The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Benighted is a French deathgrind band formed in Saint-Étienne in 1998. The group comprises vocalist Julien Truchan, guitarists Emmanuel Dalle and Fabien "Fack" Desgardins, bassist Pierre Arnoux and drummer Kevin Paradis, Benighted have released eight studio albums. Benighted was formed in Saint-Étienne, Rhône-Alpes, France, in May 1998 by vocalist Julien Truchan, guitarists Liem N'Guyen and Olivier Gabriel, drummer Fred Fayolle and bassist Chart, their self-titled first album was self-released in 2000 and was a combination of death metal, black metal and grindcore. The following positive response earned the band a record deal with Adipocère Records in early 2001. During the 2001 recording sessions, Benighted moved towards a more technical form of death metal and released their second album, Psychose, in 2003. For the subsequent touring, Remy Aubrespin took over on bass; the band entered studio without a bassist. After the 2004 release of Insane Cephalic Production, bassist Eric Lombard joined as a new member.
With Insane Cephalic Production the band started working with producer Kristian "Kohle" Kohlmannslehner in his Kohlekeller Studio in Germany. Kohlmannslehner has produced all Benighted albums since then. Benighted subsequently toured throughout Europe with Morbid Angel and Fear Factory among others. Benighted released their fourth album Identisick in 2006 and Fayolle was replaced by Kevin "Kikou" Foley on drums; the band released Icon in October that year. In late 2009, Benighted signed to Season of Mist and released Asylum Cave in 2011. Truchan contributed guest vocals to 2011 album Global Flatline by Aborted. A music video for the song "Let The Blood Spill Between My Broken Teeth" was released in February 2012. Following a brief recording session, Benighted released their 8th full-length studio album "Necrobreed" on February 24th, 2017 via Season of Mist records; this record is the first record to feature veteran death metal drummer Romain Goulon. Benighted is headlining their own tour "Worship the Necrobreed".
CurrentJulien Truchan – vocals Pierre Arnoux – bass, backing vocals Emmanuel Dalle – guitar Kevin Paradis – drums Fabien "Fack" Desgardins – guitar FormerChristophe Charretier – bass Fred Fayolle – drums Liem N'Guyen – guitar, bass Oliver Gabriel – guitar Remy Aubrespin – bass Bertrand "Bert" Arnaud – bass Eric "Candy" Lombard – bass Kevin Foley – drums Adrian Guerin – guitar Alexis Lieu – bass Romain Goulon - drums Benighted Psychose Insane Cephalic Production Identisick Icon Asylum Cave Carnivore Sublime Necrobreed Media related to Category:Benighted at Wikimedia Commons Benighted on Facebook
Grindcore is an extreme fusion genre of heavy metal and hardcore punk that originated in the mid-1980s, drawing inspiration from abrasive-sounding musical styles, such as: thrashcore, crust punk, hardcore punk, extreme metal, industrial. Grindcore is characterized by a noise-filled sound that uses distorted, down-tuned guitars, grinding overdriven bass, high speed tempo, blast beats, vocals which consist of growls and high-pitched shrieks. Early groups like Napalm Death are credited with laying the groundwork for the style, it is most prevalent today in North America and Europe, with popular contributors such as Brutal Truth and Nasum. Lyrical themes range from a primary focus on social and political concerns, to gory subject matter and black humor. A trait of grindcore is the "microsong". Several bands have produced songs. British band Napalm Death holds the Guinness World Record for shortest song recorded with the one-second "You Suffer". Many bands, such as Agoraphobic Nosebleed, record simple phrases that may be rhythmically sprawled out across an instrumental lasting only a couple of bars in length.
A variety of microgenres have subsequently emerged labeling bands according to traits that deviate from regular grindcore, including goregrind, focused on themes of gore, pornogrind, fixated on pornographic lyrical themes. Another offshoot is electrogrind which incorporates electronic music elements such as sampling and programmed drums. Although influential within hardcore and extreme metal, grindcore remains an underground form of music. Grindcore evolved as a blend of thrash metal and hardcore punk; the name derives from the fact. Grindcore relies on standard hardcore punk instrumentation: electric guitar and drums. However, grindcore alters the usual practices of metal or rock music in regard to song structure and tone; the vocal style is "ranging from high-pitched shrieks to low, throat-shredding growls and barks." In some cases, no clear lyrics exist. Vocals may be used as an added sound effect, a common practice with bands such as the experimental Naked City. A characteristic of some grindcore songs is the "microsong," lasting only a few seconds.
In 2001, the Guinness Book of World Records awarded Brutal Truth the record for "Shortest Music Video" for 1994's "Collateral Damage". In 2007, the video for the Napalm Death song "You Suffer" set a new "Shortest Music Video" record: 1.3 seconds. Beyond the microsong, it is characteristic of grindcore to have short songs in general, it is not uncommon for grindcore albums to be short when compared to other genres consisting of a large track list but having a total length of only 15 to 20 minutes. Many grindcore groups experiment with down-tuned guitars. While the vinyl A-side of Napalm Death's debut, 1987's Scum, is set to standard tuning, on side B, the guitars are tuned down 2½ steps, their second album From Enslavement to Obliteration and the Mentally Murdered EP were tuned to C♯. Harmony Corruption, their third full-length album, was tuned up to a D. Bolt Thrower went further. Bass is tuned low as well, is distorted; the blast beat is a drum beat characteristic of grindcore in all its forms, although its usage predates the genre itself, as it is native to jazz.
In Adam MacGregor's definition, "the blast-beat comprises a repeated, sixteenth-note figure played at a fast tempo, divided uniformly among the kick drum and ride, crash, or hi-hat cymbal." Blast beats have been described as "maniacal percussive explosions, less about rhythm per second than sheer sonic violence." Napalm Death coined the term, though this style of drumming had been practiced by others. Daniel Ekeroth argues that the blast beat was first performed by the Swedish group Asocial on their 1982 demo. Dirty Rotten Imbeciles, Stormtroopers of Death, Sarcófago and Repulsion included the technique prior to Napalm Death's emergence. Grindcore lyrics are provocative. A number of grindcore musicians are committed to political and ethical causes leaning towards the far left in connection to grindcore's punk roots. For example, Napalm Death's songs address a variety of anarchist concerns, in the tradition of anarcho-punk; these themes include anti-racism, anti-militarism, anti-capitalism. Early grindcore bands including Napalm Death and Carcass made animal rights one of their primary lyrical themes.
Some of them, such as Cattle Decapitation and Carcass, have expressed disgust with human behavior, animal abuse, are, in some cases, vegetarians or vegans. Carcass' work in particular is identified as the origin of the goregrind style, devoted to "bodily" themes. Groups that shift their bodily focus to sexual matters, such as Gut and the Meat Shits, are sometimes referred to as pornogrind. Seth Putnam's lyrics are notorious for their black comedy, while The Locust tend toward satirical collage, indebted to William S. Burroughs' cut-up method; the early grindcore scene relied on an international network of DIY production. The most acknowledged precursors of the grindcore sound are Siege, a hardcore punk group, Repulsion, an early death metal outfit. Siege, from Weymouth, were influenced by classic American hardcore and by British groups like Discharge and Motörhead. Siege's goal was maxi
Repulsion is an American grindcore band from Flint, founded in 1984. Matt Olivo and Scott Carlson, with bassist Sean MacDonald, formed Tempter in 1984, a metal act covering Bay Area thrash metal bands, such as Slayer and Metallica; the group's sound became infused with hardcore punk when Phil Hines, of Flint hardcore punk band Dissonance, joined as a drummer. They juggled band names, first renaming themselves Ultraviolence and Genocide before recording their first demo in 1984. In spite of their growing popularity in the underground Genocide struggled to survive and faced difficulty maintaining a consistent lineup. In the summer of 1985 Chuck Schuldiner, of pioneering death metal act Death, invited Carlson and Olivo to Florida to complete the Death lineup; the two parties failed to settle on a uniform creative direction and the merger proved short lived. Carlson and Olivo returned to Flint that summer. Local punk Dave'Grave' Hollingshead was recruited as drummer, after Carlson and Olivo saw an article about Hollingshead being arrested for grave robbery.
In 1985 the reformed Genocide recorded the Violent Death demo tape, with Carlson assuming bass duties, resumed playing live locally. In late 1985 Aaron Freeman was invited into the band as a second guitarist. With their line-up fleshed out, Genocide recorded in a studio for the first time to lay down the tracks for what was supposed to be their first album The Stench of Burning Death - it ended up being their third demo. By 1986 Repulsion's trademark style had matured. Repulsion was experimenting with a hammering, static clouded, lo-fi sound, on a level of extreme, touched on by few bands before. To complement the band's sound they penned gruesome lyrics. In 1989 Repulsion's material enjoyed modest, albeit posthumous, exposure when UK grindcore pioneers Carcass distributed a Repulsion compilation titled Horrified on their own Necrosis Records label. With interest in Repulsion rekindled, the band decided to reform in 1990, they resumed playing live with the'classic' Repulsion lineup - Scott Carlson bass and vocals, Aaron Freeman on guitar, Dave Grave on drums.
Repulsion recorded two self-financed demos in 1991: Rebirth, their Final Demo criticised as lacking the drive and intensity of the band's earlier material. That year they managed to release a single on Relapse entitled Excruciation. In spite of new material the band broke up yet again in 1993. Scott Carlson went on to play in Cathedral the rest of the band departed for short-lived projects or returned to everyday life. Relapse re-released Horrified again in 2003, drawing attention to Repulsion once more, prompting the band to resume live performance. In 2004 Repulsion released a live DVD. In 2008, Repulsion opened for At the Gates on their "Suicidal Final Tour" in California, along with Darkest Hour and Municipal Waste. Venom, Slayer and Discharge have been cited in interviews as major influences. Various bands have recorded covers of Repulsion songs, including Napalm Death and Entombed. Scott Carlson - vocals, bass Matt Olivo - guitar Chris Moore - drums James Auten - drums Sean MacDonald - bass Phill Hines - drums Aaron Freeman - guitar Dave'Grave' Hollingshead - drums Col Jones - drums Tom'Fish' Perro - drums Matt Harvey - guitar Mike Beams - guitar Marissa Martinez - guitar Rehearsal Tape Stench of Burning Death Violent Death WFBE Slaughter of the Innocent Rebirth Final Demo "Excruciation" Horrified Necrothology Releapse Singles Series Vol. 3 Official Repulsion MySpace page Interview with Scott Carlson and Matt Olivo
An electric guitar is a guitar that uses one or more pickups to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals. The vibration occurs when a guitar player strums, fingerpicks, slaps or taps the strings; the pickup uses electromagnetic induction to create this signal, which being weak is fed into a guitar amplifier before being sent to the speaker, which converts it into audible sound. The electric signal can be electronically altered to change the timbre of the sound; the signal is modified using effects such as reverb, distortion and "overdrive". Invented in 1931, the electric guitar was adopted by jazz guitar players, who wanted to play single-note guitar solos in large big band ensembles. Early proponents of the electric guitar on record include Les Paul, Lonnie Johnson, Sister Rosetta Tharpe, T-Bone Walker, Charlie Christian. During the 1950s and 1960s, the electric guitar became the most important instrument in popular music, it has evolved into an instrument, capable of a multitude of sounds and styles in genres ranging from pop and rock to country music and jazz.
It served as a major component in the development of electric blues and roll, rock music, heavy metal music and many other genres of music. Electric guitar design and construction varies in the shape of the body and the configuration of the neck and pickups. Guitars may have a fixed bridge or a spring-loaded hinged bridge, which lets players "bend" the pitch of notes or chords up or down, or perform vibrato effects; the sound of an electric guitar can be modified by new playing techniques such as string bending and hammering-on, using audio feedback, or slide guitar playing. There are several types of electric guitar, including: the solid-body guitar. In pop and rock music, the electric guitar is used in two roles: as a rhythm guitar, which plays the chord sequences or progressions, riffs, sets the beat. In a small group, such as a power trio, one guitarist switches between both roles. In large rock and metal bands, there is a rhythm guitarist and a lead guitarist. Many experiments at electrically amplifying the vibrations of a string instrument were made dating back to the early part of the 20th century.
Patents from the 1910s show telephone transmitters were adapted and placed inside violins and banjos to amplify the sound. Hobbyists in the 1920s used carbon button microphones attached to the bridge. With numerous people experimenting with electrical instruments in the 1920s and early 1930s, there are many claimants to have been the first to invent an electric guitar. Electric guitars were designed by acoustic guitar makers and instrument manufacturers; the demand for amplified guitars began during the big band era. The first electric guitars used in jazz were hollow archtop acoustic guitar bodies with electromagnetic transducers. Early electric guitar manufacturers include Rickenbacker in 1932; the first electrically amplified stringed instrument to be marketed commercially was designed in 1931 by George Beauchamp, the general manager of the National Guitar Corporation, with Paul Barth, vice president. The maple body prototype for the one-piece cast aluminium "frying pan" was built by Harry Watson, factory superintendent of the National Guitar Corporation.
Commercial production began in late summer of 1932 by the Ro-Pat-In Corporation, in Los Angeles, a partnership of Beauchamp, Adolph Rickenbacker, Paul Barth. In 1934, the company was renamed the Rickenbacker Electro Stringed Instrument Company. In that year Beauchamp applied for a United States patent for an Electrical Stringed Musical Instrument and the patent was issued in 1937. By early-mid 1935, Electro String Instrument Corporation had achieved mainstream success with the A-22 "Frying Pan" steel guitar, set out to capture a new audience through its release of the Electro-Spanish Model B and the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts, the first full 25" scale electric guitar produced; the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was revolutionary for its time, providing players a full 25" scale, with easy access to 17 frets free of the body. Unlike other lap-steel electrified instruments produced during the time, the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was designed to play standing vertical, upright with a strap; the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was the first instrument to feature a hand-operated vibrato as a standard appointment, a device called the "Vibrola," invented by Doc Kauffman.
It is estimated that fewer than 50 Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts were constructed between 1933 and 1937. The solid-body electric guitar is made without functionally resonating air spaces; the first solid-body Spanish standard guitar was offered by Vivi-Tone no than 1934. This model featured a guitar-shaped body of a single sheet
Daniel A. Lilker is an American retired musician best known as a bass player, but guitarist, pianist and vocalist, he is the bassist for the thrash metal band Nuclear Assault and was a founding member of Anthrax with Scott Ian, recorded bass guitar and co-wrote on their first album, Fistful of Metal. He founded crossover band Stormtroopers of Death with Scott Ian and Charlie Benante, Billy Milano, he plays bass with Brutal Truth, Exit-13, Malformed Earthborn, The Ravenous, Overlord Exterminator, Venomous Concept, Nokturnal Hellstorm and Extra Hot Sauce. Lilker played on Holy Moses' 1994's No Matter, he is known for his guitar-like riffing through heavy distortion. Lilker has been a columnist with Zero Tolerance Magazine since the publication's inception in 2005. In 2009, it was reported. Lilker is in United Forces, which features his Stormtroopers of Death bandmate Billy Milano as their singer; as of 2003 Lilker has sold nearly 5 million records worldwide according to Nielsen SoundScan. On January 10, 2014, Lilker announced his plans to retire from being a full-time recording and touring musician.
He announced that Brutal Truth would break up on his 50th birthday
Misery Index (band)
Misery Index is an American death metal band formed in 2001 in Baltimore, United States, by Jason Netherton, Mike Harrison, Kevin Talley. From 2006–2010, its line-up consisted of Netherton on vocals and bass, John Voyles on lead guitar, Mark Kloeppel on vocals and rhythm guitar, Adam Jarvis on drums. In 2010, Voyles was replaced by Darin Morris. Misery Index's music is best described as death metal with strong hardcore punk and grindcore influences, its lyrics tend to be critical of prevailing power structures in modern culture, everyday life and the ills of modern society. Their band name is derived from the economic indicator of the same name, the namesake of the last album by Assück, from whom Misery Index draw inspiration. Through the years, the band toured extensively, notably performing over 1000 concerts in 44 different countries from 2002 until 2013; the band runs its own record label, Anarchos Records, through which it has released a handful of titles, including its debut EP Overthrow in 2001, the Dissent EP in 2004, the 2010 compilation Pulling Out the Nails.
Misery Index's debut album, was released on Nuclear Blast Records in 2003. The band signed to Relapse Records in January, 2006, released its second album, Discordia, in May 2006. Traitors, the band's third album, was released in September 2008 and its fourth album, Heirs to Thievery, was released May 11, 2010. In June 2011, the band signed to Season of Mist Records, released its fifth full-length, The Killing Gods, in May 2014. Jason Netherton – vocals, bass Adam Jarvis – drums Mark Kloeppel – rhythm guitar, vocals Darrin Morris – lead guitar John "Sparky" Voyles – lead guitar Kevin Talley – drums Mike Harrison – rhythm guitar, vocals Matt Byers – drums Bruce Greig – rhythm guitar Retaliate Discordia Traitors Heirs to Thievery The Killing Gods Rituals of Power Overthrow CD/12" Misery Index / Commit Suicide split CD Misery Index / Structure of Lies split CD Dissent CD/12" Misery Index / Bathtub Shitter split 7" Hang Em High 7" Misery Index / Mumakil split CD/7" Misery Index / Lock Up split 7" Misery Index / I Disavow 7" Pulling Out the Nails compilation CD/LP Live in Munich LP The Great Depression Conquistadores Traitors The Calling The Harrowing New Salem Naysayer Official website