participates in the annual San Fermín festival, along with friends Ed Furillo and Phil Berquist. Back in New York City, Mitch has turned 39 years old and realizes his trips are to escape the reality of going through a midlife crisis. Phil and Ed have problems of their own: Phil is trapped in a 12-year loveless marriage to his shrew wife, Arlene. At Mitch's birthday party, Phil and Ed present a gift of a two-week cattle drive from New Mexico to Colorado. Phil is confronted by a co-worker, who accidentally reveals a pregnancy and thus her affair with Phil, which leads to his separation from Arlene.
Despite Mitch's plans to go to Florida with his wife Barbara to visit her parents, Barbara makes him go instead with his friends to search for a purpose in his life. In New Mexico, Phil and Ed meet the ranch owner, Clay Stone, their fellow drivers: Barry and Ira Shalowitz, a comical pair of ice cream entrepreneur brothers, Bonnie, a young beauty with a recent romantic break-up, Ben and Steve Jessup, a father and son. Mitch develops a rift with the ranch's professional abusive cowboys, Jeff and T. R. when they harass Bonnie. The standoff is stopped by the trail boss, who inadvertently humiliates Mitch in front of his friends. During the drive, as Mitch, Phil and Ed begin to change their outlook on life, Mitch accidentally causes a stampede which wrecks most of the camp. In retribution, Curly orders him to help gather the lost cows, but over time, the two develop a bond when Mitch learns that Curly, despite his tough exterior, is a wise and heartfelt man. Curly advises Mitch to discover the "one thing" in his life, the most important to him, which will solve all of his problems.
Along the way, Mitch helps deliver a calf from a dying cow. Mitch adopts the calf and names. After this, everyone has a small communion meal. Curly dies of a heart attack, leaving the drive under Jeff and T. R.. Trouble begins when the cook, gets drunk and accidentally destroys their food supply, breaking his leg in the process. After the Jessups volunteer to take him back to the ranch, Jeff and T. R. intoxicate themselves with Cookie's hidden stash. A fight ensues when they threaten to kill assault Mitch. Phil and Ed intervene and a fight ensues which culminates when Phil holds Jeff and T. R. at unleashes a withheld stress on them. Jeff and T. R. abandon them to avoid reprisals from Clay Stone. Though Bonnie tries to assist the cattle, the Shalowitzes decide to leave the herd to seek out civilization. Ed, with Phil's assistance, decides to try to finish the drive. Mitch, at first adamant in leaving them on their own, has a change of heart and joins them while the others continue to Colorado. After braving a heavy storm, they manage to drive the herd to Colorado, but Norman gets stuck in the river.
Mitch saves him but they are both swept away with the current. Phil and Ed only manage to save them both and overcome their crises while resting on the bank, they reach Clay Stone's ranch in Colorado shortly afterwards. Clay Stone offers to reimburse everyone's money for their troubles, but when the Jessups ask instead for another chance to drive the cattle again Clay reveals that he is selling the herd to a meat company. Despite the fact that they believe that they saved the cattle for nothing, Phil and Ed decide to rebuild their lives, Mitch purchases Norman from Clay Stone to save him from slaughter; when the two weeks are up, Mitch returns to New York City with Phil and Ed as a happier man, reunites with his wife Barbara and his children while bringing Norman home for a few days until he can be placed in a petting zoo. Phil begins a relationship with Bonnie, Ed becomes open to the idea of having children. Mitch drives the freeway, ready to start life with a new vision; the film's plot, which consists of inexperienced cowboys battling villains as they press on with their cattle drive after the death of their leader, was conceived to be similar to John Wayne's The Cowboys, although, a Western drama as opposed to a comedy.
In his 2013 memoir, Still Foolin' Em, Billy Crystal writes of how the casting of the film came about. "Palance," he says, "was the first choice from the beginning, but had a commitment to make another film." He wrote that he contacted Charles Bronson about the part, only to be rudely rebuffed because the character dies. Palance got out of his other obligation to join the cast. Rick Moranis, however cast as Phil, had to leave the production due to his wife's illness. Daniel Stern was a late replacement in the role; the film received a "Fresh" score of 88% on Rotten Tomatoes based on 33 reviews. Jack Palance, for his role as Curly, won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, the only Oscar nomination it received, his acceptance speech for the award is best remembered for his demonstration of one-armed push-ups, which he claimed convinced studio insurance agents that he was healthy enough to work on it. Billy Crystal was hosting the Academy Awards th
Bodyline is an Australian 1984 television miniseries which dramatised the events of the 1932–1933 English Ashes cricket tour of Australia. The title refers to the bodyline cricketing tactic devised by the English cricket team during their 1932–33 Ashes tour of Australia; the events leading up to the England Cricket Team's 1932-1933 Ashes tour of Australia and the tactics, of bowling directly at the batsman, used by the English cricket team to counteract the extraordinary batting prowess of Australian cricketer Donald Bradman during the Ashes series. Hugo Weaving as Douglas Jardine Gary Sweet as Donald Bradman Jim Holt as Harold Larwood Rhys McConnochie as Pelham "Plum" Warner John Gregg as Percy Fender Heather Mitchell as Edith Clarke John Walton as Bill Woodfull John Doyle as George "Gubby" Allen Frank Thring as Lord Harris Ashok Banthia as the Nawab of Pataudi Jane Harders as Mrs Jardine Julie Nihill as Jessie Bradman Max Cullen as Chooka Vincent Ball as Joseph Lyons, the Prime Minister of Australia Colin Croft as Sir Stanley Jackson Richard Carter as Bill Voce Bill Young as Bill Bowes Alan David Lee as Eddie Paynter Terry Bader as Bob Wyatt Michael Winchester as Stan McCabe Michael O'Neill as Vic Richardson Leslie Dayman as Bert Oldfield John Sheerin as Bill Ponsford Lauri Moran as Bert Ironmonger George Whaley as Lord Hawke Celia De Burgh as Mrs Larwood Reg Gillam as Sir Clive Wigram Edward Howell as Lord Hailsham Paul Chubb as "Yabba" Arthur Dignam as Mr Jardine John Clayton as Mr Bradman Peter Whitford as Robertson Peter Dahlsen as Les Ames Hark Hope as Herbert Sutcliffe Michael Jay as Leyland Bernard Ledger as George Duckworth Doug Middleton as Walter Wally Ron Stephenson as Hedley Verity Stewart Faichney as Alan Kippax Robert Giltinan as Leo O'Brien Ross Hall as Bill O'Reilly Scott Lowe as Tim Wall Ned Manning as Jack Fingleton Peter Philpott as Clarrie Grimmett Michael Winchester as Stan McCabe Brian Anderson as Umpire Hele Brian McDermott as Frank Packer The producers were George Miller.
The directors were Lex Marinos, George Ogilvie and Carl Schultz. The scriptwriters for the mini-series were Robert Caswell, Lex Marinos, Denny Lawrence and Terry Hayes; the music for the mini-series was written by Phillip Scott. Photography was by Andrew Lesnie; the seven-part mini-series was a ratings success, was shown over a four-week period. The UK premiere of the 5 million dollar Bodyline mini-series was broadcast on BBC2 Television in 4:3 picture ratio on consecutive evenings at 9.00pm from Monday 3 June – Friday 7 June 1985 and was shown in the longer, original and uncut version. BBC2 divided the series into 5 parts of varying lengths; the individual original BBC2 episode run-times of the Bodyline mini-series were: 3/6/1985: Part 1 – 85 minutes 4/6/1985: Part 2 – 89 minutes 5/6/1985: Part 3 – 88 minutes 6/6/1985: Part 4 – 89 minutes 7/6/1985: Part 5 – 85 minutesTotal extended run-time: 436 minutes – 7 hours 16 minutes. When shown on Channel 10 Australia in July 1984 over 4 consecutive nights - including extensive advert-breaks - the run-time was approx.
10 hours. Excluding advert breaks: the actual run-time is 7 hours 16 minutes. IMDb and Amazon give the total run-time of the official extensively cut, re-edited and picture-cropped - from the original 4:3 picture ratio to a 16:9 picture ratio - widescreen presentation DVD version as 330 minutes – 5 hours 30 minutes – 7 episodes of approx. 47 minutes each - a total of 329 minutes. Therefore, the original version transmitted in its entirety by BBC2 Television in June 1985 is 1 hour 46 minutes longer than the official Australian DVD version of Bodyline. BBC2 had licence for UK premiere broadcast and one repeat showing before transmission rights reverted to Australian TV Network 10 and Kennedy-Miller for DVD production. "The Dictionary of Performing Arts in Australia — Theatre. Film. Radio. Television — Volume 1" — Ann Atkinson, Linsay Knight, Margaret McPhee — Allen & Unwin Pty. Ltd. 1996 "The Australian Film and Television Companion" — compiled by Tony Harrison — Simon & Schuster Australia, 1994 Bodyline TV mini-series 1985 – original BBC2 Television transmission recording 3–7 June 1985 Don Bradman: Challenging the Myth - Chapter 4: Bodyline and Myth – Page: 62 - Brett Hutchins 2002 Bodyline on IMDb Bodyline at Australian Screen Online
Waterworld is a 1995 American post-apocalyptic science fiction action film directed by Kevin Reynolds and co-written by Peter Rader and David Twohy. It was based on Rader's original 1986 screenplay and stars Kevin Costner, who produced it with Charles Gordon and John Davis, it was distributed by Universal Pictures. The setting of the film is in the distant future. Although no exact date was given in the film itself, it has been suggested that it takes place in 2500; the polar ice cap has melted, the sea level has risen over 7,600 m, covering nearly all of the land. The plot of the film centers on an otherwise nameless antihero, "The Mariner", a drifter who sails the Earth in his trimaran; the most expensive film made at the time, Waterworld was released to mixed reviews, praising the futuristic setting and premise but criticizing the characterization and acting performances. The film was unable to recoup its massive budget at the box office; the film was nominated for an Academy Award in the category Best Sound at the 68th Academy Awards.
The film's release was accompanied by a novelization, video game, three themed attractions at Universal Studios Hollywood, Universal Studios Singapore, Universal Studios Japan called Waterworld: A Live Sea War Spectacular, all of which are still running as of 2019. Long after the melting of the polar ice caps in the 21st century, the sea levels have covered every continent on Earth; the remains of human civilization live on ramshackle floating communities known as atolls, having long forgotten about living on land. People believe; the Mariner, a lone drifter, arrives on his trimaran to trade dirt, a rare commodity, for other supplies. The atoll's residents see that the Mariner is a mutant with gills and webbed feet and decide to drown him in the atoll's recycling pit—a kind of liquid compost facility. Just the atoll is attacked by the Smokers, a gang of pirates seeking a girl named Enola who, according to their leader the Deacon, has a map to Dryland tattooed on her back. Enola's guardian, attempts to escape with Enola on a gas balloon with Gregor, an inventor, but the balloon is released too early.
Helen instead insists that he take the two of them with him. The three escape to open sea aboard the trimaran, they are pursued by the Smokers, though they escape, Helen's naïve actions result in damage to the Mariner's boat and he angrily cuts her hair, followed by Enola's hair for taking his crayons. Helen explains that she believes humans once lived on land and demands to know where the Mariner collected his dirt, he provides her with a diving bell and dives with her underwater, showing the remains of a city and the dirt on the ocean's floor, affirming Helen's belief. When they surface, they find that the Smokers have caught up to them, threatening to kill them if they do not reveal Enola, hiding aboard the boat; the Smokers abduct try to kill Helen and the Mariner. The Mariner takes Helen, they dive underwater to avoid capture, with the gilled Mariner helping Helen to breathe; when they surface, they find. Gregor manages to catch up to and rescue them, taking them to a new makeshift atoll inhabited by the survivors of the first attack.
The Mariner takes a captured Smoker's jet ski to chase down the Deacon aboard the hulk of the Exxon Valdez. With most of the Smokers below deck to row the tanker, the Mariner confronts the Deacon, threatening to ignite the reserves of oil still on the tanker unless he returns Enola; the Deacon calls the Mariner's bluff, knowing that would destroy the ship, but, to his surprise, the Mariner drops a flare into the oil. The lower decks of the ship are engulfed in flame, the ship starts to sink; the Mariner rescues Enola and escapes via a rope from Gregor's balloon with Helen and the Atoll Enforcer aboard. As the Mariner brings Enola to Helen, the Deacon manages to grab the rope to escape the sinking ship, he climbs aboard a jet ski. He fires upon shaking Enola from the balloon and into the ocean; as The Deacon and some of his men converge on Enola to capture her, The Mariner makes an impromptu bungee jump from the balloon to grab Enola right before the Deacon and his men collide and die in the explosion.
Sometime Gregor has been able to identify the tattoo on Enola's back as coordinates with reversed directions. Following the map, the Mariner, the Atoll Enforcer and Enola discover Dryland, the top of Mount Everest, filled with vegetation and wildlife, they find a crude hut with the remains of Enola's parents. Realizing he does not belong on Dryland, the Mariner decides that he cannot stay as the sea calls to him, he departs as Helen and Enola bid their goodbyes to him. The film marked the fourth collaboration between Costner and Reynolds, who had worked together on Fandango, Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, Rapa Nui, the latter of which Costner co-produced but did not star in. Waterworld was co-written by David Twohy, who cited Mad Max 2: The Road Warrior as a major inspiration. Both films employed Dean Semler as director of photography. During production, the film was plagued by a series of cost overruns and production setbacks. Universal authorized a budget of $100 million, but production costs ran to an estimated $175 million, a record sum for a film production at the time.
Filming took place in a large artificial seawater enclosure similar to that used
Chris Noonan is an Australian filmmaker and actor. He best known for the family film Babe, for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director and Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay. Encouraged by his father, Noonan made his first short film, Could It Happen Here? when he was sixteen. It won a prize at the Sydney Film Festival and was screened on Australian television. On leaving school in 1970 Noonan went to work for the Commonwealth Film Unit, as a production assistant, assistant editor, production manager and assistant director making short films and documentaries. In 1973 Noonan was in the inaugural intake on the directors' course at the Australian Film Television and Radio School. In 1974 he returned to Film Australia where he worked on a number of films and documentaries, including working as assistant director on the cult movie The Cars That Ate Paris. In 1976 he directed Film Australia's documentary series, "Our Asian Neighbours: India", including a film about Swami Shyam, a teacher of Vedant and Meditation living in the Indian Himalayas.
In 1979 he set up his own production company, in 1980 documented the lives of a troupe of handicapped actors, in the acclaimed Stepping Out, which won the UNESCO prize in 1980 and an Australian Film Institute Award for'Best Documentary' in 1981. He co-wrote and co-directed the Australian mini-series The Cowra Breakout and directed five episodes of the mini-series and made his television movie debut with The Riddle of the Stinson. Noonan served for two years as President of the Australian Screen Directors' Association, in 1990 was appointed for a three-year term as Chairman of the Australian Film Commission. In 1995 he wrote the screenplay, with George Miller, directed the film, his first theatrical feature; the film earned $US280m in its 18-language world theatrical release, a further $US217m in international video sales and was nominated for seven Academy Awards. The film was recognized with many other honors, including BAFTA Award nominations for Film and Adapted Screenplay, he co-produced the popular Davida Allen telemovie, Feeling Sexy, in 1999.
In 2006 he directed the biographical film, Miss Potter, based on the life of children's author Beatrix Potter. Noonan has two further projects including Zebras, a drama set in the final days of apartheid South Africa and The Third Witch, a retelling of William Shakespeare's Macbeth from the perspective of one of the witches, in development. Bulls – Director/Writer 27A – Title Designer The Cars That Ate Paris – Assistant Director Cass – Director Stepping Out – Director/Writer The Cowra Breakout – Director The Riddle of the Stinson – Director Vietnam – Director/Story & Teleplay Police State – Director/Writer Babe – Director/Screenplay Idiot Box Actor Feeling Sexy – Executive Producer A Wreck, a Tangle – Thanks Preservation – Director Mentor Somersault – Script Advisor: Aurora Miss Potter – Director Ticket Out – Executive Producer The Third Witch – Director Zebras – Director Chris Noonan on IMDb
Academy Award for Best Cinematography
The Academy Award for Best Cinematography is an Academy Award awarded each year to a cinematographer for work on one particular motion picture. In its first film season, 1927–28, this award was not tied to a specific film; the problem with this system became obvious the first year, since Karl Struss and Charles Rosher were nominated for their work together on Sunrise but three other films shot individually by either Rosher or Struss were listed as part of the nomination. The second year, 1929, there were no nominations at all, although the Academy has a list of unofficial titles which were under consideration by the Board of Judges. In the third year, 1930, not cinematographers, were nominated, the final award did not show the cinematographer's name. For the 1931 awards, the modern system in which individuals are nominated for a single film each was adopted in all profession-related categories. From 1939 to 1967 with the exception of 1957, there were separate awards for color and for black-and-white cinematography.
Since the only black-and-white films to win are Schindler's List and Roma. Floyd Crosby won the award for Tabu in 1931, the last silent film to win in this category. Hal Mohr won the only write-in Academy Award in 1935 for A Midsummer Night's Dream. Mohr was the first person to win for both black-and-white and color cinematography. No winners are lost, although some of the earliest nominees are lost, including The Devil Dancer, The Magic Flame, Four Devils; the Right to Love is incomplete, Sadie Thompson is incomplete and reconstructed with stills. The first nominees shot on digital video were The Curious Case of Benjamin Button and Slumdog Millionaire in 2009, with Slumdog Millionaire the first winner; the following year Avatar was the first nominee and winner to be shot on digital video. In 2018, Rachel Morrison became the first woman to receive a nomination. Prior to that it had been the last gender-neutral Academy Award category. In 2019, Alfonso Cuarón became the first winner of this category to have served as director on the film, for his film Roma.
Winners are listed first followed by the other nominees. BAFTA Award for Best Cinematography Independent Spirit Award for Best Cinematography Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Cinematography American Society of Cinematographers Award for Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Theatrical Releases Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences official site The Official Academy Awards Database, listing all past nominees and winners
Hoodwink (1981 film)
Hoodwink is a 1981 Australian thriller film directed by Claude Whatham and written by Ken Quinnell. It stars John Hargreaves and Judy Davis; the film is based on the true story of a well-publicised Australian con artist. It was nominated for eight Australian Film Institute Awards, with Davis winning the Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role. Martin Stang, a bank robber decides to pursue another con job, he does this by attempting to convince prison authorities that he is blind and no longer poses a threat to society. Along his journey he befriends Sarah; the pair become intimate during Martin's day release but his con is complicated when he reveals to Sarah that he is not in fact blind. John Hargreaves as Martin Stang Judy Davis as Sarah Dennis Miller as Ralph Wendy Hughes as Lucy Max Cullen as Buster Paul Chubb as Reid Wendy Strehlow as Martin's sister Michael Caton as Shapley Colin Friels as Robert Geoffrey Rush as Detective 1 Lex Marinos as Detective 2 John W Pear as Eye Specialist Dasha Blahova as Eye Specialist's Wife The film is based on the true story of Carl Synnerdahl, a convict who posed as a blind man to get a lighter sentence and had been forced to keep up the deception.
He told his story to literary agent Rosemary Cresswell, doing some work for the Department of Corrective Services, who in turn told the story to producer Errol Sullivan. Several directors were approached to make the movie but turned it down, including Bruce Beresford, Michael Thornhill, Phillip Noyce and Esben Storm. British director Claude Whatham was imported, controversial because the movie was made with funds from the Australian tax payer; the film was not a large success at the box office. However Carl Synnerdahl was released from prison on Errol Sullivan's bond after serving 21 years in prison and he remarried and had three children. Australian Film Institute Awards Australian Film Institute Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role – Judy Davis Australian Film Institute Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role – John Hargreaves Australian Film Institute Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role – Max Cullen Australian Film Institute Award for Best Direction – Claude Whatham Australian Film Institute Award for Best Screenplay, Original or Adapted – Ken Quinnell Australian Film Institute Award for Best Achievement in Editing – Nicholas Beauman Australian Film Institute Award for Best Costume Design – Ross Major Australian Film Institute Award for Best Achievement in Sound – Gary Wilkins/Andrew Steuart/Peter Fenton Hoodwink on IMDb Hoodwink at Oz Movies