Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east and Utah to the south, Washington and Oregon to the west. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. With a population of 1.7 million and an area of 83,569 square miles, Idaho is the 14th largest, the 12th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The state's capital and largest city is Boise. Idaho prior to European settlement was inhabited by Native American peoples, some of whom still live in the area. In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the U. S. and the United Kingdom. It became U. S. territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, instead being included for periods in Oregon Territory and Washington Territory. Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, becoming the 43rd state.
Forming part of the Pacific Northwest, Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. In the state's north, the isolated Idaho Panhandle is linked with Eastern Washington, with which it shares the Pacific Time Zone – the rest of the state uses the Mountain Time Zone; the state's south includes the Snake River Plain, while the south-east incorporates part of the Great Basin. Idaho is quite mountainous, contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains; the United States Forest Service holds about 38 % of the most of any state. Industries significant for the state economy include manufacturing, mining and tourism. A number of science and technology firms are either headquartered in Idaho or have factories there, the state contains the Idaho National Laboratory, the country's largest Department of Energy facility. Idaho's agricultural sector supplies many products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, which comprises around one-third of the nationwide yield; the official state nickname is the "Gem State".
The name's origin remains a mystery. In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing suggested the name "Idaho", which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains". Willing claimed he had invented the name. Congress decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861. Thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado "Idaho Springs". However, the name "Idaho" did not fall into obscurity; the same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, launched on the Columbia River in 1860, it is unclear after Willing's claim was revealed. Regardless, part of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863.
Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing's account the name "Idaho" derived from the Shoshone term "ee-da-how". A 1956 Idaho history textbook says:"Idaho" is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation; the word consists of three parts. The first is "Ee", which in English conveys the idea of "coming down"; the second is "dah", the Shoshoni stem or root for both "sun" and "mountain". The third syllable, "how", denotes the exclamation and stands for the same thing in Shoshoni that the exclamation mark does in the English language; the Shoshoni word is "Ee-dah-how", the Indian thought thus conveyed when translated into English means, "Behold! the sun coming down the mountain. An alternative etymology attributes the name to the Plains Apache word "ídaahę́", used in reference to The Comanche. Idaho borders six U. S. states and one Canadian province. The states of Washington and Oregon are to the west and Utah are to the south, Montana and Wyoming are to the east.
Idaho shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north. The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States. For example, at 2.3 million acres, the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness in the continental United States. Idaho is a Rocky Mountain state with scenic areas; the state has snow-capped mountain ranges, vast lakes and steep canyons. The waters of the Snake River rush through the deepest gorge in the United States. Shoshone Falls plunges down rugged cliffs from a height greater than Niagara Falls; the major rivers in Idaho are the Snake River, the Clark Fork/Pend Oreille River, the Clearwater River, the Salmon River. Other significant rivers include the Coeur d'Alene River, the Spokane River, the Boise River, the Payette River; the Salmon River empties into the Snake in Hells Canyon and forms the southern boundary of Nez Perce County on its north shore, of which Lewiston is the county seat.
The Port of Lewiston, at the confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake Rivers is the farthest inland seaport on the West Coast at 465 river miles from the Pacific at Astoria, Oregon. Idaho's highest point is 12,662 ft, in the Lost River Range north of Mackay. Idaho's lowest poi
Dennis Day was an American singer, radio and film personality and comedian of Irish descent. Day was born and raised in the Throggs Neck section of The Bronx, New York City, the second of five children born to Irish immigrants Patrick McNulty and Mary McNulty, his father was a factory electric power engineer. Day graduated from Cathedral Preparatory Seminary in New York City, attended Manhattan College in the Bronx, where he sang in the glee club. In 1939 Gene McNulty, as Day was known, sang on network radio with bandleader Larry Clinton; the Clinton broadcasts were aimed at the collegiate audience, were broadcast from a college campus. The 23-year-old McNulty won an audience poll as a favorite vocalist. Day appeared for the first time on Jack Benny's radio show on October 8, 1939, taking the place of another tenor, Kenny Baker, he remained associated with Benny's radio and television programs until Benny's death in 1974. He was introduced as a naive boy singer -- a character he kept through his whole career.
Mary Livingstone, Benny's wife, brought the singer to Benny's attention after hearing Day on the radio during a visit to New York. She took a recording of Day's singing to Benny, who went to New York to audition Day; the audition resulted in Day's role on the Benny program. Day's first recorded song was "Goodnight My Beautiful". Besides singing, Day was a mimic. On the Benny program, Day performed impressions of various celebrities of the era, including Ronald Colman, Jimmy Durante and James Stewart. From 1944 through 1946 he served in the United States Navy as a Lieutenant. While in service he was temporarily replaced on the Benny radio program by fellow tenor Larry Stevens. On his return to civilian life, he continued to work with Benny while starring on his own NBC show, A Day in the Life of Dennis Day. On Benny's show, Day's having two programs in comparison to Benny's one was the subject of numerous jokes and gags revolving around Day rubbing Benny's, sometimes other cast members' and guest stars' noses in that fact.
His last radio series was a comedy and variety show that aired on NBC's Sunday afternoon schedule during the 1954–55 season. When Day got his own radio sitcom, he continued to play the same character that he originated on Benny's program. However, for this series, Day lived in the fictional town of Weeberville, he stayed at a boarding house run by Clara Anderson, played by Bea Benaderet. Her henpecked husband, Herbert Anderson, was voiced by Dink Trout. Day was engaged to their daughter Mildred, played by Barbara Eiler, his character worked at Willoughby's Drug Store, where Frank Nelson played Mr. Willoughby; the show was sponsored by Colgate-Palmolive. Vern Smith was the announcer, while music was provided by his orchestra; the format of the show would begin with a song by Day, followed by the first half of the plot, a second song by Day in the middle of the episode, the rest of the plot, a third song by Day to finish the episode. Episodes can be heard on the Sirius XM Radio Classics Channel. An attempt was made to adapt A Day in the Life Of Dennis Day as an NBC filmed series, produced by Jerry Fairbanks for Dennis' sponsor, Colgate-Palmolive, featuring the original radio cast, but got no farther than an unaired 1949 pilot episode.
In late 1950, a sample kinescope was produced by Colgate and their ad agency showcasing Dennis as host of a projected "live" comedy/variety series for CBS, but that, went unsold. He continued to appear as a regular cast member when The Jack Benny Program became a TV series, staying with the show until it ended in 1965, his own TV series, The Dennis Day Show, was first telecast on NBC on February 8, 1952, in the 1953–1954 season. Between 1952 and 1978, he made numerous TV appearances as a singer and actor and voice for animation, such as the Walt Disney feature Johnny Appleseed, handling multiple characters. During the final season of The Jack Benny Program, Day was nearly 49 years old, although Benny was still delivering such lines as "That crazy kid drives me nuts..." His last televised work with Benny was in 1970, when they appeared in a public service announcement together to promote savings and loans. This was shortly after the whole cast and crew of The Jack Benny Show had joined for Jack Benny's Twentieth Anniversary Special.
In 1972, he co-starred with June Allyson and Judy Canova in the First National Tour of the Broadway musical No, No, Nanette. In 1976, Day was the voice of "The Preacher" in the Rankin-Bass production Frosty's Winter Wonderland and again worked with them in 1978, when he voiced Fred in The Stingiest Man in Town, their animated version of Charles Dickens' novel A Christmas Carol, he appeared in Date with the Angels – Season 1, Episode 13 as himself. Aired Friday 9:30 PM October 25, 1957 on ABC – some records show it was episode 19, titled Star Struck. Although his career was radio and TV-based, Day appeared in a few films; these included Buck Benny Rides Again opposite Jack Benny, Sleepy Lagoon, Music in Manhattan, I'll Get By, Golden Girl, The Girl Next Door, Won Ton Ton, the Dog Who Saved Hollywood as a singing telegraph man. For the soundtrack of My Wild Irish Rose, a biopic about Chaunc
Capitol Records, Inc. is an American record label owned by Universal Music Group through its Capitol Music Group imprint. It was founded as the first West Coast-based record label in the United States in 1942 by Johnny Mercer, Buddy DeSylva, Glenn E. Wallichs. Capitol was acquired by British music conglomerate EMI as its North American subsidiary in 1955. EMI was acquired by Universal Music Group in 2012 and was merged with the company a year making Capitol and the Capitol Music Group both a part of UMG; the label's circular headquarter building in Hollywood is a recognized landmark of California. Capitol's roster includes Katy Perry, Sir Paul McCartney, Mary J. Blige, the Beach Boys, the Beastie Boys, Neil Diamond, Brian Wilson, Avenged Sevenfold, 5 Seconds of Summer, Don Henley, Sam Smith, Migos, NF, Emeli Sandé, Troye Sivan, Calum Scott, Tori Kelly, Jon Bellion, Niall Horan. Songwriter Johnny Mercer founded Capitol Records in 1942 with financial help from songwriter and film producer Buddy DeSylva and the business acumen of Glenn Wallichs, owner of Wallichs Music City.
Mercer raised the idea of starting a record company while golfing with Harold Arlen and Bobby Sherwood and with Wallichs at Wallichs's record store. On February 2, 1942, Mercer and Wallichs met DeSylva at a restaurant in Hollywood to talk about investment by Paramount Pictures. On March 27, 1942, the three men incorporated as Liberty Records. In May 1942, the application was amended to change the company's name to Capitol Records. On April 6, 1942, Mercer supervised Capitol's first recording session where Martha Tilton recorded the song "Moon Dreams". On May 5, Bobby Sherwood and his orchestra recorded two tracks in the studio. On May 21, Freddie Slack and his orchestra recorded three tracks in the studio. On June 4, 1942, Capitol opened its first office in a second-floor room south of Sunset Boulevard. On that same day, Wallichs presented the company's first free record to Los Angeles disc jockey Peter Potter. On June 5, 1942, Paul Whiteman and his Orchestra recorded four songs at the studio. On June 12, the orchestra recorded five more songs in the studio, including "Trav'lin' Light" with Billie Holiday, On June 11, Tex Ritter recorded " Jingle Jangle Jingle" and "Goodbye My Little Cherokee" for his first Capitol recording session, the songs formed Capitol's 110th produced record.
The earliest recording artists included co-owner Mercer, Johnnie Johnston, Morse, Jo Stafford, the Pied Pipers, Tex Ritter, Paul Weston and Margaret Whiting Capitol's first gold single was Morse's "Cow Cow Boogie" in 1942. Capitol's first album was Capitol Presents Songs by Johnny Mercer, a three disc set with recordings by Mercer and the Pied Pipers, all with Weston's Orchestra; the label's other 1940s musicians included Les Baxter, Les Brown, Jimmy Bryant, Billy Butterfield, Nat King Cole, Sammy Davis Jr. Dinning Sisters, Tennessee Ernie Ford, Mary Ford, Benny Goodman, Skitch Henderson, Betty Hutton, Stan Kenton, Peggy Lee, Billy May, Les Paul, Alvino Rey, Andy Russell, Smilin' Jack Smith, Kay Starr, Speedy West, Cootie Williams. Musicians on the Capitol Americana label included Lead Belly, Cliffie Stone, Hank Thompson, Merle Travis, Wesley Tuttle, Jimmy Wakely, Tex Williams. Capitol was the first major west coast label to compete with labels on the east coast such as Columbia, RCA Victor.
In addition to its Los Angeles recording studio, Capitol owned a second studio in New York City and sent mobile recording equipment to New Orleans and other cities. In 1946, writer-producer Alan W. Livingston created Bozo the Clown for the company's children's record library. Examples of notable Capitol albums for children during that era are Sparky's Magic Piano and Rusty in Orchestraville. Capitol developed a noted jazz catalog that included the Capitol Jazz Men and issued the Miles Davis's album Birth of the Cool Capitol released a few classical albums in the 1940s, some of which contained a embossed, leather-like cover; these recordings appeared on 78 rpm format released on the 33 format in 1949. Among the recordings: Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos' Choros No. 10, with contributions from a Los Angeles choral group and the Janssen Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Werner Janssen. In 1949, Capitol opened a branch office in Canada and purchased KHJ Studios on Melrose Avenue adjacent to Paramount in Hollywood.
By the mid-1950s, Capitol had become a huge company. The label's roster included the Andrews Sisters, Ray Anthony, Shirley Bassey, June Christy, Tommy Duncan, Tennessee Ernie Ford, the Four Freshmen, the Four Knights, the Four Preps, Jane Froman, Judy Garland, Jackie Gleason, Andy Griffith, Dick Haymes, Harry James, the Kingston Trio, the Louvin Brothers, Dean Martin, Al Martino, Skeets McDonald, Louis Prima, Nelson Riddle, Dinah Shore, Frank Sinatra, Keely Smith. Capitol began recording roll acts such as the Jodimars and Gene Vincent. There were comedy records by Stan Freberg, Johnny Standley, Mickey Katz. Children listened to Capitol's Bozo the Clown albums. Although various people played Bozo the Clown on television, Capitol used the voice of Pinto Colvig, the voice of Goofy in Walt Disney cartoons. Don Wilson released children's records. In June 1952, Billboard magazine contained a chronicle of the label's first ten years in business. In 1955, the British record company EMI ended its 55-year mutual distribution
Patriotic Songs for Children
Patriotic Songs for Children is a compilation album of three 78rpm phonograph records. The recordings are all of American patriotic songs sung by Frank Luther; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early 19th century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; the only way an “album” could be put together was to sell three or four 78s in a bound set of sheathes. These sets, known as folios were popular. Whilst they had been neutral – blank albums into which the distributor could insert whatever 78s he liked – the idea of using a theme to link the records in the folio was catching on. By the late 1930s, this trend had developed to the point where artists were going into studios to record six or eight titles with a folio set in mind; this in effect was the birth of the concept album, although it would not be until LPs became commonplace that the phrase gained any currency.
The first album issued by Decca in 1938, was Moussorgsky Songs by Vladimir Rosing, on catalogue number A-1.. Patriotic Songs for Children was one of the first concept albums of 78rpm recordings issued by Decca Records; these issued songs were featured on a 3-disc, 78 rpm album set, Decca Album No. A-50. Disc 1: Disc 2: Disc 3
Pierino Ronald "Perry" Como was an American singer and television personality. During a career spanning more than half a century he recorded for RCA Victor for 44 years, after signing with the label in 1943. "Mr. C.", as he was nicknamed, sold millions of records and pioneered a weekly musical variety television show. His weekly television shows and seasonal specials were broadcast throughout the world. In the official RCA Records Billboard magazine memorial, his life was summed up in these few words: "50 years of music and a life well lived. An example to all."Como received five Emmys from 1955 to 1959, a Christopher Award and shared a Peabody Award with good friend Jackie Gleason in 1956. He was inducted into the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Hall of Fame in 1990 and received a Kennedy Center Honor in 1987. Posthumously, Como received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2002, he has the distinction of having three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his work in radio and music.
Como was born in Pennsylvania. He was the seventh of ten children and the first American-born child of Pietro Como and Lucia Travaglini, who both immigrated to the US in 1910 from the Abruzzese town of Palena, Italy, he did not begin speaking English. The family had a second-hand organ his father had bought for $3. Pietro, a mill hand and an amateur baritone, had all his children attend music lessons if he could afford them. In a rare 1957 interview, Como's mother, described how her young son took on other jobs to pay for more music lessons, he showed more musical talent in his teenage years as a trombone player in the town's brass band, playing guitar, singing at weddings, as an organist at church. Como was a member of the Canonsburg Italian Band along with the father of singer Bobby Vinton, bandleader Stan Vinton, a customer at his barber shop. Young Como started helping his family at age 10, working before and after school in Steve Fragapane's barber shop for 50¢ a week. By age 13, he had graduated to having his own chair in the Fragapane barber shop, although he stood on a box to tend to his customers.
It was around this time that young Como lost his week's wages in a dice game. Filled with shame, he locked himself in his room and did not come out until hunger got the better of him, he managed to tell his father. His father told him he was entitled to make a mistake and that he hoped his son would never do anything worse than this; when Perry was 14, his father became unable to work because of a severe heart condition. Como and his brothers became the support of the household. Despite his musical ability, Como's primary ambition was to become the best barber in Canonsburg. Practicing on his father, young Como mastered the skills well enough to have his own shop at age 14. One of Como's regular customers at the barber shop owned a Greek coffee house that included a barber shop area, asked the young barber whether he would like to take over that portion of his shop. Como had so much work after moving to the coffee house, he had to hire two barbers to help with it, his customers worked at the nearby steel mills.
They did not mind spending money on themselves and enjoyed Como's song renditions. Perry did well when one of his customers would marry; the groom and his men would avail themselves of every treatment Como and his assistants had to offer. Como sang romantic songs while busying himself with the groom as the other two barbers worked with the rest of the groom's party. During the wedding preparation, the groom's friends and relatives would come into the shop with gifts of money for Como, he became so popular as a "wedding barber" in the Greek community that he was asked to provide his services in Pittsburgh and throughout Ohio. In 1932, Como left Canonsburg, moving about 100 miles away to Meadville, where his uncle had a barber shop in the Hotel Conneaut. Around 80 miles from Cleveland, it was a popular stop on the itinerary for dance bands who worked up and down the Ohio Valley. Como and their friends had gone to nearby Cleveland. Carlone invited anyone who thought he might have talent to sing with his band.
Young Como was terrified. Carlone was so impressed with Como's performance that he offered him a job; the young man was not certain if he should accept the offer Freddy Carlone had made, so he returned to Canonsburg to talk the matter over with his father. Perry expected his father would tell him to stay in the barber business, but to his surprise, the senior Como told him if he did not take the opportunity, he might never know whether or not he could be a professional singer; the decision was made with an eye on finances. Roselle was willing to travel with her husband and the band, but the salary was not enough to support two people on the road. Perry and Roselle were married in Meadville on July 31, 1933. Roselle returned home to Canonsburg. Three years after joining the Carlone band, Como m
George Robert Crosby was an American jazz singer and bandleader, best known for his group the Bob-Cats, which formed around 1935. The Bob-Cats was a New Orleans Dixieland-style jazz octet, he was the younger brother of actor Bing Crosby. Bob Crosby was a regular on The Jack Benny Program, he hosted his own afternoon variety show, The Bob Crosby Show, which aired from 1953 to 1957. Crosby received two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on February 8, 1960, for television and radio. Crosby was born in Spokane, Washington, to English-American bookkeeper Harry Lowe Crosby and Irish-American Catherine Harrigan, the daughter of a builder from County Mayo in Ireland; the couple had seven children: Larry, Ted, Catherine, Mary Rose, George Robert, popularly known as Bob. Crosby attended Gonzaga College. During World War II, he served in the U. S. Marines, leading a band for much of his time in service. Crosby began singing in the early 1930s with the Rhythm Boys, which included vocalist Ray Hendricks and guitarist Bill Pollard, with Anson Weeks and the Dorsey Brothers.
He led his first band in 1935 when the former members of Ben Pollack's band elected him their titular leader. In 1935 he recorded with the Clark Randall Orchestra led by Gil Rodin and featuring singer Frank Tennille, father of Toni of Captain and Tennille. Glenn Miller was a member of that orchestra, which recorded the Glenn Miller novelty composition "When Icky Morgan Plays the Organ" in 1935. Crosby's "band-within-the-band," the Bob-Cats, was a dixieland octet with soloists from the larger orchestra, many from New Orleans; the band included at various times Ray Bauduc, Yank Lawson, Billy Butterfield, Charlie Spivak, Muggsy Spanier, Irving Fazola, Nappy Lamare, Jack Sperling, Joe Sullivan,Jess Stacy, Bob Haggart, Walt Yoder, Bob Zurke. In the spring of 1940, during a performance in Chicago, teenager Doris Day was hired as the band's vocalist. For its theme song the band chose George Gershwin's song "Summertime"; the band's hits included "South Rampart Street Parade", "March of the Bob Cats", "In a Little Gypsy Tea Room", "Whispers in the Dark", "Day In, Day Out", "Down Argentine Way", "You Must Have Been a Beautiful Baby", "Dolores", "New San Antonio Rose".
A bass-and-drums duet between Haggart and Bauduc, "Big Noise from Winnetka", became a hit in 1938–39. There were reunions in the 1960s. Bob Haggart and Yank Lawson organized a band that combined dixieland and swing to try to carry on the legacy of Bob Crosby. From the late 1960s until the mid 1970s, the band was known as the World's Greatest Jazz Band, but when both became dissatisfied with the name they changed it to the Lawson-Haggart Jazz Band. During World War II, Bob Crosby spent 18 months in the Marines touring with bands in the Pacific, his radio variety series, The Bob Crosby Show, aired on NBC and CBS in different runs from July 18, 1943, to July 16, 1950. This was followed by Club Fifteen on CBS from 1947 through 1953 minus a brief interlude when he was replaced as host by singer Dick Haymes during parts of 1949 and 1950. During his stint on Club Fifteen, he was teamed with the ever-popular Andrews Sisters three nights per week, singing with them and engaging in comedy skits, he first met the trio in 1938 when his orchestra backed their Decca recording of "Begin the Beguine", their popular vocalization of Artie Shaw's big band hit.
One can't help when hearing these old Club Fifteen broadcasts how eerily similar Bob and the Andrews Sisters sound to the trio's frequent and hugely successful pairings with brother Bing Crosby on the Decca label. Bob and Patty scored a hit duet on Decca Records with their duet recording of the novelty "The Pussy Cat Song", which peaked at No. 12 on Billboard. A half-hour CBS daytime series, The Bob Crosby Show, followed from 1953 to 1957. Bob introduced the Canadian singer Gisele MacKenzie to American audiences and subsequently guest-starred in 1957 on her NBC television series, The Gisele MacKenzie Show. On September 14, 1952, Bob replaced Phil Harris as the bandleader on The Jack Benny Program, remaining until Benny retired the radio show in 1955 after 23 years. In joining the show, he became the leader of the same group of musicians who had played under Harris. According to Benny writer Milt Josefsberg, the issue was budget; because radio had strong competition from TV, the program budget had to be reduced, so Bob replaced Phil.
Prior to joining Benny on the radio, based on the east coast, would play with Benny during Benny's live New York appearances, he was seen throughout the 1950s on Benny's television series. As a performer, Crosby had tremendous wit combined with a laid-back persona, he was able to swap jokes competently with Benny, including humorous references to his brother Bing's wealth and his string of losing racehorses. An exchange during one of the popular Christmas programs ran thus: Crosby muses to Jack that he's bought gifts for everyone but band member Frank Remley; when Jack suggests "a cordial, like a bottle of Drambuie", Crosby counters that Drambuie is an after-dinner drink and adds, alluding to Remley's penchant for alcohol, that "Remley never quite makes it to after dinner". Bob Crosby guest-starred in the television series The Gisele MacKenzie Show, he starred in his own afternoon variety show, The Bob Crosby show, that aired from 1953 to 1957. He fronted a TV prog