Cheyenne is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County. It is the principal city of the Cheyenne, Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Laramie County; the population was 59,466 at the 2010 census. Cheyenne is the northern terminus of the extensive and fast-growing Front Range Urban Corridor that stretches from Cheyenne to Pueblo, Colorado which has a population of 4,333,742 according to the 2010 United States Census. Cheyenne is situated on Dry Creek; the Cheyenne, Wyoming Metropolitan Area had a 2010 population of 91,738, making it the 354th-most populous metropolitan area in the United States. On July 5, 1867, General Grenville M. Dodge and his survey crew plotted the site now known as Cheyenne in Dakota Territory; this site was chosen as the point at which the Union Pacific Railroad crossed Crow Creek, a tributary of the South Platte River. The city was not named by Dodge, as his memoirs state, but rather by friends who accompanied him to the area Dodge called "Crow Creek Crossing".
It was named for the American Indian Cheyenne tribe, one of the most famous and prominent Great Plains tribes allied with the Arapaho. The construction of the Union Pacific Railroad brought hopes of prosperity to the region when it reached Cheyenne on November 13, 1867; the population at the time numbered over 4,000, grew rapidly. This rapid growth earned the city the nickname "Magic City of the Plains". In 1867, Fort D. A. Russell was established, three miles west of the city; the fort was renamed Francis E. Warren Air Force Base; the Wyoming State Capitol was constructed between 1886 and 1890, with further improvements being completed in 1917. The Wyoming Stock Growers Association met at The Cheyenne Club, which acted as an interim government for the territory. Many of the WSGA's rules and regulations became state laws; the Cheyenne Regional Airport was opened in 1920 serving as a stop for airmail. It soon developed into a civil-military airport, serving various military craft. During World War II, hundreds of B-17s, B-24s, PBYs were outfitted and upgraded at the airfield.
Today, it serves a number of military functions, as well as a high-altitude testbed for civilian craft. Lying near the southeast corner of the state, Cheyenne is one of the least centrally located state capitals in the nation. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.63 square miles, of which 24.52 square miles is land and 0.11 square miles is water. Cheyenne, like most of the rest of Wyoming, has a cool semi-arid climate, is part of USDA Hardiness zone 5b, with the suburbs falling in zone 5a. Winters are cold and moderately long, but dry, with a December average of 28.8 °F, highs that fail to breach freezing occur 35 days per year, lows dip to the 0 °F mark on 9.2 mornings. However, the cold is interrupted, with chinook winds blowing downslope from the Rockies that can bring warm conditions, bringing the high above 50 °F on twenty days from December to February. Snowfall is greatest in March and April, seasonally averaging 60 inches ranging from 13.1 inches between July 1965 and June 1966 up to 121.5 inches between July 1979 and June 1980, yet thick snow cover stays.
Summers are warm, with a high diurnal temperature range. Spring and autumn are quick transitions, with the average window for freezing temperatures being September 29 thru May 14, allowing a growing season of 106 days. Official record temperatures range from −38 °F on January 9, 1875, up to 100 °F on June 23, 1954, the last of four occurrences; the annual precipitation of 15.9 inches tends to be concentrated from May to August and is low during fall and winter. The city averages below 60% daily relative humidity in each month and receives an average 2,980 hours of sunshine annually. On July 16, 1979 an F3 tornado struck Cheyenne causing 40 injuries, it was the most destructive tornado in Wyoming history. At the 2005–2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, the city's population was 87.2% White or European American, 12.7% Hispanic or Latino, 4.5% Black or African American, 2.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.1% Asian and 6.4% from some other race. 22.5 % of the total population had higher.
As of the census of 2010, there were 59,467 people, 25,558 households, 15,270 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,425.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 27,284 housing units at an average density of 1,112.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 77.44% European American, 2.88% African American, 0.96% Native American, 1.24% Asian, 0.20% Pacific Islander, 4.0% from other races, 3.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.45% of the population. There were 25,558 households of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.3% were non-families. 33.5%
Guthrie is a city and county seat in Logan County, United States, a part of the Oklahoma City Metroplex. The population was 10,191 at the 2010 census, a 2.7 percent increase from the 9,925 at the 2000 census. First known as a railroad station stop, after the Land Run of 1889, Guthrie gained 10,000 new residents who began to develop the town, it was improved and was designated as the territorial capital, in 1907 as the first state capital of Oklahoma. In 1910 state voters chose the larger Oklahoma City as the new capital in a special election. Guthrie is nationally significant for its collection of late 19th and early 20th century commercial architecture; the Guthrie Historic District includes more than 2,000 buildings and is designated as a National Historic Landmark. Historic tourism is important to the city, its Victorian architecture provides a backdrop for Wild West and territorial-style entertainment, carriage tours, replica trolley cars, specialty shops, art galleries. Guthrie was established in 1887 as a railroad station called Deer Creek on the Southern Kansas Railway running from the Kansas–Oklahoma border to Purcell.
The name was changed to Guthrie, named for jurist John Guthrie of Topeka, Kansas. A post office was established on April 4, 1889. In 1889 some fifty thousand potential settlers gathered at the edges of the Unassigned Lands in hopes of staking a claim to a plot. At noon on April 22, 1889, cannons resounded at a 2-million acre section of Indian Territory, launching president Benjamin Harrison's "Hoss Race" or Land Run of 1889. People ran for both towns. During the next six hours, about 10,000 people settled in what became the capital of the new Territory of Oklahoma. Within months, Guthrie was developed as a modern brick and stone "Queen of the Prairie" with municipal water, electricity, a mass transit system, underground parking garages for horses and carriages. Hobart Johnstone Whitley known as HJ and the'Father of Hollywood,' was the first president of the Guthrie Chamber of Commerce. Whitley built the first brick block building in the territory for his National Trust Company, he was asked by the local people to be the first Governor of Oklahoma.
Whitley traveled to Washington, D. C. where he persuaded the U. S. Congress to allow Guthrie to be the new capital of the future state of Oklahoma; this was specified in the 1906 Oklahoma Enabling Act, which established certain requirements for the new state constitution. By 1907, when Guthrie became the state capital, it looked like a well-established Eastern city. Guthrie prospered as the administrative center of the territory, but it was eclipsed in economic influence by Oklahoma City early in the 20th century. Oklahoma City had become a major junction for several railroads and had attracted a major industry in the form of meat packing. Oklahoma City business leaders began campaigning soon after statehood to make Oklahoma City the new state capital, in 1910 a special election was held to determine the location of the state capital. 96,488 votes were cast for Oklahoma City. Governor Charles N. Haskell, in Tulsa on the day of the election, ordered his secretary W. B. Anthony to have Oklahoma Secretary of State Bill Cross obtain the state seal and transport it to Oklahoma City, despite having been served a restraining order by Logan County Sheriff John Mahoney blocking the transfer.
Anthony obtained written authorization from Cross, retrieved the seal from the Logan County courthouse, delivered it to Oklahoma City. After the capital was transferred, Guthrie lost much of its government-related business and numerous residents, it began to dwindle in size and soon lost its status as Oklahoma's second-largest city to Muskogee later to Tulsa. A challenge to the new state capital was heard in the Oklahoma Supreme Court; the center district of Guthrie was designated a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service in 1999, in recognition of the city's importance to state history, as well as its rich architecture. As a result of Guthrie's early loss of prominence, it has a well-preserved Victorian enclave. Whereas growth and inattentive urban planning caused other Oklahoma towns such as Oklahoma City to destroy much of their early downtown architecture, much of the entire central business and residential district of Guthrie is intact; the National Finals Steer Roping Rodeo is held in Guthrie.
On six occasions, the Texas rodeo promoter Dan Taylor was chute director for the competition in Guthrie. Historical tourism has become a significant industry for the town. Guthrie is the largest urban Historic district in Oklahoma, containing 2,169 buildings, 1,400 acres and 400 city blocks. Guthrie is a "Certified City. Guthrie has two lakes to Liberty Lake and Guthrie Lake, its museums include the Oklahoma Territorial Museum, the Guthrie Scottish Rite Masonic Temple. Guthrie claims to be the "Bed and Breakfast capital of Oklahoma"; the city hosts the Oklahoma International Bluegrass Festival. Guthrie has the Pollard Theatre Company. With an emphasis on creative story-telling to illuminate the shared human experience, the Pollard produces six or more plays and musicals annually, enlisting artists across the United States; the annual holiday favorite is A Territorial Christmas Carol. Guthrie is served by the Guthrie News-Leader newspaper
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term "crime" does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition, though statutory definitions have been provided for certain purposes; the most popular view is. One proposed definition is that a crime or offence is an act harmful not only to some individual but to a community, society or the state; such acts are punishable by law. The notion that acts such as murder and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide. What is a criminal offence is defined by criminal law of each country. While many have a catalogue of crimes called the criminal code, in some common law countries no such comprehensive statute exists; the state has the power to restrict one's liberty for committing a crime. In modern societies, there are procedures to which trials must adhere. If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, execution.
To be classified as a crime, the "act of doing something criminal" must – with certain exceptions – be accompanied by the "intention to do something criminal". While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime. Breaches of private law are not automatically punished by the state, but can be enforced through civil procedure; when informal relationships prove insufficient to establish and maintain a desired social order, a government or a state may impose more formalized or stricter systems of social control. With institutional and legal machinery at their disposal, agents of the State can compel populations to conform to codes and can opt to punish or attempt to reform those who do not conform. Authorities employ various mechanisms to regulate certain behaviors in general. Governing or administering agencies may for example codify rules into laws, police citizens and visitors to ensure that they comply with those laws, implement other policies and practices that legislators or administrators have prescribed with the aim of discouraging or preventing crime.
In addition, authorities provide remedies and sanctions, collectively these constitute a criminal justice system. Legal sanctions vary in their severity; some jurisdictions have penal codes written to inflict permanent harsh punishments: legal mutilation, capital punishment or life without parole. A natural person perpetrates a crime, but legal persons may commit crimes. Conversely, at least under U. S. law, nonpersons such as animals cannot commit crimes. The sociologist Richard Quinney has written about the relationship between crime; when Quinney states "crime is a social phenomenon" he envisages both how individuals conceive crime and how populations perceive it, based on societal norms. The word crime is derived from the Latin root cernō, meaning "I decide, I give judgment"; the Latin word crīmen meant "charge" or "cry of distress." The Ancient Greek word krima, from which the Latin cognate derives referred to an intellectual mistake or an offense against the community, rather than a private or moral wrong.
In 13th century English crime meant "sinfulness", according to etymonline.com. It was brought to England as Old French crimne, from Latin crimen. In Latin, crimen could have signified any one of the following: "charge, accusation; the word may derive from the Latin cernere – "to decide, to sift". But Ernest Klein rejects this and suggests *cri-men, which would have meant "cry of distress". Thomas G. Tucker suggests a root in "cry" words and refers to English plaint, so on; the meaning "offense punishable by law" dates from the late 14th century. The Latin word is glossed in Old English by facen "deceit, treachery". Crime wave is first attested in 1893 in American English. Whether a given act or omission constitutes a crime does not depend on the nature of that act or omission, it depends on the nature of the legal consequences. An act or omission is a crime if it is capable of being followed by what are called criminal proceedings. History The following definition of "crime" was provided by the Prevention of Crimes Act 1871, applied for the purposes of section 10 of the Prevention of Crime Act 1908: The expression "crime" means, in England and Ireland, any felony or the offence of uttering false or counterfeit coin, or of possessing counterfeit gold or silver coin, or the offence of obtaining goods or money by false pretences, or the offence of conspiracy to defraud, or any misdemeanour under the fifty-eighth section of the Larceny Act, 1861.
For the purpose of section 243 of the Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1992, a crime means an offence punishable on indictment, or an offence punishable on summary conviction, for the commission of which the offender is liable under the statute making the offence punishable to be imprisoned either or at the discretion of the court as an alternative for some other punishment. A normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing norms – cult
The Chicago Sun-Times is a daily newspaper published in Chicago, United States. It is the flagship paper of the Sun-Times Media Group, with the biggest circulation in Chicago and the 9th overall in the US; the Chicago Sun-Times claims to be the oldest continuously published daily newspaper in the city. That claim is based on the 1844 founding of the Chicago Daily Journal, the first newspaper to publish the rumor, now believed false, that a cow owned by Catherine O'Leary was responsible for the Chicago fire; the Evening Journal, whose West Side building at 17–19 S. Canal was undamaged, gave the Chicago Tribune a temporary home until it could rebuild. Though the assets of the Journal were sold to the Chicago Daily News in 1929, its last owner Samuel Emory Thomason immediately launched the tabloid Chicago Daily Illustrated Times; the modern paper grew out of the 1948 merger of the Chicago Sun, founded December 4, 1941 by Marshall Field III, the Chicago Daily Times. The newspaper was owned by Field Enterprises, controlled by the Marshall Field family, which acquired the afternoon Chicago Daily News in 1959 and launched WFLD television in 1966.
When the Daily News ended its run in 1978, much of its staff, including Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist Mike Royko, were moved to the Sun-Times. During the Field period, the newspaper had a populist, progressive character that leaned Democratic but was independent of the city's Democratic establishment. Although the graphic style was urban tabloid, the paper was well regarded for journalistic quality and did not rely on sensational front-page stories, it ran articles from The Washington Post/Los Angeles Times wire service. Among the most prominent members of the newspaper's staff was cartoonist Jacob Burck, hired by the Chicago Times in 1938, won a Pulitzer Prize in 1941 and continued with the paper after it became the Sun-Times, drawing nearly 10,000 cartoons over a 44-year career; the advice column "Ask Ann Landers" debuted in 1943. Ann Landers was the pseudonym of staff writer Ruth Crowley, who answered readers' letters until 1955. Eppie Lederer, sister of "Dear Abby" columnist Abigail van Buren, assumed the role thereafter as Ann Landers.
"Kup's Column", written by Irv Kupcinet made its first appearance in 1943. Jack Olsen joined the Sun-Times as editor-in-chief in 1954, before moving on to Time and Sports Illustrated magazines and authoring true-crime books. Hired as literary editor in 1955 was Hoke Norris, who covered the civil-rights movement for the Sun-Times. Jerome Holtzman became a member of the Chicago Sun sports department after first being a copy boy for the Daily News in the 1940s, he and Edgar Munzel, another longtime sportswriter for the paper, both would end up honored by the Baseball Hall of Fame. Famed for his World War II exploits, two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning cartoonist Bill Mauldin made the Sun-Times his home base in 1962; the following year, Mauldin drew one of his most renowned illustrations, depicting a mourning statue of Abraham Lincoln after the November 1963 assassination of John F. Kennedy. Two years out of college, Roger Ebert became a staff writer in 1966, a year was named Sun-Times's film critic.
He continued in this role for the remainder of his life. In 1975, a new sports editor at the Sun-Times, Lewis Grizzard, spiked some columns written by sportswriter Lacy J. Banks and took away a column Banks had been writing, prompting Banks to tell a friend at the Chicago Defender that Grizzard was a racist. After the friend wrote a story about it, Grizzard fired Banks. With that, the editorial employees union intervened, a federal arbitrator ruled for Banks and 13 months he got his job back. A 25-part series on the Mirage Tavern, a saloon on Wells Street bought and operated by the Sun-Times in 1977, exposed a pattern of civic corruption and bribery, as city officials were investigated and photographed without their knowledge; the articles received considerable publicity and acclaim, but a nomination for the Pulitzer Prize met resistance from some who believed the Mirage series represented a form of entrapment. In March 1978, the venerable afternoon publication the Chicago Daily News, sister paper of the Sun-Times, went out of business.
The two newspapers shared the same office building. James F. Hoge, Jr. editor and publisher of the Daily News, assumed the same positions at the Sun-Times, which retained a number of the Daily News's editorial personnel. In 1980, the Sun-Times hired syndicated TV columnist Gary Deeb away from the rival Chicago Tribune. Deeb left the Sun-Times in the spring of 1983 to try his hand at TV, he joined Chicago's WLS-TV in September 1983. In July 1981, prominent Sun-Times investigative reporter Pam Zekman, part of a Pulitzer Prize-winning team with the Chicago Tribune in 1976, announced she was leaving the Sun-Times to join WBBM-TV in Chicago in August 1981 as chief of its new investigative unit. "Salary wasn't a factor," she told the Tribune. "The station showed a commitment to investigative journalism. It was something I wanted to try."Pete Souza left the Sun-Times in 1983 to become official White House photographer for President Ronald Reagan until his second term's end in 1989. Souza returned to that position to be the official photographer for President Barack Obama.
Baseball writer Jerome Holtzman defected from the Sun-Times to the Tribune in late 1981, while Mike Downey left Sun-Times sports in September 1981 to be a columnist at the Detroit Free Press. In January 1984, noted Sun-Times business reporter James Warren quit to join the rival Chicago Tribune, he became the Tribune's Washington bureau chief and its managing editor for features. In 1984, Field Enterprises co-owners, half-brothers Marshall Field
Ghost Adventures is an American television series about the paranormal that premiered on October 17, 2008, on the Travel Channel. Produced by MY-Tupelo Entertainment, the program follows ghost hunters Zak Bagans, Nick Groff, Aaron Goodwin as they investigate locations that are reported to be haunted; the show is narrated by Zak Bagans. Ghost Adventures began as an independent film, produced in a documentary style, it was filmed in 2004 and produced by 4Reel Productions in 2006. The Syfy Channel premiered 4Reel's Ghost Adventures on July 25, 2007; the documentary centered on the trio's investigation of alleged paranormal activity in and around Virginia City, Nevada. The crew returned there during the series' fifth season; the film featured the Goldfield Hotel in Goldfield, Nevada, to which the crew returned during the series' fourth and seventh seasons and caught more substantial evidence. The documentary was released on DVD by Echo Bridge Home Entertainment on October 5, 2010. Zak Bagans, Nick Groff, Aaron Goodwin, Billy Tolley, Jay Wasley investigate haunted locations, hoping to collect visual or auditory evidence of paranormal activity.
Each episode begins with the crew touring the investigation site with its caretakers. These introductions include Bagans's voice-overs of the site's history as well as interviews with people who claim to have witnessed paranormal phenomena there. On the basis of these interviews, the crew place X's with black or gray tape at the sites of some serious alleged paranormal activity, they return to these spots in order to set up static night-vision cameras to try and film it happening. After completing the walk-through they discuss their strategy are locked in the location overnight, which they believe will prevent "audio contamination" and extraneous shadows, they use a variety of equipment, including digital thermometers, electromagnetic field meters, handheld digital video cameras, audio recorders, the Ovilus device, point of view cameras, infrared night-vision cameras in an effort to capture evidence of ghosts. The members sometimes place objects and shout verbal taunts they believe ghosts might move or respond to.
At the end of the episode they analyze their audio and video footage with the assistance of alleged paranormal experts, present anything they feel is "unexplained phenomena" to the audience. During the series the crew claims to have captured and experienced various Fortean phenomena, which they say include simultaneous equipment malfunctions such as battery drain, voltage spikes, fluctuations in electromagnetic fields, sudden changes in temperature, unexplained noises, electronic voice phenomena, apparitions; the crew claim to have recorded spirit possessions on video. Bagans believes that he was possessed at the Preston School of Industry and at Poveglia Island in Italy. Groff claims. Goodwin claims he was "under the influence of a dark spirit" at Bobby Mackey's Music World and Winchester Mystery House. Goodwin states in his blog that he determined that the spirit from Bobby Mackey's was more of a spirit guide than a dark spirit who guides him in his life; the permanent members of the cast and crew are Zak Bagans and Aaron Goodwin.
Aaron Goodwin is an equipment technician, camera operator, co-investigator of Ghost Adventures and is from Portland, Oregon. Before joining Bagans and Groff, Goodwin had worked as a camera operator for Ultimate Fighting Championship and several behind-the-scenes film premieres in Las Vegas. Goodwin says that prior to his experiences in Virginia City, Nevada, he "never thought twice about ghosts." Goodwin is left alone in the alleged "hotspots" during lockdowns to see how the spirits will react to Goodwin being alone. Goodwin sells a line of clothing bearing the label "Big Steppin". Having a solid background in audio editing and production software, Tolley was first intrigued by the paranormal after learning about electronic voice phenomena. With several years of experience in music and audio production, his curiosity led him to investigate and capture EVPs for himself. Tolley's fascination with the paranormal field grew stronger, in 2006, he founded a paranormal group with some friends – the Las Vegas Paranormal Investigations of Mysterious Phenomena Squad.
He started sharing details of his audio captures with Zak Bagans and joined the Ghost Adventures series as one of the paranormal investigation team's audio/visual technicians and EVP analysts. Wasley started his film-making career in Philadelphia, PA. as a director of photography and audio engineer. Since 2002, he has worked on dozens of feature films, television shows, national commercials and music videos. Wasley joined Ghost Adventures in season 4 as the paranormal investigation team's sound mixer, has since evolved into one of the show's audio/visual technicians and cinematographers. Throughout the series, Wasley travels with the team to domestic and international locations rumored to be haunted in search of evidence proving the existence of the supernatural. Nicholas Groff was a co-investigator and executive producer of Ghost Adventures, as well as an editor and cameraman for the show from seasons 1-10. Groff was an executive producer for a show on the Travel Channel called Vegas Stripped, a behind-the-scenes look at the operations of the South Point Hotel, Casino & Spa in Las Vegas, Nevada.
Born in San Jose, Groff grew up in New England. He graduated from Pelham High School in New Hampshire and studied
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi