Shuhada' Davitt is an Irish singer-songwriter who rose to fame in the late 1980s with her debut album The Lion and the Cobra. As Sinéad O'Connor, she achieved worldwide success in 1990 with a new arrangement of Prince's song "Nothing Compares 2 U". Since while maintaining her singing career, she has encountered controversy due to her statements and gestures—such as her ordination as a priest despite being a woman with a Roman Catholic background—and her expressed views on organised religion, women's rights and child abuse. In addition to her ten solo albums, her work includes many singles, songs for films, collaborations with many other artists, appearances at charity fundraising concerts. In 2017, O'Connor said. On converting to Islam in 2018, she changed it again to Shuhada' Davitt. O'Connor was born in Glenageary in County Dublin and was named after Sinéad de Valera, wife of Irish President Éamon de Valera and mother of the doctor presiding over the delivery, Saint Bernadette of Lourdes, she is the third of five children, sister to novelist Joseph, Eimear and Eoin.
Her parents are Sean O'Connor, a structural engineer turned barrister and chairperson of the Divorce Action Group, Marie O'Connor. In 1979 O'Connor went to live with her father and his new wife. At the age of 15, her shoplifting and truancy led to her being placed for eighteen months in a Magdalene Asylum, the Grianán Training Centre run by the Order of Our Lady of Charity. In some ways, she thrived there in the development of her writing and music, but she chafed under the imposed conformity. Unruly students there were sometimes sent to sleep in the adjoining nursing home, an experience of which she commented, "I have never—and will never—experience such panic and terror and agony over anything."O'Connor in June 1993 wrote a public letter in The Irish Times which asked people to "stop hurting" her: "If only I can fight off the voices of my parents / and gather a sense of self-esteem / Then I'll be able to REALLY sing..." The letter repeated accusations of abuse by her parents as a child which O'Connor had made in interviews.
Her brother Joseph defended their father to the newspaper but agreed regarding their mother's "extreme and violent abuse, both emotional and physical". Sinead said that month, "Our family is messed up. We can't communicate with each other. We are all in agony. I for one am in agony." One of the volunteers at Grianán was the sister of Paul Byrne, drummer for the band In Tua Nua, who heard O'Connor singing "Evergreen" by Barbra Streisand. She recorded a song with them called "Take My Hand" but they felt that at 15, she was too young to join the band. Through an ad she placed in Hot Press in mid-1984, she met Colm Farrelly. Together they formed a band called Ton Ton Macoute; the band moved to Waterford while O'Connor attended Newtown School, but she soon dropped out of school and followed them to Dublin, where their performances received positive reviews. Their sound was inspired by Farrelly's interest in world music, though most observers thought O'Connor's singing and stage presence were the band's strongest features.
O'Connor's time as singer for Ton Ton Macoute brought her to the attention of the music industry, she was signed by Ensign Records. She acquired an experienced manager, Fachtna O'Ceallaigh, former head of U2's Mother Records. Soon after she was signed, she embarked on her first major assignment, providing the vocals for the song "Heroine", which she co-wrote with U2's guitarist The Edge for the soundtrack to the film Captive. O'Ceallaigh, fired by U2 for complaining about them in an interview, was outspoken with his views on music and politics, O'Connor adopted the same habits, she retracted her IRA comments saying they were based on nonsense, that she was "too young to understand the tense situation in Northern Ireland properly". Her first album The Lion and the Cobra was "a sensation" when it was released in 1987 and it reached gold record status and earned a Best Female Rock Vocal Performance Grammy nomination; the single "Mandinka" was a big college radio hit in the United States, "I Want Your" received both college and urban play in a remixed form that featured rapper MC Lyte.
In her first US network television appearance, O'Connor sang "Mandinka" on Late Night with David Letterman in 1988. The single "Troy" was released as a single in the UK, the Netherlands, where it reached number 5 on the Dutch Top 40 chart.. O'Connor named Bob Dylan, David Bowie, Bob Marley and the Banshees and The Pretenders as the artists who influenced her on her debut album. In 1989 O'Connor joined The The frontman Matt Johnson as a guest vocalist on the band's album Mind Bomb, which spawned the duet "Kingdom of Rain", her second album – 1990's I Do Not Want What I Haven't Got – gained considerable attention and positive reviews: it was rated "second best album of the year" by the NME. She was praised for her original songs, she was noted for her appearance: her trademark shaved head angry expression, sometimes shapeless or unusual clothing. The album I Do Not Want What I Haven't Got featured Marco Pirroni and Kevin Mooney, of Adam and the Ants fame, contained her international breakthrough hit "Nothing Compares 2 U", a song written by Prince and recorded and released by a side project of his, The Family.
Hank Shocklee, producer for Public Enemy, remixed the album's next single, "The Emperor's New Clothes", for a
Black people is a term used in certain countries in based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations. As such, the meaning of the expression varies both between and within societies, depends on context. For many other individuals and countries, "black" is perceived as a derogatory, reductive or otherwise unrepresentative label, as a result is neither used nor defined. Different societies apply differing criteria regarding, classified as "black", these social constructs have changed over time. In a number of countries, societal variables affect classification as much as skin color, the social criteria for "blackness" vary. In the United Kingdom, "black" was equivalent with "person of color", a general term for non-European peoples. In South Africa and Latin America, mixed-race people are not classified as "black". In other regions such as Australasia, settlers applied the term "black" or it was used by local populations with different histories and ancestral backgrounds.
The Romans interacted with and conquered parts of Mauretania, an early state that covered modern Morocco, western Algeria, the Spanish cities Ceuta and Melilla during the classical period. The people of the region were noted in Classical literature as Mauri, subsequently rendered as Moors in English. Numerous communities of dark-skinned peoples are present in North Africa, some dating from prehistoric communities. Others are descendants of the historical Trans-Saharan trade in peoples and/or, after the Arab invasions of North Africa in the 7th century, descendants of slaves from the Arab Slave Trade in North Africa. In the 18th century, the Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail "the Warrior King" raised a corps of 150,000 black soldiers, called his Black Guard. According to Carlos Moore, resident scholar at Brazil's University of the State of Bahia, in the 21st century Afro-multiracials in the Arab world, including Arabs in North Africa, self-identify in ways that resemble multi-racials in Latin America.
He claims that black-looking Arabs, much like black-looking Latin Americans, consider themselves white because they have some distant white ancestry. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had a mother, a dark-skinned Nubian Sudanese woman and a father, a lighter-skinned Egyptian. In response to an advertisement for an acting position, as a young man he said, "I am not white but I am not black either. My blackness is tending to reddish". Due to the patriarchal nature of Arab society, Arab men, including during the slave trade in North Africa, enslaved more black women than men, they used more black female slaves in domestic agriculture than males. The men interpreted the Qur'an to permit sexual relations between a male master and his female slave outside of marriage, leading to many mixed-race children; when an enslaved woman became pregnant with her Arab master's child, she was considered as umm walad or "mother of a child", a status that granted her privileged rights. The child was given rights of inheritance to the father's property, so mixed-race children could share in any wealth of the father.
Because the society was patrilineal, the children took their fathers' social status at birth and were born free. Some succeeded their fathers as rulers, such as Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, who ruled Morocco from 1578 to 1608, he was not technically considered as a mixed-race child of a slave. In early 1991, non-Arabs of the Zaghawa tribe of Sudan attested that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign, segregating Arabs and non-Arabs. Sudanese Arabs, who controlled the government, were referred to as practicing apartheid against Sudan's non-Arab citizens; the government was accused of "deftly manipulat Arab solidarity" to carry out policies of apartheid and ethnic cleansing. American University economist George Ayittey accused the Arab government of Sudan of practicing acts of racism against black citizens. According to Ayittey, "In Sudan... the Arabs monopolized power and excluded blacks – Arab apartheid." Many African commentators joined Ayittey in accusing Sudan of practising Arab apartheid.
In the Sahara, the native Tuareg Berber populations kept "Negro" slaves. Most of these captives were of Nilotic extraction, were either purchased by the Tuareg nobles from slave markets in the Western Sudan or taken during raids, their origin is denoted via the Ahaggar Berber word Ibenheren, which alludes to slaves that only speak a Nilo-Saharan language. These slaves were sometimes known by the borrowed Songhay term Bella; the Sahrawi autochthones of the Western Sahara observed a class system consisting of high castes and low castes. Outside of these traditional tribal boundaries were "Negro" slaves, who were drawn from the surrounding areas. In parts of the Horn of Africa, the local Afroasiatic speaking populations have long adhered to a construct similar to that of the Sahara and Maghreb. In Ethiopia and Somalia, the slave classes consisted of individuals of Nilotic and Bantu origin who were collectively known as Shanqella and Adone; these captives and others of analogous morphology were distinguished as tsalim barya in contrast with the Afroasiatic-speaking nobles or saba qayh.
The earliest representation of this tradition dates from a seventh or eighth century BC inscription belonging to the Kingdom of Damat. In South Africa, the period of colonization resulted in many unions and marriages between European men and Bantu and Kho
Forensic pathology is pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse. A post mortem is performed by a medical examiner during the investigation of criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions. Coroners and medical examiners are frequently asked to confirm the identity of a corpse. See forensic medicine. Forensic pathology is an application of medical jurisprudence. A forensic pathologist is a medical doctor who has completed training in anatomical pathology and has subsequently specialized in forensic pathology; the requirements for becoming a "fully qualified" forensic pathologist vary from country to country. Some of the different requirements are discussed below; the forensic pathologist performs autopsies/postmortem examinations to determine the cause of death. The autopsy report contains an opinion about the following: The pathological process, injury, or disease that directly results in or initiates a series of events that lead to a person's death, such as a bullet wound to the head, exsanguination caused by a stab wound, manual or ligature strangulation, myocardial infarction resulting from coronary artery disease, etc.)
The manner of death, the circumstances surrounding the cause of death, which, in most jurisdictions, include the following:Homicide Accidental Natural Suicide UndeterminedThe autopsy provides an opportunity for other issues raised by the death to be addressed, such as the collection of trace evidence or determining the identity of the deceased. The forensic pathologist examines and documents wounds and injuries, at autopsy, at the scene of a crime and in a clinical setting, such as rape investigation or deaths in custody. Forensic pathologists collect and examine tissue specimens under the microscope to identify the presence or absence of natural disease and other microscopic findings such as asbestos bodies in the lungs or gunpowder particles around a gunshot wound, they collect and interpret toxicological specimens of body tissues and fluids to determine the chemical cause of accidental overdoses or deliberate poisonings. Forensic pathologists work with the medico-legal authority for the area concerned with the investigation of sudden and unexpected deaths: the coroner, procurator fiscal, or coroner or medical examiner.
They serve as expert witnesses in courts of law testifying in criminal law cases. In an autopsy, the forensic pathologist is assisted by an autopsy/mortuary technician. Forensic physicians, sometimes referred to as "forensic medical examiners" or "police surgeons", are medical doctors trained in the examination of, provision of medical treatment to, living victims of assault, including sexual assault, individuals who find themselves in police custody. Many forensic physicians in the UK practice clinical forensic medicine part-time, they practice family medicine or another medical specialty. In the United Kingdom, membership of the Royal College of Pathologists is not a prerequisite of appointment as a coroner's medical expert. Doctors in the UK who are not forensic pathologists or pathologists are allowed to perform medicolegal autopsies, as the wording of the Coroners and Justice Act 2009, which stipulates a "registered medical practitioner": anyone on the General Medical Council register.
Deaths where there is a unknown cause and those considered unnatural are investigated. In most jurisdictions this is done by a "forensic pathologist", medical examiner, or hybrid medical examiner-coroner offices. In some jurisdictions, the title of "Medical Examiner" is used by a non-physician, elected official involved in medicolegal death investigation. In others, the law requires the medical examiner to be a physician, pathologist, or forensic pathologist; the title "coroner" is applied to both physicians and non-physicians. Coroners were not all physicians. However, in some jurisdictions the title of "Coroner" is used by physicians. In Canada, there is a mix of coroner and medical examiner systems, depending on the province or territory. In Ontario, coroners are licensed physicians but not family physicians. In Quebec, there is a mix of medical and non-medical coroners, whereas in British Columbia, there is predominantly a non-physician coroner system. Alberta and Nova Scotia are examples of ME systems In the United States, a coroner is an elected public official in a particular geographic jurisdiction who investigates and certifies deaths.
The vast majority of coroners lack a Doctor of Medicine degree and the amount of medical training that they have received is variable, depending on their profession. In contrast, a medical examiner is a physician who holds the degree of Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine. Ideally, a medical examiner has completed both a pathology residency and a fellowship in forensic pathology. In some jurisdictions, a medical examiner must be both a doctor and a lawyer, with additional training in forensic pathology. In German-speaking Europe, lectures on forensic pathology were held in Freiburg in the mid 18th century and Vienna in 1804. Scientists like Auguste Ambroise Tardieu, Johann Ludwig Casper and Carl Liman made great effort to develop forensic pathology into a science based on empirics. Forensic pathology was first recognized in the United States by the American Board of Pathology in 1959. In Canada, it was formally recognized in 2003, a formal training program (a fello
Linton Kwesi Johnson
Linton Kwesi Johnson is a Jamaican dub poet who has long been based in the UK. In 2002 he became the second living poet, the only black poet, to be published in the Penguin Modern Classics series, his performance poetry involves the recitation of his own verse in Jamaican Patois over dub-reggae written in collaboration with renowned British reggae producer/artist Dennis Bovell. Johnson's middle name, "Kwesi", is a Ghanaian name, given to boys who, like Johnson, are born on a Sunday. Johnson was born in a small town in the rural parish of Clarendon, Jamaica. In 1963 he came to live in Brixton, joining his mother who had immigrated to Britain shortly before Jamaican independence in 1962. Johnson attended Tulse Hill School in Lambeth. While still at school he joined the British Black Panther Movement, helped to organise a poetry workshop within the movement, developed his work with Rasta Love, a group of poets and drummers. Johnson went on to study for a degree in sociology at Goldsmiths College in London.
During the early to mid-1970s he was employed as the first paid library resources and education officer at the Keskidee Centre, where his poem Voices of the living and the dead was staged, produced by Jamaica novelist Lindsay Barrett, with music by the reggae group Rasta Love. Johnson has recalled: "it was fantastic, you know, having written something and having it staged with actors and musicians; that was back in 1973. That was before anyone had heard of Linton Kwesi Johnson." Johnson received a C. Day-Lewis Fellowship in 1977, that year became writer-in-residence for the London Borough of Lambeth, he was made an Associate Fellow of Warwick University in 1985 and an Honorary Fellow of Wolverhampton Polytechnic in 1987, in 1990 received an award at the XIII Premio Internazionale Ultimo Novecento from the city of Pisa for his contribution to poetry and popular music. In 1998 he was awarded the Premio Piero Ciampi Citta di Livorno Concorso Musicale Nazionale in Italy. In 2003 Johnson was bestowed with an honorary fellowship from his alma mater, Goldsmiths College, University of London.
In 2004 he became an Honorary Visiting Professor of Middlesex University in London. In 2005 he was awarded a silver Musgrave Medal from the Institute of Jamaica for distinguished eminence in the field of poetry. In 2012, he was awarded the Golden PEN Award by English PEN for "a Lifetime's Distinguished Service to Literature", he is a Trustee of the George Padmore Institute. In August 2014 it was announced. On 20 April 2017 he was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Literature by Rhodes University in South Africa. Most of Johnson's poetry is political, dealing with the experiences of being an African-Caribbean in Britain: "Writing was a political act and poetry was a cultural weapon...", he told an interviewer in 2008. However, he has written about other issues, such as British foreign policy and the death of anti-racist marcher Blair Peach. Johnson wrote "Reggae fi Dada" on the death of his father in 1982, his most celebrated poems were written during the government of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.
The poems contain graphic accounts of the racist police brutality occurring at the time. Johnson's poetry makes clever use of the unstandardised transcription of Jamaican patois. Johnson's poems first appeared in the journal Race Today, which published his first collection of poetry, Voices of the Living and the Dead, in 1974. Dread Beat An' Blood, his second collection, was published in 1975 by Bogle-L'Ouverture. A collection of his poems has been published as Mi Revalueshanary Fren by Penguin Modern Classics. Johnson is one of only three poets to be published by Penguin Modern Classics while still alive. Johnson wrote for New Musical Express, Melody Maker, Black Music in the 1970s, while working on a freelance basis for Virgin Records during this period he wrote biographies for reggae artists on the label, as well as sleeve notes and copy for adverts. Johnson's best-known albums include his debut Dread Beat an' Blood, Forces of Victory, Bass Culture, LKJ in Dub, Making History. Across them are spread classics of the dub poetry school of performance – and, indeed, of reggae itself – such as "Dread Beat An' Blood", "Sonny's Lettah", "Inglan Is A Bitch", "Independent Intavenshan" and "All Wi Doin Is Defendin".
His poem Di Great Insohreckshan is his response to the 1981 Brixton riots. The work was the subject of a BBC Radio 4 program in 2007. Johnson's work, allied to the Jamaican "toasting" tradition, is regarded as an essential precursor of rap. Johnson's record label LKJ Records, launched in 1981, is home to other reggae artists, some of whom made up the Dub Band, with whom Johnson recorded, other dub poets, such as Jean "Binta" Breeze. Past releases on the label include recordings by Mikey Smith. Mi Revalueshanary Fren: Selected Poems – Penguin Modern Classics, 2002. Forces of Victory – Island, 1979. Bass Culture – Island, 1980; the Best of Linton Kwesi Johnson – Epic, 1980. LKJ in Dub – Island, 1980. Making History – Island, 1983. Reggae Greats – Mango, 1984. LKJ Live in Concert with the Dub Band – LKJ Records, 1985. Dub Poetry – Mango, 1985. Tings An' Times – LKJ Records, 1991. LKJ in Dub: Volume 2 – LKJ Records, 1992. LKJ Presents – LKJ Records, 1996. A Cappella Live – LK
The Independent is a British online newspaper. Established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010; the last printed edition of The Independent was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only its digital editions. Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet, but changed to tabloid format in 2003; until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence". It tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues; the daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had an average daily circulation of just below 58,000, 85 per cent down from its 1990 peak, while the Sunday edition had a circulation of just over 97,000. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format.
It was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds. All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwell's ownership. Marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, Whittam Smith took control of the paper; the paper was created at a time of a fundamental change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and defeated them in the Wapping dispute. Production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition; as a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a moribund market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When The Independent launched The Independent on Sunday in 1990, sales were less than anticipated due to the launch of the Sunday Correspondent four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990; some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a distinct editorial staff. In the 1990s, The Independent was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, started an advertising campaign accusing The Times and The Daily Telegraph of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black, it featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, with The Independent below the main title. Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O'Reilly's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994.
In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News & Media, MGN, Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, in March 1998, O'Reilly bought the other shares of the company for £30 million, assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in My Trade. Boycott left in April 1998 to join the Daily Express, Marr left in May 1998 becoming the BBC's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent to increase circulation, the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level, achieved in 1989, or restore profitability.
Job cuts and financial controls reduced the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and a key figure at The Sunday Times, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant. In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers; the two newspaper groups' editorial and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology and payroll. On 25 March 2010, Independent News & Media sold the newspaper to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev for a nominal £1 fee and £9.25m over the next 10 months, choosing this option over closing The Independent and The Independent on Sunday, which would have cost £28m and £40m due to long-term contracts. In 2009, Lebedev had bought a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard. Two weeks editor Roger Alton resigned.
In July 2011, The Independent's columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, to which Hari admitted, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst
Police brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which involves undue violence by police members. Widespread police brutality exists in many countries and territories those that prosecute it. Although illegal, it can be performed under the color of law; the term "police brutality" was in use in the American press as early as 1872, when the Chicago Tribune reported on the beating of a civilian under arrest at the Harrison Street Police Station. The origin of'modern' policing based on the authority of the nation state is traced back to developments in seventeenth and 18th century France, with modern police departments being established in most nations by the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Cases of police brutality appear to have been frequent with "the routine bludgeoning of citizens by patrolmen armed with nightsticks or blackjacks". Large-scale incidents of brutality were associated with labor strikes, such as the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, the Pullman Strike of 1894, the Lawrence textile strike of 1912, the Ludlow massacre of 1914, the Steel strike of 1919, the Hanapepe massacre of 1924.
Portions of the populations may perceive the police to be oppressors. In addition, there is a perception that victims of police brutality belong to powerless groups, such as minorities, the disabled, the young, the poor. Hubert Locke writes, When used in print or as the battle cry in a black power rally, police brutality can by implication cover a number of practices, from calling a citizen by his or her first name to a death by a policeman's bullet. What the average citizen thinks of when he hears the term, however, is something midway between these two occurrences, something more akin to what the police profession knows as "alley court"—the wanton vicious beating of a person in custody while handcuffed, taking place somewhere between the scene of the arrest and the station house. In March 1991, members of the Los Angeles Police Department harshly beat an African American suspect, Rodney King, while a white civilian videotaped the incident, leading to extensive media coverage and criminal charges against several of the officers involved.
In April 1992, hours after the four police officers involved were acquitted at trial, the Los Angeles riots of 1992 commenced, causing 53 deaths, 2,383 injuries, more than 7,000 fires, damage to 3,100 businesses, nearly $1 billion in financial losses. After facing federal trial, two of the four officers were convicted and received 32-month prison sentences; the case was seen as a key factor in the reform of the Los Angeles Police Department. According to data released by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, between 2003 and 2009 at least 4,813 people died in the process of being arrested by local police. Of the deaths classified as law enforcement homicides, 2,876 deaths occurred of which 1,643 or 57.1% of the people who died were "people of color". In Vienna there tends to be an association made between Vienna's drug problem and the city's African migrants; this has led to the existence of negative cultural stereotypes which have led to the racial profiling of African migrants, due to the negative associations with their ethnicity.
There have been a number of publicised incidents in Austria where police have either tortured, publicly humiliated, or violently beaten people - in some cases to the point of death. The most notorious of these incidents occurred in the late 1990s, however recent reports in 2015 show that police are still treating civilians in this way. 24 April 1996: Mr Jevremovic, a Serbian Romani man, tried to pay a friend's parking fine and was harassed by police for it. He escaped, a large group of police came into his home without a warrant, violently beat him and his wife before taking them both into custody, they were fined without reason. May 1996: Marcus Omofuma, an Illegal Nigerian immigrant, was being deported from Vienna when the officers taped him to his chair'like a mummy' and stuck tape over his mouth, he suffocated whilst in police custody. November 1998: Dr. C, a black Austrian citizen, was stopped by police after reversing his car into a one-way street and asked, "Why are you driving the wrong way, nigger?".
He was beaten unconscious and handcuffed. Police continued beating him. After he was arrested, he spent 11 days in hospital recovering. 28 July 2015: A 27-year-old man, suspected of being a pickpocket, was handcuffed and violently thrown to the ground whilst under police custody. Police said that the man had been injured whilst'pressing his head against the wall.' Video evidence showed him being compliant prior to the altercation. 1 January 2015: A middle-aged woman beaten and taken into custody after refusing a breathalyser test while walking home at night. She suffered severe bruising to her head and knees, she filed a complaint and only after she found CCTV footage was the case reexamined by the prosecutor. There has been a notable lack of commitment to addressing the violation of civilians' rights in Austria, with Amnesty International reporting that in 1998/1999 few people who committed a violation of human rights were brought to justice; this was worsened by the fact that many people who made a complaint against police were brought up on counter-charges such as resisting arrest and assault.
In 2014–2015, there were 250 accusations of police misconduct made against officers in Vienna, not a single person was charged - however 1,329 people were charged with'civil disorder' in a similar time period. The Council of Europe's Committee for the Prevention of Torture's 2014 report included a number of complaints of police using excessive force with detainees and psychiatric patients; the culture of excusin
Routledge is a British multinational publisher. It was founded in 1836 by George Routledge, specialises in providing academic books, journals, & online resources in the fields of humanities, behavioural science, education and social science; the company publishes 1,800 journals and 5,000 new books each year and their backlist encompasses over 70,000 titles. Routledge is claimed to be the largest global academic publisher within humanities and social sciences. In 1998, Routledge became a subdivision and imprint of its former rival, Taylor & Francis Group, as a result of a £90 million acquisition deal from Cinven, a venture capital group which had purchased it two years for £25 million. Following the merger of Informa and T&F in 2004, Routledge become a publishing unit and major imprint within the Informa'academic publishing' division. Routledge is headquartered in the main T&F office in Milton Park, Abingdon and operates from T&F offices globally including in Philadelphia, New Delhi and Beijing.
The firm originated in 1836, when the London bookseller George Routledge published an unsuccessful guidebook, The Beauties of Gilsland with his brother-in-law W H Warne as assistant. In 1848 the pair entered the booming market for selling inexpensive imprints of works of fiction to rail travellers, in the style of the German Tauchnitz family, which became known as the "Railway Library"; the venture was a success as railway usage grew, it led to Routledge, along with W H Warne's Brother Frederick Warne, to found the company, George Routledge & Co. in 1851. The following year in 1852, the company gained lucrative business through selling reprints of Uncle Tom's Cabin, which in turn enabled it to pay author Edward Bulwer-Lytton £20,000 for a 10-year lease allowing sole rights to print all 35 of his works including 19 of his novels to be sold cheaply as part of their "Railway Library" series; the company was restyled in 1858 as Routledge, Warne & Routledge when George Routledge's son, Robert Warne Routledge, entered the partnership.
Frederick Warne left the company after the death of his brother W. H. Warne in May 1859. Gaining rights to some titles, he founded Frederick Warne & Co in 1865, which became known for its Beatrix Potter books. In July 1865, George Routledge's son Edmund Routledge became a partner, the firm became George Routledge & Sons. By 1899 the company was running close to bankruptcy. Following a successful restructuring in 1902 by scientist Sir William Crookes, banker Arthur Ellis Franklin, William Swan Sonnenschein as managing director, others, however, it was able to recover and began to acquire and merge with other publishing companies including J. C. Nimmo Ltd. in 1903. In 1912 the company took over the management of Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. the descendant of companies founded by Charles Kegan Paul, Alexander Chenevix Trench, Nicholas Trübner, George Redway. These early 20th-century acquisitions brought with them lists of notable scholarly titles, from 1912 onward, the company became concentrated in the academic and scholarly publishing business under the imprint "Kegan Paul Trench Trubner", as well as reference and mysticism.
In 1947, George Routledge and Sons merged with Kegan Paul Trench Trubner under the name of Routledge & Kegan Paul. Using C. K Ogden and Karl Mannheim as advisers the company was soon known for its titles in philosophy and the social sciences. In 1985, Routledge & Kegan Paul joined with Associated Book Publishers, acquired by International Thomson in 1987. Under Thomson's ownership, Routledge's name and operations were retained, and, in 1996, a management buyout financed by the European private equity firm Cinven saw Routledge operating as an independent company once again. Just two year Cinven and Routledge's directors accepted a deal for Routledge's acquisition by Taylor & Francis Group, with the Routledge name being retained as an imprint and subdivision. In 2004, T&F became a division within Informa plc after a merger. Routledge continues as a primary publishing unit and imprint within Informa's'academic publishing' division, publishing academic humanities and social science books, reference works and digital products.
Routledge has grown as a result of organic growth and acquisitions of other publishing companies and other publishers' titles by its parent company. Humanities and social sciences titles acquired by T&F from other publishers are rebranded under the Routledge imprint; the famous English publisher Fredric Warburg was a commissioning editor at Routledge during the early 20th century. Novelist Nina Stibbe, author of Love, worked at the company as a commissioning editor in the 1990s. Routledge has published many of the greatest thinkers and scholars of the last hundred years, including Adorno, Butler, Einstein, Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss, McLuhan, Popper, Russell and Wittgenstein; the republished works of these authors have appeared as part of the Routledge Classics and Routledge Great Minds series. Competitors to the series are Verso Books' Radical Thinkers, Penguin Classics and Oxford World's Classics. Taylor and Francis closed down the Routledge print encyclopaedia division in 2006; some of its publications were: Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Edward Craig, in 10 volumes, but now online.
Encyclopedia of Ethics, by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker, in three volumes. Reference Works by Europa Publications, published by Routledge: Europa World Year Book. International Who's Who. Europ