Euskotren Trena known just as Euskotren is a commuter, inter-city and urban transit train-operating company that operates local and inter-city passenger services in the provinces of Biscay and Gipuzkoa, in the Basque Country, Spain. It is one of the four commercial brands under which Basque Railways operates, as a public company managed by the Basque government; the entire 181.1-kilometre network uses 1,000 mm narrow gauge rail tracks which have been owned by the Basque Government since their transferral from the Spanish government. Euskotren Trena operates the Donostia/San Sebastián metro under the brand Metro Donostialdea. Euskotren Trena operates the railway services and networks, while Euskotren Tranbia operates the tram networks, Euskotren Autobusa the bus services and Euskotren Kargo the freight rail services. Since 2006 Euskotren Trena has been the commercial brand for the operator of the railway network in the Basque Country, Eusko Trenbideak, while the network itself is owned by the public entity Euskal Trenbide Sarea.
In 2012 the commercial brand was changed from Euskotren to Euskotren Trena, adding the Basque word trena. Euskotren Trena operates the railway network owned by Euskal Trenbide Sarea in the Basque provinces of Biscay and Gipuzkoa, as well as a short track and a station in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department of France; the initial network was a continuation of FTS urban services. The services have since improved to become a commuter rail system along with Inter-city rail services; the network connects the city of Bilbao with municipalities across the Greater Bilbao area and the province of Biscay, such as Durango and Lezama. In the province of Gipuzkoa it connects the city of Donostia-San Sebastián with other cities and towns such as Zarautz, Lasarte-Oria and Hendaye, the latter in France; the Inter-city rail services connect the cities of Bilbao and San Sebastián with each other and with Hendaye. Since August 2012, Euskotren Trena has operated the Donostia/San Sebastián metro system, based on the Topo network, under the brand Metro Donostialdea.
Euskotren Trena is operated by Eusko Trenbideak. The Euskotren Trena network consists of the following lines: Bilbao-Donostia line – Inter-city rail service from Bilbao-Atxuri to Donostia-Amara. Durangaldea line – Bilbao-Atxuri to Ermua. Kostaldea line – Ermua to Donostia-Amara. Tranbia Ermua-Eibar line – Local service from Ermua to Eibar Metro Donostialdea – Previously known as "Topo line", renamed Metro Donostialdea, urban transit system serving the Donostialdea region and Hendaye. Txorierri line – Kukullaga to Lezama. Urdaibai line – Bilbao-Atxuri to Bermeo. Metro Donostialdea Branch line – Amara San Sebastián to Altza. Larreineta funicular – Funicular line from Escontrilla to Larreineta. Azpeitia-Lasao line – Steam locomotive from Azpeitia to Lasao, touristic part of the Basque Museum of Railways. Bilbao Metro Line 3 – Kukullaga to Matiko. Airport line – Under construction, it will connect the district of Uribarri with the Bilbao Airport; the network connects to the Euskotren Tranbia line, Metro Bilbao, FEVE, RENFE and Cercanías services.
The Euskotren trena lines do not appear with other train lines in standard printed network maps, but separate maps are available. The Euskotren Trena lines appear together with other railway networks of the Basque Country in the Moveuskadi.com service provided by the Basque Government. Sections of the Txorierri line; the railway service on the Txorierri line between Casco Viejo and Deusto was suspended in May 2010 for a period of three years, because of the construction of Line 3 of Metro Bilbao. The closed stations are Deusto, Unibertsitatea and Zumalakarregi; the Loruri-Ciudad Jardín station closed, was open to provide a service to the users of the now closed stations. Urola line; the Urola line served by the Urola Railway, was closed by Eusko Trenbideak in 1986, after a futile attempt to renovate it. The service was replaced by a bus line between the municipalities of Zumarraga. Bilbao-Plentzia line. Bilbao-Plentzia was the line with the most users at the time of its closure; the original line connected downtown Bilbao, starting at Casco Viejo Station with the town of Plentzia, at Plentzia Station.
During the construction of the Line 1 of Metro Bilbao, it was decided that the section between San Inazio and Plentzia would be managed by Metro Bilbao, as part of line 1, instead of Euskotren. The Casco Viejo Station was connected to the Txorierri line, the Ciudad Jardín and Mallona stations were closed; the Deusto-San Inazio section was closed due the construction of a new highway where the railway tracks were located. Lutxana-Sondika line; the line between Sondika and Lutxana, both in the Greater Bilbao area was closed in 1996 after an attempt to re-open it for passenger services. However, the tracks are still in use; as of January 2014, typical services frequencies for weekdays are: Bilbao-Donostia line – one train per hour between Bilbao-Atxuri and Donostia-Amara. Durangaldea line – two trains per hour between Bilbao-Atxuri and Ermua in each direction, with one continuing to Donostia-Amara, some express trains between Bilbao and Durango, Traña and Zaldibar. Kostaldea line – one train per hour between Ermua and Donostia-Amara in each direction.
Tranbia Ermua-Eibar line – four trains per hour between Ermua and Eibar in each direction. Topo line – four tr
Basque Country (greater region)
The Basque Country is the name given to the home of the Basque people. The Basque country is located in the western Pyrenees, straddling the border between France and Spain on the coast of the Bay of Biscay. Euskal Herria is the oldest documented Basque name for the area they inhabit, dating from the 16th century, it comprises the Autonomous Communities of the Basque Country and Navarre in Spain and the Northern Basque Country in France. The region is home to the Basque people, their language and traditions; the area is neither linguistically nor culturally homogeneous, certain areas have a majority of people who do not consider themselves Basque, such as the south of Navarre. The name in Basque is Euskal Herria; the name is difficult to translate into other languages due to the wide range of meanings of the Basque word herri. It can be translated as nation; the first part, Euskal, is the adjectival form of Euskara "the Basque language". Thus a more literal translation would be "country/nation/people/settlement of the Basque language", a concept difficult to render into a single word in most other languages.
The two earliest references are in Joan Perez de Lazarraga's manuscript, dated around 1564–1567 as eusquel erria and eusquel erriau and heuscal herrian and Heuscal-Herrian in Joanes Leizarraga's Bible translation, published in 1571. The term Basque Country refers to a collection of regions inhabited by the Basque people, known as Euskal Herria in Basque language, it is first attested as including seven traditional territories in Axular's literary work Gero, in the early 17th century; some Basques refer to the seven traditional districts collectively as Zazpiak Bat, meaning "The Seven One", a motto coined in the late 19th century. The Northern Basque Country, known in Basque as Iparralde is the part of the Basque Country that lies within France as part of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques départment of France, as such it is usually known as French Basque Country. In most contemporary sources it covers the arrondissement of Bayonne and the cantons of Mauléon-Licharre and Tardets-Sorholus, but sources disagree on the status of the village of Esquiule.
Within these conventions, the area of Northern Basque Country is 2,995 square kilometres. The French Basque Country is traditionally subdivided into three provinces: Labourd, historical capital Ustaritz, main settlement today Bayonne Lower Navarre, historical capitals Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port and Saint-Palais, main settlement today Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port Soule, historical capital Mauléon However, this summary presentation makes it hard to justify the inclusion of a few communes in the lower Adour region; as emphasized by Jean Goyhenetche, it would be more accurate to depict it as the reunion of five entities: Labourd, Lower Navarre, Soule but Bayonne and Gramont. The Southern Basque Country, known in Basque as Hegoalde is the part of the Basque region that lies within Spain, as such it is also known as Spanish Basque Country, it is the largest and most populated part of the Basque Country. It includes two main regions: the Basque Autonomous Community and the Chartered Community of Navarre; the Basque Autonomous Community consists of three provinces designated "historical territories": Álava Biscay Gipuzkoa The Chartered Community of Navarre is a single-province autonomous community.
Its name refers to the Fueros of Navarre. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 states that Navarre may become a part of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country if it is so decided by its people and institutions. To date, there has been no implementation of this law. Despite demands for a referendum by minority leftist forces and Basque nationalists in Navarre, it has been opposed by mainstream Spanish parties and Navarrese People's Union; the latter has asked for an amendment to the Constitution to remove this clause. In addition to those, two enclaves located outside of the respective autonomous community are cited as being part of both the Basque Autonomous Community and the Basque Country: The Treviño enclave, a Castilian enclave in Álava Valle de Villaverde, a Cantabrian exclave in Biscay Navarre holds two small administrative strips in Aragon, organised as Petilla de Aragón; the Basque Country region is dominated by a warm and wet oceanic climate and the coastal area is part of Green Spain and by extension it affects Bayonne and Biarritz as well.
Inland areas in Navarre and the southern regions of the autonomous community are transitional with continental mediterranean climate with somewhat larger temperature swings between seasons. The list only sources locations in Spain, but Bayonne/Biarritz have a similar climate as nearby Hondarribia on the Spanish side of the border; the values do not apply to San Sebastián since its weather station is at a higher elevation than the urban core where temperatures are higher year-round and similar to those in Bilbao and Hon
Elgoibar is an industrial town located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the Autonomous Community of Basque Country, northern Spain. Located in a valley, it is traversed by the Deba river. Elgoibar is nicknamed the "capital city of the Machine tool"; the town was called Villamayor de Marquina, but it had been founded in a place called before Elgoibar field. The town came to be known by this name a few centuries of its foundation; until the mid-fifteenth century it appears in the documentation as Villamayor de Marquina, but in the statutes of the Brotherhood of Gipuzkoa of 1457 and 1463 years appears with the Elgoibar name and it has prevailed until today. Elgoibar name has been used in Basque in order to refer to the small town; the unique difference is that in Spanish the name Elgoibar has an accent mark in its "o". Elgoibar etymologically comes from the Basque language and is composed of the word meaning elge field and safely by ibar word which means valley and plain. Therefore, "elge ibar" would be a similar term to vega or plain cultivated field and would have resulted in Elgoibar.
The etymology would remain quite well with the mention of Elgoibar field that appears in the settlement charter of the town. Since the beginning of the establishment of the Ville, the industrial nature was relevant; the king kept for himself the strip mining of the minerals such as gold or silver, the ironworks production. As Tómas López described in 1800 " The industrialization transformed that protoindustry, on a machinery tools factories network. Main companies The following list includes companies that are located in Elgoibar, that have at least an staff of 50 people according to the Basque Industry catalog: Alcorta Brockhaus, S. A.: Manufacturer of components of forged steel for the automotive industry. AVS Added Value Solutions: Designing and manufacturing equipment for the industry of science and machine tool industry. Bernardo Ecenarro, S. A.: Manufacturing paints and special covers for the automotive industry Doimak: Manufacturing rectifier machines Engranajes Grindel, S. A.: Manufacturer of gears.
Etxe-Tar, S. A.: Machine Tool Industry Elgoibar celebrates festivity in honor of its patron. The latter is the patron of the villa. In addition, there are a number of celebrations that are celebrated in unison of the region or the country such as San Blas, Carnivals or the Eve of St. Agatha. There is cattle fair the last Saturday of each month and specially the last Saturday of the year, Gabon Zahar Feria. San Anton festivity, second landlord of the town, on 17 January. San Bartolome, the patron of Elgoibar, on 23 August. San Juan festivity, on 23 June. There are smaller celebrations in the rural districts and the hermitages like the pilgrimage of Santiago Sargoate day. Militaries and Governors Martin Iñiguez de Carquizano: sea man that took part in the Garcia Jofre de Loaisa expedition. Gabriel de Crucelegui: governor of Philippines. Religious people Domingo de Alzola 16th century: Guadalajara's archbishop. Francisco Aguirre: missionary priest in China. Industrial people Eulogio Estarta: industrial.
Fundator of the local company "SIGMA". Bernando Ecenarro: industrial. Writers Pedro Miguel Urruzuno: priest and basque writer. Jasone Osoro: journalist and basque writer. Gotzon Garate: basque writer, philosopher and Jesuit. Hasier Etxeberria: journalist and writer. Broadcaster of the literary TV program Sautrela in ETB Uxue Alberdi: journalist and improviser of basque verse. Pelota Players Roque Echave, Echave II Ignacio Cortabitarte Javier Arriola Lizarralde, Arriola IVFootball players Jose Luis González: footballer who played as a goalkeeper in the Real Sociedad and Valencia C. F, among others. Tiburcio Beristain: footballer. Fernando Ansola: international football player who played in the Real Oviedo, Real Betis, Valencia C. F and Real Sociedad. Juan Cruz Sol: international footballer who played in the Real Madrid and Valencia CF. Markel Bergara: football player, playing in the Real Sociedad. Ricardo Suarez: football player who played in the Real Sociedad and Granada C. F, among others. Joseba Etxeberria: international football player who played in the Real Sociedad and Athletic Club.
Itziar Gurrutxaga: international football player who played in the Athletic Club EFT. Zuhaitz Gurrutxaga: football player who played in the Real Sociedad. Elisabeth Ibarra: international football player who plays in the Athletic Club EFT. Other sports Juan Muguerza: athlete. Jose Maria Benavides: yachtsman. 11 times Spanish champion and twice olympique winner. Bullfighter Luis Mazzantini Politicians Jaime Arrese: Mayor of Elgoibar in the 1970s. Murdered by Comandos Autonomos anticapitalistas Francisco Javier Ansuategui: conservative politician. Arnaldo Otegui: Basque national politician, Sortu's chief of staff. Official Website Information Basque. ELGOIBAR in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish
Mutriku is a town located in the province of Gipuzkoa in the Autonomous Community of Basque Country in northern Spain. It provides access to the Bay of Biscay, it is the site of the world's first multi-turbine breakwater wave power station, opened July 8, 2011. The Church of San Andrés can be found here, being one of the oldest churches in Gipuzkoa, dating to the year 1080. Two different spellings are used for the town. Motrico is the traditional way and was the official spelling from the 13th century until 1980. However, in the local standard Basque language, the term Mutriku is used, the Basque spelling becoming official in 1980 by council decision. Since 1989, Mutriku has been the only official name accepted by the BOE, it is used in modern official documents and in the Spanish-language media across the Basque region; the town name's etymology has attracted much heated discussion. It is uncertain whether it was created before or at the founding of the town in 1209, although it seems to predate royal foundation as the 13th-century town charter mentions Motriko.
The small town lies on Biscay. It is perched on rocky cliffs by the sea, low tide reveals many bathing places and fishing spots; the town's beaches are located on the mouths of Artibai rivers. The name of the dark sand beach at the Deba's mouth is Ondarbeltz, while the beach at the mouth of the Artibai river is light gold in color. At the center of the village and halfway between the two river mouths lies a natural bay with the harbour. From the harbor there is a view of the whole town, dotted with medieval-style buildings. Apart from the urban centre where the 85% of the population lives, the village contains 9 minor neighbourhoods as follows: Astigarribia, Artzain Erreka, Ibiri, Mijoa, Mizkia and Olatz; the river Deba is the limit of the town to the east. On the western boundary lies the Artibai, although in this case the river from city limit is the Mijoaerreka race that leads Saturraran beach in the bay at the mouth of Artibai; the Saturraran forms a small basin that collects water from Olatz and surrounding mountains with rivers: Errekabeltz, Armentxako erreka, Zinoaetxeberriko erreka, Aldaberreka, Bidekoaerreka and Kurpitako erreka.
Between these two watersheds and the Saturraran, another small basin that forms a small river that runs down from Kalbario and the valley which sits the town center and surrounding areas, these are: Errekaundi, Idurreko erreka, Leizarreko erreka, Maldomin erreka and Lasaoko erreka. The topography of Mutriku is marked by Mt. Arno, it is a mass of limestone covered with native conifer Cantabrian forest. The terrain is rugged, with steep slopes and narrow valleys extending down to the coastline and tidal region of Guipuzcoa. Mutriku's economy is tied to the sea. Fishing has been the main economic driver, providing the raw material for canning factories; the fishing sector has been affected by the economic crisis. Agriculture in the rural districts is for local consumption. Little livestock is present. Logging in rural areas focuses on insignis pine and other conifers. Supplements to the fishing sector are still developing; the canning industry the main town industry, has given way to all kinds of metal processing workshops that export regionally.
Flat land at the Saturraran river mouth has provided development space. The main business of the municipality is the canning factory Yurrita e Hijos SA,. Mutriku has several campgrounds and many restaurants which cater to those visiting the neighboring town of Deba, it has become a popular location for vacation homes for those in larger cities. The Jentiletxea II and Iruroin Langatxo caves reveal prehistoric occupation in periods dating back to the Upper Paleolithic; the town of Mutriku was founded in 1209 by the Castillian King Alfonso VIII, who granted the town charter and gave the right to build a wall to protect the city. The medieval town developed rapidly. Important palaces and tower houses belonging to aristocratic families and the commercial and military classes were constructed. In 1553 a fire destroyed much of the town. Only some stone houses were saved. At the end of the 19th century, Evaristo de Churruca designed new docks for the port; the passage of time revealed problems with the original designs, in the middle of the 20th century the docks were modified by Ramon Iribarren Cavanilles to correct wave problems.
However, in the late 20th century decline of the fishing sector gave rise to increased attention to another alternative, tourism. To solve port entry and stability problems with the dock and attract tourists interested in ocean access to the Bay of Biscay, a new seawall was designed and located outside the old harbor; the new wave-powered power plant is located in the newest seawall. With the 21st century came another important works project, the building of a direct route to the harbor to ameliorate heavy traffic in the medieval old city center; the roads to Deba and Ondarroa were improved. Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, a Neoclasical church wi
The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of 10 genera of medium to large-sized ungulates, including domestic cattle, African buffalo, the water buffalo, the yak, the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. The evolutionary relationship between the members of the group is still debated, their classification into loose tribes rather than formal subgroups reflects this uncertainty. General characteristics include cloven hooves and at least one of the sexes of a species having true horns; the largest extant bovine is the gaur. In many countries, bovid milk and meat is used as food. Cattle are kept as livestock everywhere except in parts of India and Nepal where they are considered sacred by most Hindus. Bovids are used as riding animals. Small breeds of bovid, such as the Miniature Zebu, are kept as pets. FAMILY BOVIDAE Subfamily Bovinae Tribe Boselaphini Genus Tetracerus Four-horned antelope, Tetracerus quadricornis T.q. quadricornis T.q. iodes T.q. subquadricornis Genus Boselaphus Nilgai or blue bull, Boselaphus tragocamelus B.t. tragocamelus Tribe Bovini Genus Bubalus Water buffalo, Bubalus arnee Wild Asian water buffalo, Bubalus arnee arnee Domestic Swamp buffalo, Bubalus arnee carabanesis Domestic River buffalo, Bubalus arnee bubalis Lowland anoa, Bubalus depressicornis Mountain anoa, Bubalus quarlesi Tamaraw, Bubalus mindorensis Cebu tamaraw†, Bubalus cebuensis Genus Bos Aurochs, Bos primigenius Eurasian Aurochs†, Bos primigenius primigenius Indian Aurochs†, Bos primigenius namadicus North African Aurochs†, Bos primigenius africanus Banteng, Bos javanicus Gaur, Bos gaurus Gayal, Bos frontalis Yak, Bos grunniens Wild yak, Bos mutus Bos palaesondaicus†, Bos sauveli Domestic cattle, Bos taurus Taurine cattle, Bos taurus taurus Zebu, Bos taurus indicus Genus Pseudoryx Saola, Pseudoryx nghetinhensis Genus Syncerus African buffalo, Syncerus caffer Genus Bison American bison, Bison bison Wisent, Bison bonasus Bison palaeosinensis†, Steppe wisent†, Bison priscus Ancient bison†, Bison antiquus Long-horned bison†, Bison latifrons Genus Pelorovis† Giant buffalo†, Pelorovis antiquus Tribe Tragelaphini Genus Tragelaphus Bongo, Tragelaphus eurycerus Greater kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros Kéwel, Tragelaphus scriptus Imbabala, Tragelaphus sylvaticus Lesser kudu, Tragelaphus imberbis Mountain nyala, Tragelaphus buxtoni Nyala, Tragelaphus angasii Sitatunga, Tragelaphus spekeii Genus Taurotragus Common eland, Taurotragus oryx Giant eland, Taurotragus derbianus Bovine is derived from Latin bos, "ox", through Late Latin bovinus.
Bos comes from the Indo-European root * gwous. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature Opinion 2027. Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals: conserved. Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 60:81–84. Bovinae information in ITIS. Congress on Controversies in Bovine Health, Industry & Economics
Domestic sheep are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals kept as livestock. Like most ruminants, sheep are members of the even-toed ungulates. Although the name sheep applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe, an intact male as a ram or a tup, a castrated male as a wether, a younger sheep as a lamb. Sheep are most descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleeces and milk. A sheep's wool is the most used animal fiber, is harvested by shearing. Ovine meat is called lamb when from younger animals and mutton when from older ones in Commonwealth countries, lamb in the United States. Sheep continue to be important for wool and meat today, are occasionally raised for pelts, as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science.
Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, has been fundamental to many civilizations. In the modern era, New Zealand, the southern and central South American nations, the British Isles are most associated with sheep production. Sheepraising has a large lexicon of unique terms which vary by region and dialect. Use of the word sheep began in Middle English as a derivation of the Old English word scēap. A group of sheep is called a herd or mob. Many other specific terms for the various life stages of sheep exist related to lambing and age. Being a key animal in the history of farming, sheep have a entrenched place in human culture, find representation in much modern language and symbology; as livestock, sheep are most associated with pastoral, Arcadian imagery. Sheep figure in many mythologies—such as the Golden Fleece—and major religions the Abrahamic traditions. In both ancient and modern religious ritual, sheep are used as sacrificial animals; the exact line of descent between domestic sheep and their wild ancestors is unclear.
The most common hypothesis states. Sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated by humankind. C in Mesopotamia; the rearing of sheep for secondary products, the resulting breed development, began in either southwest Asia or western Europe. Sheep were kept for meat and skins. Archaeological evidence from statuary found at sites in Iran suggests that selection for woolly sheep may have begun around 6000 BC, the earliest woven wool garments have been dated to two to three thousand years later. Sheep husbandry spread in Europe. Excavations show that in about 6000 BC, during the Neolithic period of prehistory, the Castelnovien people, living around Châteauneuf-les-Martigues near present-day Marseille in the south of France, were among the first in Europe to keep domestic sheep. From its inception, ancient Greek civilization relied on sheep as primary livestock, were said to name individual animals. Ancient Romans kept sheep on a wide scale, were an important agent in the spread of sheep raising.
Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, speaks at length about wool. European colonists spread the practice to the New World from 1493 onwards. Domestic sheep are small ruminants with a crimped hair called wool and with horns forming a lateral spiral. Domestic sheep differ from their wild relatives and ancestors in several respects, having become uniquely neotenic as a result of selective breeding by humans. A few primitive breeds of sheep retain some of the characteristics of their wild cousins, such as short tails. Depending on breed, domestic sheep may have no horns at all, or horns in both sexes, or in males only. Most horned breeds have a single pair. Another trait unique to domestic sheep as compared to wild ovines is their wide variation in color. Wild sheep are variations of brown hues, variation within species is limited. Colors of domestic sheep range from pure white to dark chocolate brown, spotted or piebald. Selection for dyeable white fleeces began early in sheep domestication, as white wool is a dominant trait it spread quickly.
However, colored sheep do appear in many modern breeds, may appear as a recessive trait in white flocks. While white wool is desirable for large commercial markets, there is a niche market for colored fleeces for handspinning; the nature of the fleece varies among the breeds, from dense and crimped, to long and hairlike. There is variation of wool type and quality among members of the same flock, so wool classing is a step in the commercial processing of the fibre. Depending on breed, sheep show a range of weights, their rate of growth and mature weight is a heritable trait, selected for in breeding. Ewes weigh between 45 and 100 kilograms, rams between 45 and 160 kilograms; when all deciduous teeth have erupted, the sheep has 20 teeth. Mature sheep have 32 teeth; as with other ruminants, the front teeth in the lower jaw bite against a hard, toothless pad in the upper jaw. These are used to pick off vegetation the rear
Basque Country (autonomous community)
The Basque Country the Basque Autonomous Community is an autonomous community in northern Spain. It includes the Basque provinces of Álava and Gipuzkoa; the Basque Country or Basque Autonomous Community was granted the status of nationality within Spain, attributed by the Spanish Constitution of 1978. The autonomous community is based on the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country, a foundational legal document providing the framework for the development of the Basque people on Spanish soil. Navarre, which had narrowly rejected a joint statue of autonomy with Gipuzkoa, Álava and Biscay in 1932, was granted a separate statute in 1982. There is no official capital in the autonomous community, but the city of Vitoria-Gasteiz, in the province of Álava, is the de facto capital as the location of the Basque Parliament, the headquarters of the Basque Government, the residence of the President of the Basque Autonomous Community; the High Court of Justice of the Basque Country has its headquarters in the city of Bilbao.
Whilst Vitoria-Gasteiz is the largest municipality in area, with 277 km2, Bilbao is the largest in population, with 353,187 people, located in the province of Biscay within a conurbation of 875,552 people. The term Basque Country may refer to the larger cultural region, the home of the Basque people, which includes the autonomous community; the following provinces make up the autonomous community: Álava, capital Vitoria-Gasteiz Biscay, capital Bilbao-Bilbo Gipuzkoa, capital Donostia-San Sebastián The Basque Country borders Cantabria and the Burgos province to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the north and Navarre to the east and La Rioja to the south. The territory has three distinct areas, which are defined by the two parallel ranges of the Basque Mountains; the main range of mountains forms the watershed between the Mediterranean basins. The highest point of the range is in the Aizkorri massif; the three areas are: Formed by many valleys with short rivers that flow from the mountains to the Bay of Biscay, like the Nervión, Urola or Oria.
The coast is rough, with small inlets. The main features of the coast are the Bilbao Abra Bay and the Estuary of Bilbao, the Urdaibai estuary and the Bidasoa-Txingudi Bay that forms the border with France. Between the two mountain ranges, the area is occupied by a high plateau called Llanada Alavesa, where the capital Vitoria-Gasteiz is located; the rivers flow south from the mountains to the Ebro River. The main rivers are the Zadorra Bayas River. From the southern mountains to the Ebro is the so-called Rioja Alavesa, which shares the Mediterranean characteristics of other Ebro Valley zones; some of Spain's production of Rioja wine takes place here. The Basque Mountains form the watershed and mark the distinct climatic areas of the Basque Country: The northern valleys, in Biscay and Gipuzkoa and the valley of Ayala in Álava, are part of Green Spain, where the oceanic climate is predominant, with its wet weather all year round and moderate temperatures. Precipitation average is about 1200 mm; the middle section is influenced more by the continental climate, but with a varying degree of the northern oceanic climate.
This gives cold, snowy winters. The Ebro valley has a pure continental climate: winters are cold and dry and summers warm and dry, with precipitation peaking in spring and autumn. Precipitation is irregular, as low as 300 mm. Half of the 2,155,546 inhabitants of the Basque Autonomous Community live in Greater Bilbao, Bilbao's metropolitan area. Of the ten most populous cities, six form part of Bilbao's conurbation, known as Greater Bilbao. With 28.2% of the Basque population born outside this region, immigration is crucial to Basque demographics. Over the 20th century most of this immigration came from other parts of Spain from Galicia or Castile and León. Over recent years, sizeable numbers of this population have returned to their birthplaces and most immigration to the Basque country now comes from abroad, chiefly from South America. Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in the Basque Country. In 2012, the proportion of Basques that identified themselves as Roman Catholic was 58.6%, while it is one of the most secularised communities of Spain: 24.6% were non-religious and 12.3% of Basques were atheist.
Bilbao-Bilbo Vitoria-Gasteiz San Sebastián-Donostia Barakaldo Getxo Irun Portugalete Santurtzi Basauri Errenteria Spanish and Basque are co-official in all territories of the autonomous community. The Basque-speaking areas in the modern-day autonomous community are set against the wider context of the Basque language, spoken to the east in Navarre and the French Basque Country; the whole Basque speaking territory has experienced both expansion in its history. The Basque language experienced a gradual territorial contraction throughout the last nine centuries, severe deterioration of its sociolinguistic status for much of the 20th century due to heavy immigration from other parts of Spain, the virtual nonexistence of Basque language schooling, national policies implemented by the different Spanish régimes. After the advent of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Countr