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Deathmatch known as free-for-all, is a used gameplay mode integrated into many shooters, including first-person shooter, real-time strategy video games. The goal of a deathmatch game is to kill as many other players as possible until a certain condition or limit is reached a frag limit or a time limit. Once one of the conditions is met, the match is over, the winner is the player that accumulated the greatest number of frags; the deathmatch is an evolution of competitive multiplayer modes found in game genres such as fighting games and racing games moving into other genres. In a typical first-person shooter deathmatch session, players connect individual computers together via a computer network in a peer-to-peer model or a client–server model, either locally or over the Internet; each individual computer generates the first person view that the computer character sees in the virtual world, hence the player sees through the eyes of the computer character. Players are able to control their characters and interact with the virtual world by using various controller systems.

When using a PC, a typical example of a games control system would be the use of a mouse and keyboard combined. For example, the movement of the mouse could provide control of the players viewpoint from the character and the mouse buttons may be used for weapon trigger control. Certain keys on the keyboard would control movement around the virtual scenery and often add possible additional functions. Games consoles however, use hand held'control pads' which have a number of buttons and joysticks which provide the same functions as the mouse and keyboard. Players have the option to communicate with each other during the game by using microphones and speakers, headsets or by'instant chat' messages if using a PC; every computer or console in the game renders the virtual world and characters in realtime sufficiently fast enough that the number of frames per second makes the visual simulation seem like standard full motion video or better. Manufacturers of games consoles use different hardware in their products which means that quality and performance of the games vary.

Deathmatches have different rules and goals depending on the game, but an example of a typical FPS-deathmatch session is where every player is versus every other player. The game begins with each player being spawned at random locations—picked from a fixed predefined set. Being spawned entails having the score, health and equipment reset to default values, 0 score, full health, no armour and a basic firearm and a melee weapon. After a session has commenced, arbitrary players may leave the game on an ad hoc basis. In this context a player is a human operated character in the game or a character operated by a computer software AI—a bot. Both the human and computer operated character do have the same basic visual appearance but will in most modern games be able to select a skin, an arbitrary graphics model but that operates on the same set of movements as the base model. A human player's character and computer bot's character features the same set of physical properties, initial health, initial armour, weapon capabilities, the same available character maneuvers and speed—i.e.

They are matched except for the actual controlling part. For a novice player the difference between a human opponent and a computer controlled opponent may be near nil, however for a skilled player the lack of human intelligence is easily noticed in most bot implementations. However, some systems deliberately inform the player when inspecting the score list which player are bots and which are human. In the event that the player is aware of the nature of the opponent it will affect the cognitive process of the player regardless of the player's skill. All normal maps will contain various power-ups. Once collected by a player the power-up will respawn after a defined time at the same location, the time for an item to respawn depends upon the game mode and the type of the item. In some deathmatch modes power-ups will not respawn at all. Certain power-ups are powerful, which can lead to the game rotating around controlling power-ups—i.e. Assuming ceteris paribus, the player who controls the power-ups is the one that will have the best potential for making the best score.

The goal for each player is killing the other players by any means possible which counts as a frag, either by direct assault or manipulating the map, the latter counts as a frag in some games, some not. The session may have a frag limit, or no limit at all. If there is a limit the player with the most frags will win when the session ends; the health variable will determine. A player will die when the health value reaches equal to or less than 0, if the value is reduced to a low negative value, the result may be gibbing depending upon the game. In most games, when a player dies, the player will lose all equipment gained and the screen will conti

Conservation and restoration of Judaica

Objects used in Jewish rituals are known collectively as Judaica. The conservation and restoration of Judaica takes into account the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the written and oral Torah known as halacha in order to properly care for these materials; this work involves identifying these objects and therefore knowing how any of these objects are traditionally handled, stored and cared for based on their use and significance. Traditional Judaism divides ritual objects into those that carry holiness. Once they are no longer in ritual use and are in the possession of a museum, only some of the objects in the first category are traditionally treated differently from the way other collections are treated. For these pieces, repair or restoration done by a conservator is not common, it is common for all other objects, repair, or restoration to be carried out without restriction. The way the objects below are handled and preventively conserved is all based on the laws and thoughts of the most strict sect of Judaism as is recommended.

Below is a list of both types of objects with definitions and descriptions to aid in identifying and therefore knowing how any of these objects might be handled and cared for due to their uses and significance. Additionally, these descriptions will aid in understanding the care and handling methods listed below them. References are made to Ashkenazi and Mizrachi Jews in this article. Ashkenazi Jews trace their ancestry to communities in central and eastern Europe while Sephardi Jews are those who came from the Iberian Peninsula; these Jews were expelled in 1492 during the Spanish Inquisition and settled in places like Greece, the Netherlands, what is known as Israel today. Mizrachi Jews are those who trace their ancestry to the Arab world and Iran, as well as those whose families never left Palestine. Tashmishey Kedushah is the first category of ritual objects and is defined as "objects which carry holiness" or "accessories of holiness." The most common example of this is the Torah, the Five Books of Moses.

The common feature of the objects in this group is that they contain words the name of God, but by extension, any words "divinely written" or inspired, from which the quality of holiness is derived. Because the nontextual objects surrounding these scrolls all come into contact with them, they acquire some of the same quality of holiness; the transmission is not indefinite. It extends a maximum of two layers from the text. Other objects in this category include: Torah curtains - Curtains that are in front of the Torah ark and are decorative in nature but can be plain. Mantle - A piece of fabric used to cover a Torah scroll and made of velvet or another soft material with some type of embroidery; this is used most by Ashkenazi communities. Torah binder - A strip of soft fabric, similar to the mantle, that keeps the Torah scroll closed. In Italy and in the Sephardi communities, the binder is known as a "fascia". Rimonim - Silver and gold ornaments that are placed on the wooden rollers or in Hebrew, "atzei chaim".

Many times these are adorned with little bells and are intricate. Breastplate - A metal shield placed in front of the mantle of the Torah scroll in Ashkenazi communities; this custom did not develop in Sephardi communities because their Torah scrolls were kept in a case which did not lend itself to such additional decoration. Symbolic of, sometimes similar to, the breastplate prescribed for the high priest, the object is called "ḥoshen mishpat," the Hebrew word for breastplate. Yad - The pointer used by the Torah reader to keep one's place is known as a "yad," in Hebrew, or "hand" in English, in Ashkenazi communities and as the "moreh" or "pointer/teacher" or "Kulmus" or "quill" in Sephardi and Eastern communities; the pointer was a narrow rod, tapered at the pointing end with a hole at the other end through which a ring or chain could be passed to hang the pointer on the Torah scroll. Now it looks like a hand with one finger pointing out; this is used so that no hands transfer oils or dirt. Pointers are made for the most part of silver or silver-plated brass, but in a few European communities, they used to be made of wood.

In such cases, the pointers were carved in the local folk-art style. Wood Torah case - Used by Sephardic Jews instead of a fabric mantle allowing the Torah to sit upright when not in use and without the use of a chair or holder as mentioned above. Chair or holder on which the Torah is placed when it is removed from the ark and not being read. Tefillin - Known in English as “phylacteries,” are worn by men in the Orthodox and Conservative movement during morning prayer and on weekdays; this includes a leather case, the biblical texts written on parchment, inside, the leather straps used to fasten them to the head and arm during prayer, any bag made to hold them and used for that purpose on a regular basis. Mezuzah - A metal, ceramic, or glass casing in which the handwritten text on parchment or "klaf" in Hebrew, is held; this object is fastened to the doorpost of a house and, traditionally, to interior doorways as well and marks the home of a Jewish family. Bibles, prayer books, volumes of the Talmud, law codes, commentaries, in a variety of languages, are now included in this list.

In some communities, any document of any kind written in Hebrew letters is included. This can sometimes

David Beamish

Sir David Richard Beamish, is a British public servant, the Clerk of the Parliaments, the chief clerk in the House of Lords, between 16 April 2011 and 15 April 2017. Beamish was born on 20 August 1952 in Carlisle, England, he was educated at St John's College, Cambridge. Beamish became a clerk with the House of Lords in 1974 and was promoted to Senior Clerk in 1979, he was seconded to the Cabinet Office to serve as Private Secretary to the Leader of the House of Lords and Government Chief Whip in the Lords. In 1987, he was appointed Chief Clerk, serving until being appointed Principal Clerk in 1993, he served as Clerk of the Journals from 1993 to 1995. He served as Clerk of Committees and Clerk of the Overseas Office from 1995 to 2002, until returning to the Journals role, in which he served until 2005, he served as Reading Clerk from 2005 to 2007. He was promoted to Clerk of the Parliaments on 16 April 2011. In 1988, he was the winner of the BBC TV series Mastermind, with Nancy Astor as his special subject.

On 1 December 2016, Beamish announced that he would retire from the role of Clerk of the Parliaments on 15 April 2017. On 23 December 2016 it was announced. In the 2017 New Year Honours, Beamish was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath for parliamentary service


Orthochilus is a genus of orchids that consists of at least 34 species, most of which are native to Africa and Madagascar with a few species in tropical and subtropical America. The genus was first formally described in 1850 by the French botanist Achille Richard, who cited an earlier suggestion by the German botanist Christian Ferdinand Friedrich Hochstetter. Richard recognized a single species, Orthochilus abyssinicus, noted that the genus shared many features with the related genus Eulophia, but differed from it in the form of the pollen masses and caudicule, a stalk to which the pollen masses are attached; the genus Orthochilus has been viewed as a synonym of the larger genus Eulophia by many botanists, but a recent molecular phylogeny published in 2014 revealed that Eulophia, as traditionally circumscribed, was paraphyletic unless Orthochilus was recognized as a separate genus. As circumscribed by Martos et al. the genus Orthochilus includes many species recognized as belonging to the large genus Eulophia and the smaller genus Pteroglossaspis.

The species in Orthochilus can be identified as different from Eulophia in that their petals and sepals are similar in appearance and the flowers are bell-shaped, whereas most Eulophia have sepals and petals that differ in appearance. Further study of other species assigned to Eulophia may increase the total number of species recognized within the Orthochilus clade. Orthochilus abyssinicus Hochst. Ex A. Rich. Orthochilus aculeatus. Huttonii Bytebier Orthochilus adenoglossus Bytebier Orthochilus albobrunneus Bytebier Orthochilus aurantiacus Bytebier Orthochilus carsonii Bytebier Orthochilus chloranthus Bytebier Orthochilus clandestinus Bytebier Orthochilus corymbosus Bytebier Orthochilus distans Bytebier Orthochilus ecristatus Bytebier Orthochilus ensatus Bytebier Orthochilus euanthus Bytebier Orthochilus eustachyus Bytebier Orthochilus foliosus Bytebier Orthochilus holubii Bytebier Orthochilus leontoglossus Bytebier Orthochilus litoralis Bytebier Orthochilus mechowii Rchb.f Orthochilus milnei Bytebier Orthochilus montis-elgonis Bytebier Orthochilus nuttii Bytebier Orthochilus odontoglossus Bytebier Orthochilus pottsii Bytebier Orthochilus rarus Bytebier Orthochilus rutenbergianus Bytebier Orthochilus ruwenzoriensis Bytebier Orthochilus subulatus Bytebier Orthochilus tabularis Bytebier Orthochilus thomsonii Bytebier Orthochilus trilamellatus Bytebier Orthochilus vinosus Bytebier Orthochilus walleri Bytebier Orthochilus welwitschii Rchb.f


The Amazing Kreskin known as Kreskin, is an American mentalist who became popular on television in the 1970s. He was inspired to become a mentalist by Lee Falk's famous comic strip Mandrake the Magician, which features a crime-fighting stage magician, he has always presented himself as an "entertainer," never as a psychic, who operates on the basis of suggestion, not the paranormal or supernatural. George Joseph Kresge was born on January 12, 1935, in Montclair, New Jersey to Polish and Italian parents. From 1970 to 1975, Kreskin's television series The Amazing World of Kreskin was broadcast throughout Canada on CTV and distributed in syndication in the United States; the series was produced in Ontario at the CJOH-TV studios. An additional set of episodes was produced in 1975 through 1977 at the studios of CFTO-TV in Toronto, billed as The New Kreskin Show, he appeared on The Tonight Show 61 times from 1970 to 1980. In the 1980s and 90s he came to prominence again through several appearances on Late Night with David Letterman and on the Howard Stern Show.

In 2009 he became the first guest to make three appearances on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon. Though Kreskin makes "predictions", he does not claim to have paranormal or clairvoyant powers, does not like to be considered a "psychic". One of his best known tricks is to find his own check for his current performance. If he does not find it, he does not get paid for that day, he instructs the audience to hide an envelope containing his paycheck, while he is escorted off stage and into seclusion by other members of the audience. He re-emerges and hunts through the audience always being able to ferret out the correct location. According to Kreskin, he has failed only ten times, or eleven, if you count his performance at Rockwell's in Pelham, where he needed two attempts and a "rehide" of the check with an additional two attempts at finding the check/note. On April 14, 2018 Kreskin failed to find the hidden check while performing to a sold out crowd in New York's Lion Theater on 42nd St. After about 30 minutes of leading viewers around the small theater trying to find the check, Kreskin settled his search on an area behind the stage, out of view of most of the audience.

The check was hidden within the general area. His efforts were in vain however, as 8 to 10 minutes he threw up his hands and declared he had failed at the trick for the 12th time in 30 years. Kreskin teaches classes for law enforcement groups, which "focuses on psychological methods such as jogging lost memories through relaxation techniques or detecting lies through body language and voice inflections"; the 2008 movie The Great Buck Howard is based on the experiences of writer-director Sean McGinly, who worked as Kreskin's road manager. He is still active as a live performer and appears on WPIX in New York City, annually on both the Fox News Channel and CNN to give his New Year's Day predictions for the coming year. Kreskin has been a resident of New Jersey. In 2002, Kreskin made a prediction that there would be a mass-UFO sighting over Las Vegas on June 6 between the hours of 9:45 PM and midnight that would be witnessed by thousands of people, he stated that if there were no sighting, he would donate $50,000 to a charity.

Hundreds of people camped out. On June 8, Kreskin appeared in the opening segment of the Coast to Coast AM radio show, hosted by Art Bell, to explain what had happened. Bell read Kreskin's press release over the air to the effect that: "the sighting prediction was a total fabrication in order to prove people's susceptibility to suggestion post 9/11". Kreskin claimed he was concerned that a terrorist, with the skills of a mentalist such as himself, could pull a similar stunt involving something much worse, he stated that the predicted sighting was only an "experiment". When asked about the $50,000 donation he promoted, Kreskin claimed there was indeed a sighting that night since he said glowing green orbs were spotted in the sky just before midnight and reported by witnesses after news camera crews had left the scene; because of this one reported sighting, Kreskin said his prediction came true anyway and therefore he did not have to pay the money he announced. This statement offended Art Bell, who opined that this was a publicity stunt on Kreskin's part, banned Kreskin from his show.

As far back as January 1973, a magazine carried an interview with Kreskin in which he alluded to the possibility of this stunt—and to the dangers of the madness of crowds in general: Kreskin is aware of both the benefits and dangers of hypnotism and claims that given an audience of 200 people, "I'll have them seeing flying saucers. Take the same crowd to Time Square on a hot evening and you can have them screaming'fire'." Kreskin says Hitler, used hypnotic techniques in his speeches—the torchlight parades and the sombre drum beating being evidence of this. "Using suggestion, I could never make someone do something. But it's different in a crowd," says Kreskin. "Psychologists don't know why, but somehow the level of morality is lowered and responsibility is lost." Secrets of the Amazing Kreskin by The Amazing Kreskin, Prometheus Books. Kreskin Confidential: The World's Greatest Mentalist Speaks Out by The Amazing Kreskin, AuthorHouse. Official website Kreskin on IMDb The Amazing World of Kreskin on IMDb The New Kreskin Show on IMDb The Amazing Kreskin on The Hour on YouTube

Binder (material)

A binder or binding agent is any material or substance that holds or draws other materials together to form a cohesive whole mechanically, chemically, by adhesion or cohesion. In a more narrow sense, binders are liquid or dough-like substances that harden by a chemical or physical process and bind fibres, filler powder and other particles added into it. Examples include glue and thickening. Examples of mechanical binders are bond stones in tie beams in timber framing. Binders are loosely classified as inorganic; these can be either metallic or ceramic as well as polymeric depending on the nature of the main material. For example, in the compound WC-Co Co constitutes the binding agent for the WC particles. Based on their chemical resistance, binders are classified by the field of use: non-hydraulic, acid-resistant, autoclavable; some materials labeled as binders such as cement have a high compressive strength but low tensile strength and need to be reinforced with fibrous material or rebar if tension and shear forces will be applied.

Other binding agents such as resins may be tough and elastic but can neither bear compressive nor tensile force. Tensile strength is improved in composite materials consisting of resin as the matrix and fiber as a reinforcement. Compressive strength can be improved by adding filling material. In art, binders have use in painting, where they hold together pigments and sometimes filling material to form paints and other materials. Binders used include wax, linseed oil, gum arabic, gum tragacanth, methyl cellulose, gums, or protein such as egg white or casein. Glue is traditionally made by the boiling of hoofs, bones, or skin of animals and mixing the hard gelatinous residue with water. Natural gum-based binders are made from substances extracted from plants. Larger amounts of dry substance are added to liquid binders in order to cast or model sculptures and reliefs. In cooking, various edible thickening agents are used as binders; some of them, e.g. tapioca flour, sucrose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and various starches are used in pharmacology in making tablets.

Tablet binders include lactose powder, sucrose powder, tapioca starch and microcrystalline cellulose. In building construction, concrete uses cement as a binder. Asphalt pavement uses bitumen binder. Traditionally straw and natural fibres are used to strengthen clay in wattle-and-daub construction and in the building material cob which would otherwise become brittle after drying. Sand is added to improve compressive strength and reduce shrinkage; the binding property of clay is used to prepare shaped articles or to bind solid pieces. In composite materials, polyester or phenolic resins are common. In reinforced carbon–carbon, plastic or pitch resin is used as a source of carbon released through pyrolysis. Transite, hypertufa and petecrete used cement as a binder. In explosives, wax or polymers like polyisobutylene or styrene-butadiene rubber are used as binders for plastic explosives. For polymer-bonded explosives, various synthetic polymers are used. In rocket fuels, polybutadiene acrylonitrile copolymer was used in 1960-70's big solid-fuel booster rocket fuels.

Organic binders, designed to disintegrate by heat during baking, are used in sintering. In the Classical World painters used materials like egg, honey, casein, linseed oil or bitumen as binders to mix with pigment in order to hold the pigment particles together in the formation of paint. Egg-based tempera was popular in Europe from the Middle Ages until the early 16th century. However, since that time, the binder of choice for paint has been oil. Binder