Guantanamo force feeding
Detainees held in the United States' Guantanamo Bay detention camps have initiated both individual and widespread hunger strikes at Guantánamo Bay, camp medical authorities have initiated force-feeding programs. In 2005, Captain John Edmonson, Naval Base's chief medical officer, asserted that force feeding was a last resort, used only when counseling failed, when the detainee's body mass index fell below the healthy range. According to Edmonson detainees cooperated, restraints were unnecessary. According to Edmonson detainees were only given 1500 Calories per day; the UN Human Rights Commission said it regards force-feeding at Guantanamo as a form of torture and the World Medical Association prohibited force-feeding in its Declaration of Tokyo. Rapper Yasiin Bey known as Mos Def, volunteered for a demonstration with Reprieve based on the leaked documents of the procedure. Guantanamo medical personnel criticized the demonstration as false. One nurse said of the detainees, "Most are asking us to hurry up, make it go faster."
A Guantanamo watch commander, former fan, reacted by deleting Mos Def's music from his iPod. More than 250 doctors from the UK, the US, Germany, Australia and the Netherlands condemned the US for force-feeding of hunger strikes at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, they said "We urge the US government to ensure that detainees are assessed by independent physicians and that techniques such as force-feeding and restraint chairs are abandoned," The doctors said that the World Medical Association prohibited force-feeding and they want the association to instigate disciplinary proceedings against any members known to have violated the code. In 1975, the World Medical Association issued the Declaration of guidelines for physicians; the declaration states: "Where a prisoner refuses nourishment and is considered by the physician as capable of forming an unimpaired and rational judgement concerning the consequences of such a voluntary refusal of nourishment, he or she shall not be fed artificially." Former prisoner Fawzi al-Odah told the BBC in 2006 that force-feeding of hunger strikers in Guantanamo amounts to torture and the UN Human Rights Commission said it regards force-feeding at Guantanamo as a form of torture, a charge the US has denied.
On 29 February 2006, Richard G. Murphy Jr. and other lawyers for detainee Mohammad Bawazir filed a claim that force-feeding was torture. The lawyers claim that the military made the force-feeding process unnecessarily painful and humiliating to break a hunger strike that at one point included more than 100 detainees; the earliest known case of force-feeding prisoners in Guantanamo Bay occurred in early 2002 when two hunger strikers were hospitalized for malnutrition. The pair were holdouts from a hunger strike which began as a response to Guantanamo guards removing a makeshift turban from one of the prisoners; the strike had up to 194 participants, however that number dropped precipitously when the general in charge of the prison announced that prisoners would be allowed to wear turbans. In these initial cases, prisoners were sedated as opposed to restrained prior to being given nutrition. Restraints were used in force feeding at least as early as early 2005 in response to another hunger strike by prisoners to protest prison conditions.
In this case, 105 prisoners were refusing food. The military acknowledged. In these cases, many prisoners passively accepted nasal feeding, though others were restrained with leg shackles and handcuffs. Though not used, the military began the use of restraint chairs for feeding hunger-striking prisoners in December 2005 to prevent them from vomiting up forced nutrition. In 2005, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia ordered the military to provide to prisoners' attorneys: notice within 24 hours of the commencement of force feeding, the prisoners' medical records, weekly status updates about the prisoners' health. On 16 May 2014, Senior United States District Judge Gladys Kessler ordered the military to stop the force-feeding of a Syrian prisoner until his appointed hearing, scheduled for 21 May 2014; the judge has since authorized the force-feeding. Fawzi al-Odah Sami al-Hajj "Voluntary and Voluntary Total Fasting and Re-Feeding ". Joint Task Force Guantanamo. 3 October 2003.
Pp. 1–12. Archived from the original on 28 November 2009. "Detainee Healthcare". U. S. Department of Defense Military Health System. 14 August 2007. Archived from the original on 28 November 2009. Steven Donald Smith. "Guantanamo Detainees Being Held Legally, Official Says". The Wire. Archived from the original on 4 June 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2009. In the Convention Against Torture, the convention says that torture is an activity, intended to cause severe medical pain or suffering," he John Bellinger, III said. "Well, I think that on its face, that no one would accept that our doctors, by giving someone food and nourishment, are intending to inflict severe physical pain or suffering on them. Mike Melia. "A Growing Threat at Guantanamo? Detainees Fatten Up". ABC News. Archived from the original on 28 November 2009. U. S. officials assess whether detainees are overweight by calculating their body-mass index, a measurement of weight in relation to height. Spencer Ackerman. "Limiting Food Aided'Enhanced Interrogations': Justice Department Memo Describes Liquid Diets for Detainees".
Washington Independent. Archived from the original on 28 November 2009. Retrieved 26 September 2009. Force-Feeding at Guantánamo Is Now Acknowledged Scandal of force-fed prisoners Doctors accuse US of'unethical practices'
Guantanamo Bay detention camp
The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a United States military prison located within Guantanamo Bay Naval Base referred to as Guantánamo, G-Bay, GTMO, Gitmo, on the coast of Guantánamo Bay in Cuba. Since the inmates have been detained indefinitely without trial and several detainees have been tortured, the operations of this camp are considered to be a major breach of human rights by Amnesty International; the camp was established by President George W. Bush's administration in 2002 during the War on Terror, his successor, President Barack Obama, promised that he would close it, but met strong bipartisan opposition from Congress, which passed laws to prohibit detainees from Guantanamo being imprisoned in the U. S. During Obama's administration, the number of inmates was reduced from about 245 to 41. In January 2018, President Donald Trump signed an executive order to keep the prison camp open indefinitely. In May 2018, the first prisoner was transferred during Trump's term. At the time of its establishment in January 2002, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld said the prison camp was established to detain extraordinarily dangerous people, to interrogate detainees in an optimal setting, to prosecute detainees for war crimes.
In practice, the site has long been used for enemy combatants. The Department of Defense at first kept secret the identity of the individuals held in Guantanamo but, after losing attempts to defy a Freedom of Information Act request from the Associated Press, the U. S. military acknowledged holding 779 prisoners in the camp. The facility is operated by the Joint Task Force Guantanamo of the United States government in Guantanamo Bay Naval Base. Detention areas consisted of Camp Delta including Camp Echo, Camp Iguana, Camp X-Ray, now closed. After Bush political appointees at the U. S. Office of Legal Counsel, Department of Justice advised the Bush administration that the Guantanamo Bay detention camp could be considered outside U. S. legal jurisdiction, military guards took the first twenty detainees to Camp X-Ray on 11 January 2002. The Bush administration asserted that detainees were not entitled to any of the protections of the Geneva Conventions. Ensuing U. S. Supreme Court decisions since 2004 have determined otherwise and that the courts have jurisdiction: it ruled in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld on 29 June 2006, that detainees were entitled to the minimal protections listed under Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions.
Following this, on 7 July 2006, the Department of Defense issued an internal memo stating that detainees would, in the future, be entitled to protection under Common Article 3. Current and former detainees have reported abuse and torture. In a 2005 Amnesty International report, the facility was called the "Gulag of our times." In 2006, the United Nations demanded unsuccessfully for the Guantanamo Bay detention camp to be closed. In January 2009, Susan J. Crawford, appointed by Bush to review DoD practices used at Guantanamo Bay and oversee the military trials, became the first Bush administration official to concede that torture occurred at Guantanamo Bay on one detainee. On 22 January 2009, President Obama issued a request to suspend proceedings at Guantanamo military commission for 120 days and to shut down the detention facility that year. On 29 January 2009, a military judge at Guantanamo rejected the White House request in the case of Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri, creating an unexpected challenge for the administration as it reviewed how the United States brings Guantanamo detainees to trial.
On 20 May 2009, the United States Senate passed an amendment to the Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2009 by a 90–6 vote to block funds needed for the transfer or release of prisoners held at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp. President Obama issued a Presidential memorandum dated 15 December 2009, ordering Thomson Correctional Center, Illinois to be prepared to accept transferred Guantanamo prisoners; the Final Report of the Guantanamo Review Task Force, dated 22 January 2010, published the results for the 240 detainees subject to the review: 36 were the subject of active cases or investigations. On 6 January 2011, President Obama signed the 2011 Defense Authorization Bill, which, in part, placed restrictions on the transfer of Guantanamo prisoners to the mainland or to foreign countries, thus impeding the closure of the facility. In February 2011, U. S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates said that Guantanamo Bay was unlikely to be closed, due to opposition in the Congress. Congress opposed moving prisoners to facilities in the United States for detention or trial.
In April 2011, WikiLeaks began publishing 779 secret files relating to prisoners in the Guantanamo Bay detention camp. On 4 November 2015, President Barack Obama stated that he was preparing to unveil a plan to close the facility and move some of the terrorism suspects held there to U. S. soil. The plan would propose one or more prisons from a working list that includes facilities in Kansas and South Carolina. Two others that were on the list, in California and Washington state, do not appear to have made the preliminary cut, according to a senior administration official familiar with the proposal. By 19 January 2017, the detention center remained open, with 41 detainees remaining. Camp Delta is a 612-unit detention center finished in April 2002, it includes detention camps 1 through 6, as well as Camp Echo, where
Torture is the act of deliberately inflicting severe physical or psychological suffering on someone by another as a punishment or in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or force some action from the victim. Torture, by definition, is a knowing and intentional act. Torture has been carried out or sanctioned by individuals and states throughout history from ancient times to modern day, forms of torture can vary in duration from only a few minutes to several days or longer. Reasons for torture can include punishment, extortion, political re-education, coercion of the victim or a third party, interrogation to extract information or a confession irrespective of whether it is false, or the sadistic gratification of those carrying out or observing the torture. Alternatively, some forms of torture are designed to inflict psychological pain or leave as little physical injury or evidence as possible while achieving the same psychological devastation; the torturer may or may not kill or injure the victim, but torture may result in a deliberate death and serves as a form of capital punishment.
Depending on the aim a form of torture, intentionally fatal may be prolonged to allow the victim to suffer as long as possible. In other cases, the torturer may be indifferent to the condition of the victim. Although torture is sanctioned by some states, it is prohibited under international law and the domestic laws of most countries. Although illegal and reviled, there is an ongoing debate as to what is and is not defined as torture, it is a serious violation of human rights, is declared to be unacceptable by Article 5 of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Signatories of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the Additional Protocols I and II of 8 June 1977 agree not to torture captured persons in armed conflicts, whether international or internal. Torture is prohibited for the signatories of the United Nations Convention Against Torture, which has 163 state parties. National and international legal prohibitions on torture derive from a consensus that torture and similar ill-treatment are immoral, as well as impractical, information obtained by torture is far less reliable than that obtained by other techniques.
Despite these findings and international conventions, organizations that monitor abuses of human rights report widespread use condoned by states in many regions of the world. Amnesty International estimates that at least 81 world governments practice torture, some of them openly; the United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, in force since 26 June 1987, provides a broad definition of torture. Article 1.1 of the UN Convention Against Torture reads: For the purpose of this Convention, the term "torture" means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him, or a third person, information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity.
It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in, or incidental to, lawful sanctions. This definition was restricted to apply only to nations and to government-sponsored torture and limits the torture to that perpetrated, directly or indirectly, by those acting in an official capacity, such as government personnel, law enforcement personnel, medical personnel, military personnel, or politicians, it appears to exclude: torture perpetrated by gangs, hate groups, rebels, or terrorists who ignore national or international mandates. Some professionals in the torture rehabilitation field believe that this definition is too restrictive and that the definition of politically motivated torture should be broadened to include all acts of organized violence. An broader definition was used in the 1975 Declaration of Tokyo regarding the participation of medical professionals in acts of torture: For the purpose of this Declaration, torture is defined as the deliberate, systematic or wanton infliction of physical or mental suffering by one or more persons acting alone or on the orders of any authority, to force another person to yield information, to make a confession, or for any other reason.
This definition includes torture as part of domestic violence or ritualistic abuse, as well as in criminal activities. The Rome Statute is the treaty; the treaty was adopted at a diplomatic conference in Rome on 17 July 1998 and went into effect on 1 July 2002. The Rome Statute provides a simplest definition of torture regarding the prosecution of war criminals by the International Criminal Court. Paragraph 1 under Article 7 of the Rome Statute provides that: "Torture" means the intentional infliction of severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, upon a person in the custody or
Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, tasked with gathering and analyzing national security information from around the world through the use of human intelligence. As one of the principal members of the United States Intelligence Community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States. Unlike the Federal Bureau of Investigation, a domestic security service, the CIA has no law enforcement function and is focused on overseas intelligence gathering, with only limited domestic intelligence collection. Though it is not the only agency of the Federal government of the United States specializing in HUMINT, the CIA serves as the national manager for coordination of HUMINT activities across the U. S. intelligence community. Moreover, the CIA is the only agency authorized by law to carry out and oversee covert action at the behest of the President.
It exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the CIA Director concurrently served as the head of the Intelligence Community. Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA had the largest budget of all IC agencies, exceeding previous estimates; the CIA has expanded its role, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center, has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations; when the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze and disseminate foreign intelligence, to perform covert actions. According to its fiscal 2013 budget, the CIA has five priorities: Counterterrorism, the top priority Nonproliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.
Warning/informing American leaders of important overseas events. Counterintelligence Cyber intelligence; the CIA has an executive office and five major directorates: The Directorate of Digital Innovation The Directorate of Analysis The Directorate of Operations The Directorate of Support The Directorate of Science and Technology The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence. The Deputy Director is formally appointed by the Director without Senate confirmation, but as the President's opinion plays a great role in the decision, the Deputy Director is considered a political position, making the Chief Operating Officer the most senior non-political position for CIA career officers; the Executive Office supports the U. S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day-to-day operation of the CIA.
Each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Associate Director of military affairs, a senior military officer, manages the relationship between the CIA and the Unified Combatant Commands, who produce and deliver to the CIA regional/operational intelligence and consume national intelligence produced by the CIA; the Directorate of Analysis, through much of its history known as the Directorate of Intelligence, is tasked with helping "the President and other policymakers make informed decisions about our country's national security" by looking "at all the available information on an issue and organiz it for policymakers". The Directorate has four regional analytic groups, six groups for transnational issues, three that focus on policy and staff support. There is an office dedicated to Iraq; the Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting foreign intelligence, for covert action. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of human intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U.
S. intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence and budget between the United States Department of Defense and the CIA. In spite of this, the Department of Defense organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service, under the Defense Intelligence Agency; this Directorate is known to be organized by geographic regions and issues, but its precise organization is classified. The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research and manage technical collection disciplines and equipment. Many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air
Kunar is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country. Its capital is Asadabad, it has a population of about 428,800. It is one of the four "N2KL" provinces. N2KL is the designation used by the US and Coalition Forces in Afghanistan for the rugged and violent region along the Durand Line border opposite Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Kunar is the center of the N2KL region. Kunar is the birthplace of an influential Muslim scholar and philosopher. Kunar province is located in the northeast of Afghanistan, it borders with Nangarhar Province to the south, Nuristan Province to the north, Laghman Province to the west and has a border with Pakistan in the east. The province covers an area of 4339 km2. Nearly nine tenths of the province is mountainous or semi mountainous terrain while one eighth of the area is made up of flat land; the primary geographic features of the province are the lower Hindu Kush mountains which are cut by the Kunar River to form the Kunar Valley.
The river flows south and southwest from its source in the Pamir area and is part of the Indus River watershed via the Kabul River which it meets at Jalalabad. The Kunar is a primary draining conduit for the Hindu Kush basin and several tributaries, including the Pech, which form distinct and significant valleys in the area; the mountains, narrow valleys with steep walls, rivers present formidable natural obstacles and have constrained all movement through the province. In the early 21st century, movement on foot, with pack animals, or with motorized vehicles is limited and channeled due to the significant geographic restrictions; the region has been part of many empires in the past, from the Seleucid Empire to the latest Afghan Durrani Empire. Many famous historical figures are believed to have visited the area, including Alexander the Great, Mahmud Ghaznavi, Ibn Battuta, others. Archaeologists have dated to AD 800-1000 a fortification system overlooking a Muslim cemetery at Chaga Serai. Babur wrote about Kunar in Baburnama.
He claimed that there was a shrine in Kunar of a preacher and poet Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, said to have died there in 1384 AD. He describes agricultural products: citron, coriander, strong yellow wines, a burial custom wherein a woman whose corpse moved was considered to have done good things in life, he mentions Chaghan-Sarai as a small town, describes the towns folk as Muslims who mixed with the Kafirs of nearby Kafiristan and followed some of their customs. He claims to have captured the town as the Pech river Kafirs tried to help the Chaghan Sarai residents repel his attack. Walter Hamilton's writing in 1828 mentions that the padishah of Cooner was joined in alliance with the neighboring Kafirs of Nuristan in battles against Muslim invaders; the Kafirs were forcibly converted by Abdur Rahman Khan in the 1890s. Some British sources from the Great Game period go into more detail about Kunar. For example, one from 1881 describes the various Kunar Chiefs and their internecine wars, the conflict with Dost Mohammad Khan, their relations with the British, etc.
Names vary with Kunar sometimes being called Kama, or Kashkote, the capital being listed as "Pashoot", not on modern maps. An 1891 book described the Kunar region as split between the lower river area, controlled by Afghan chiefs, the upstream area, where the Kunar river was referred to as the Chitral river; the major town of Chitral was the base of a badshah, who ruled under the Maharajah of Kashmir According to a US Army paper, the Pashtuns of Kunar and the Kafirs of Kunar/Nuristan joined together in the 20th century. Fundamentalist religion came to the region in the 1950s but the heavy unification happened during the Soviet–Afghan War; some of the first anti-government forces rose in the Kunar region. Kerala, a town near Asadabad, was the site of the 1979 Kerala Massacre, where the male population of a village was murdered by the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan and its Soviet advisors. Over ten-thousand Soviet and Afghan communist troops invaded the region, resulting in a massive refugee flow of the populace into Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
There were Spetsnaz units based in Asadabad, in Jalalabad, other towns. The major mujahideen groups had representation in the area, were successful enough to confine the Communist troops for the most part to their fortifications in the major towns of the Kunar valley. One of the Mujahideen leaders, Jamil al-Rahman, formed a movement that had a strict interpretation of Islam, along the lines of Wahhabism and/or Salafism, he was supported by elements in Saudi Arabia, attracted many Saudis and Egyptians who had come to Afghanistan to fight Jihad. When the Soviets left in 1988, the leader of the Mujahideen group Hizb-i-Islami, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, began to fight with Jamil al-Rahman over control of the area. Hekmatyar was victorious and his troops sacked Asadabad. By 1996 however, Mullah Omar's Taliban had driven out Hekmatyar. After the September 11 attacks of 2001, Afghanistan was invaded by United States and other NATO countries provided direct support to the Northern Alliance forces fighting the Taliban regime, toppled and fled to remote areas.
It was part of the War on Terror and to assist the new government, led by Hamid Karzai
Guantanamo Bay hunger strikes
The first well-known Guantanamo Bay hunger strikes began in the middle of 2005, when detainees held by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp initiated two hunger strikes. The detainees organized several widespread hunger strikes to protest their innocence and the conditions of their confinement. According to camp authorities, other captives who engaged in long-term hunger strikes, committed suicide in June 2006. Widespread hunger strikes recurred in 2013. Hunger strikes began in 2002, when the camp first opened, but the secrecy with which the camp was operated prevented news of those strikes reaching the public. According to historian Andy Worthington, the author of The Guantanamo Files, the weight of at least eighty captives dropped to below 100 pounds each. Camp authorities responded by force-feeding captives, according to the camp's Standard Operating Procedures, they had started isolated cases of force-feeding, called "re-feeding", early in the camp's history. Human rights workers, Physicians' professional associations, have criticized the use of force-feeding on mentally competent patients at Guantanamo.
The American Department of Defense spokesman, Lieutenant Commander Flex Plexico, said on July 21, 2005 that 50 detainees were involved in the hunger strike. The first hunger strike ended on July 28, 2005, when prison authorities agreed to bring the camp into compliance with the Geneva Conventions. According to the Center for Constitutional Rights, the strike had become so widespread that medics could not manage the needs and elected to stop making their regular medical calls; the prisoners spent 26 days without food. According to human rights workers, the prison authorities had a waiver form they asked detainees to sign if they wanted to refuse intravenous rehydration; the detainees had all been advised, by their lawyers, not to sign anything which their lawyers had not reviewed. One concession the American authorities acknowledge making was to supply the detainees with bottles of clean water to drink with each meal; the detainees reported to their lawyers that the prison authorities had agreed that they would begin to treat them in a manner consistent with the Geneva Conventions.
A week in early August 2005, when the prison authorities were not abiding by their commitment, the detainees started a second hunger strike. By September 2, the DOD spokesman Brad Blackner said that 76 detainees were participating in the second hunger strike. Human-rights workers estimate that both hunger strikes had between 200 participants. Many of the individuals captured in Afghanistan had been taken into detention at Guantanamo Bay without trial; these individuals were termed as "enemy combatants". Until July 7, 2006, the United States administration under President George W. Bush had treated these individuals as outside the Geneva Conventions; the Supreme Court ruled that international law applies to enemy combatants. Eighteen-year-old Omar Khadr, one of the hunger strikers, told his lawyer that other catalysts were the detainees' concerns that the guards were not showing respect for their religion, as they sometimes turned on loud fans, played loud music, whistled to disrupt their prayer meetings.
Khadr said the prison authorities broadcast the call to prayers only four times daily, rather than the required five for religious obligations. He reported that many of the detainees resented when women GIs broadcast the call to prayer. In September 2005, the New York Times reported that as many as 200 prisoners, a third of the camp, had taken to hunger striking, that at least 20 of them were being force-fed through nasal tubes and given fluids intravenously. Major Weir, a spokesman at the base, said "We will not let them starve themselves to the point of causing harm to themselves."On October 26, 2005, a federal judge ordered the Government to provide information about the condition of detainees to lawyers representing the hunger strikers. The Government has contested the detainees' claims of rough treatment during forced feeding; the court's decision reflects major changes from the early years of the camp's operation, when no information was obtainable by attorneys. The Government did not announce whether it would appeal the judge's ruling.
On November 4, U. S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld stated at a Pentagon news conference that he would not permit United Nations investigators to interview the striking detainees, he said the International Committee of the Red Cross would continue to have unlimited access to interview them. On December 30, 2005, the military reported that there were 84 strikers as of Christmas Day, with 46 having joined that day. In the April 14, 2008, edition of the New Yorker magazine, Jeffrey Toobin reported that there were about ten hunger strikers at Guantanamo; the overall population had declined markedly, as many detainees had been repatriated or transferred to detention in other countries. A new wave of the hunger strike arose in early 2013, at its peak in July when 106 out of the 166 detainees were considered on hunger strike, with 45 of them being force-fed by the prison administration. On December 4, 2013, the US military announced that it would no longer disclose information about the hunger strikes, explaining that "The release of this information serves no operational purpose".
The last disclosed figures in December showed numbers of hunger strikers rising to 15, with all being force-fed. Carol Rosenberg, "Ramadan at Guantanamo Bay includes nightly force-feedings", Miami Herald, 24 August 2010 Alex Stonehill, "Mos Def Force-Fed in Solidarity with Guantanamo Hunger Strikers", The Seattle Globalist, 9 July 2013
Retro Report is a non-profit news organization that produces mini documentaries looking at today's news stories through the lens of history and context. The organization describes itself as a counterweight to the 24-hour news cycle, they have covered topics including the Population Bomb theory, the Tawana Brawley rape allegations, the 1993 Jack in the Box E. coli outbreak, the MMR vaccine controversy, the Ruby Ridge standoff, the Columbine High School massacre, the McDonald's hot coffee lawsuit, the history of black activism in sports. Retro Report's stories are published on their own website and by distribution partners such as The New Yorker, Politico, PBS's American Experience, STAT News and The New York Times, where they are featured alongside an article by longtime journalist Clyde Haberman. In a Poynter Institute for Media Studies article, Executive Producer Kyra Darnton describes Retro Report's mission as providing, "context and perspective by going back and re-reporting and reanalyzing older stories, or stories that we think of as not relevant anymore.”
In a 2014 Nieman Foundation for Journalism article, Ann Derry, The New York Times’ editorial director for video and television partnerships, said Retro Report's stories are "consistently among the most-watched pieces of video content at the Times." Since the series premiered on May 6, 2013, Retro Report has produced more than 150 short form documentaries. Retro Report was created as a non-profit by entrepreneur and philanthropist Christopher Buck and is run by Executive Producer Kyra Darnton and a team of producers and editors, who come from news organizations 60 Minutes and Frontline. News & Documentary Emmy AwardsNominated – Outstanding Arts and Entertainment Report for "All in the Game: The Black Athlete in America" Nominated – Outstanding Promotional Announcement for "What Happens Next" trailer Nominated – Outstanding Coverage of a Breaking News Story for "Vaccines: An Unhealthy Skepticism" Winner – Outstanding Editing for News for "Go or No Go: The Challenger Legacy" Nominated – Outstanding Continuing Coverage of a News Story in a News Magazine for "The Shadow of Thalidomide" Gerald Loeb AwardWinner – Best Video for the "Future of Money" Edward R. Murrow Award:Winner – Best in Sports for "The Black Athlete in America" Winner – Regional Overall Excellence Winner – Regional Continuing Coverage for "Unraveling Zero Tolerance" Winner – Regional Hard News for "After Bush v. Gore" Winner – Regional Breaking News for “Nuclear Winter" Winner – Best Regional Continuing and Investigative Coverage for “Atomic Vets" Winner – Best Regional Documentary for "On Account of Sex" Winner – Regional Overall Excellence Winner – Best Regional Video News Documentary for "Transforming History" Winner – Best Regional Continuing Coverage for "The Population Bomb?"
Winner – Best National Continuing Coverage for "A Search for Justice" Winner – Overall Excellence Winner – Best Regional Video News Documentary for "The Sleeper Cell That Wasn't" Webby Awards:Winner – Film & Video - News & Politics: Best Overall Series Nominated – Film & Video: News & Politics for'Why Hasn't Sexual Harassment Disappeared?' Nominated – Film & Video: Technology for "The Future of Money" Nominated – Film & Video: Trailer for "What Happens Next" Honoree – Film & Video: News & Politics for Best Overall Series Nominated – Film & Video: Technology for "The Terminator and the Washing Machine" Nominated – News & Politics: Individual Episode for "Where Does the American Dream Live?" Honoree – Best Online Video, News & Politics for "Anatomy of an Interrogation" Honoree – Best Editing for "Go or No Go: the Challenger Legacy" Mirror Awards:Nominated - Best Single Article/Story for “The Outrage Machine” Nominated – Best Single Story for "Haunted by Columbine" Nominated – Best Single Story for "Taking the Lid Off the McDonald’s Coffee Case" Gracie Awards:Winner – Outstanding Original Online Programming for "The Shadow of Thalidomide" The Jackson Hole Science Media Awards: Nominated – Best short form series for "The Code" Society of Business Editors and Writers: Winner – Best Video for "What Happens Next" National Press Photographers AssociationRecognized in the Best Photojournalism Competition for photos take in India FOCAL International AwardsWinner – FOCAL International Award for use of innovative archival footage for "Go or No Go: The Challenger Legacy" Official website