Not to be confused with the metropolitan area of Bilbao, which includes this region. Greater Bilbao is an administrative division of the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country, Spain, it is one of the most populated one. The capital city of Greater Bilbao is Bilbao. Greater Bilbao is made by the municipalities situated along the Estuary of Bilbao which themselves form a conurbation, which metropolitan area is the fifth most populous in Spain. Greater Bilbao, or Bilboaldea, is located at the northwest of the province of Biscay, limiting with the comarcas of Enkarterri in the west and Busturialdea in the east, Durangaldea in the southeast and Arratia-Nerbioi in the south; the Bay of Biscay limits at north. Greater Bilbao can be divided into six subregions: The city of Bilbao; the left bank: Traditionally an industrial and manufacturing zone. It includes Barakaldo, Sestao and Santurtzi; the right bank: A residential area, including Erandio and the more affluent Getxo. The mining zone, where the main iron ore resources were located: Muskiz, Ortuella Txoriherri, wide expansion zone where the international airport and the University of the Basque Country are located.
Hego Uribe, including Basauri and Arrigorriaga. Uribe-Kosta: the coastal area north of Getxo is being integrated into the metropolitan area in the recent years, with the development of low density residential areas connected by the metro. Greater Bilbao is divided into 25 municipalities, being Bilbao the capital city; the 25 municipalities, among some others, make the Metropolitan Area of Bilbao. Bilbao metropolitan area Bilbao Bilbao la Vieja Biscay Comarca del Gran Bilbao. Comarca del Gran Bilbao Bilbao Ría 2000. Bilbao Metrópoli-30
Mondragón known as Arrasate/Mondragón is a town and municipality in Gipuzkoa province, Basque Country, Spain. Its population in 2015 was 21,933; the town is best known as the birthplace of the Mondragón Cooperative Corporation, the world's largest worker cooperative, whose foundation was inspired in the 1940s by the Catholic priest José María Arizmendiarrieta. In 2002 the MCC contributed 3.7% towards the total GDP of the Basque Country and 7.6% to the industrial GDP. The valley of the High Deba where the town is located enjoyed a high level of employment in the 1980s while the rest of the Basque industrial areas suffered from the steel crisis. Noted poverty expert and sociology professor Barbara J. Peters of Southampton College, Long Island University, has studied the incorporated and resident-owned town of Mondragón. "In Mondragón, I saw no signs of poverty. I saw no signs of extreme wealth," Peters said. "I saw people looking out for each other….. It's a caring form of capitalism.”The spa at Santa Águeda was the location of the 1897 murder of Spanish politician Antonio Cánovas del Castillo by Michele Angiolillo.
Mondragón serves as base of Mondragón University, a private university created in 1997, connected with the MCC companies. All of the university's graduates find their first job within three months after completing their studies due to this strong link. Mondragón University is divided into engineering and enterprise faculties; the faculty of engineering is in Mondragon and Goierri. The humanities faculty is in Eskoriatza and the enterprise faculty is in Bidasoa and Oñati; the student enrollment is 3,500 and is growing. The majority of the students are from Gipuzkoa and surrounding villages, although in the last few years, the number of students from Bilbao, San Sebastián and the Basque Country capital, Vitoria-Gasteiz, has increased significantly. Pierre Boutron's French language film Fiesta!, adapted from a novel written by José Luis de Vilallonga, was set in Mondragón during the Spanish Civil War. Excavating at the Artazu VII site located in the Kobate Quarry in Arrasate. General information of Arrasate/Mondragón Pictures of Arrasate/Mondragón in FLICKR Municipality pages in Basque and Spanish Mondragon University homepage ARRASATE/MONDRAGÓN in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish
Leintz Gatzaga is a town located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the Autonomous Community of Basque Country, northern Spain. The municipality's population is 251; the first part of the name, comes from the name of the valley, the village being located in the Valley of Leintz. The second part is linked to the saltmine located in the village, part of the reason for the village's existence. Salt is no longer used to be a mainstay of the village's economy. Leintz-Gatzaga covers 14.7 km² and is located in the province of Gipuzkoa close to Araba/Álava. It is situated in a mountainous area with steep hillsides and with no flat agricultural land, it is in the region of Alto Deva. Leintz-Gatzaga has a small old part that consisting of four streets walled. Most of the residents live in this part, the rest spread over some 35 Basque farmhousess around the village; the history of this village is linked to two factors: the road. Salt mines have operated in the area since the Iron Ages. Before the village was formed, there were some farmhouses and small towns that were protected by the Castle of Aitzorrotz.
Although the salt mines were owned by the royalty, the residents of the village had some privileges to develop trade and exploit the salt. The salt mines were of major economic importance and led to some disputes. For example, in 1374 the Count of Oñati appropriated the village and Leintz Gatzaga has been burnt down several times, in 1334, 1371, 1492 and 1498. Following the last burning, it was ordered. Whereas in most places the vaporization system was used in salt mining, in Leintz Gatzaga, due to its cold and wet climate, salt miners would use fire to evaporate the water; the machinery used changed throughout the centuries. Until the 19th century the work was done without machinery, but when a company called Productos Leniz bought the salt mine, new machinery was introduced in 1920 and production increased. However, the quality of the salt was not as high as that of sea salt and after 1500 years, in 1972, the salt mine was closed. In the 17th century the Royal Road was built; this road joins the coast of Gipuzkoa with the interior.
So this village became part of the route. For this reason, the economy of the village grew but this prosperity was affected by wars, such as the War of Spanish Independence, the War of the Pyrenees or the Carlist Wars; the decline of the village began in the middle of the 19th century. On the one hand, the opening of a new road between Idiazabal and Altsasu in 1851 reduced the importance of the Royal Road, and on the other hand was the construction of the rail line between Irun. These two facts reduced its importance gradually. Apart from that, the salt mines grew less profitable and were closed; these factors combined plunged the village into a serious demographic downturn. There is little economic activity in the village. Of the 125 people in employment, only 50 work locally. Although the municipality has an important rural stamp half of the population works in the industrial sector of surrounding municipalities. Few people are dedicated to agricultural and livestock tasks. Salinas de Leniz tries to promote tourism with a tourism office, 5 restaurants and several rural guesthouses.
As of 2015 the population was 251 and while the village has never been large in 1950 the population shrank because Leintz Gatzaga was the only village of the region which did not take part in industrialization. The population is ageing. Despite being a small town, Salinas de Leniz has an architectural heritage, it is still possible to glimpse the old medieval urban layout, which originated from the reconstruction of the town after the fire of 1371. Although the ramparts disappeared it is still possible to see the five door entrances as well as numerous palatial houses of interest with their shields and coats of arms on the facades. There are several religious monuments as Dorleta sanctuary, located outside the village next to the salt mine, The Church of San Millan, built in the fourteenth century and reconstructed in the sixteenth. Civil monuments are numerous as well in the old town of Salinas de Leniz: Torrekua, Olaso, Indianokua and Garro palaces are some of the most important There is a Salt Museum, which shows how the salt extraction process was performed in the old salt mine and the importance in the local economy.
The salt facilities have been equipped as a museum. Official Website Information Basque. LEINTZ-GATZAGA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish
Arratia-Nerbioi is a comarca of the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country, Spain. It is formed by the valleys of the Nervión river, it is one of the seven comarcas. Arratia-Nerbioi is located on the south of the province of Biscay, it limits with the comarcas of Durangaldea on the northeast. The Basque province of Álava is on the south; the comarca of Arratia-Nerbioi is formed by the valleys of the Nervión river. Biscay
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Bergara is a town and municipality located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the north of Spain. An Enlightened center of education operated by the Real Sociedad Bascongada de Amigos del País, it was the place where brothers Juan José and Fausto Elhuyar discovered wolfram. During the Carlist Wars, it operated as the royal court of the Carlists, it was there where the agreement symbolized in the Vergara Embrace between Rafael Maroto and Baldomero Espartero, Prince of Vergara ended one of the period wars. Official Website Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Bergara Laboratorium - European Physical Society Historic Site
Gipuzkoa is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. Its capital city is Donostia-San Sebastián. Gipuzkoa shares borders with the French department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques at the northeast, with the province and autonomous community of Navarre at east, Biscay at west, Álava at southwest and the Bay of Biscay to its north, it is located in the Bay of Biscay. It has 66 kilometres of coast land. With a total area of 1,980 square kilometres, Gipuzkoa is the smallest province of Spain; the province has 89 municipalities and a population of 720,592 inhabitants, from which more than half live in the Donostia-San Sebastián metropolitan area. Apart from the capital, other important cities are Irun, Zarautz, Mondragón, Hondarribia, Oñati, Tolosa and Pasaia; the oceanic climate gives the province an intense green colour with little thermic oscillation. Gipuzkoa is the province of the Basque Country where the Basque language is most extensively used: 49.1% of the population spoke Basque in 2006.
The first recorded name of the province was Ipuscoa in a document from the year 1025. During the following years, in various documents, several similar names appear, such as Ipuzcoa, Ipuçcha, among others; the full etymology the word Gipuzkoa has not been ascertained, but links have been made with the Basque word Giputz, containing the root ip-, related to the word ipar and ipuin. According to this, ipuzko might refer to something "to the north" or "in the north". Gipuzkoa is the Basque spelling recommended by the Royal Academy of the Basque language, it is used in official documents in that language; the Basque spelling is mandatory in official texts from the various Spanish public administrations in documents written in Spanish. It is the spelling most used by the Spanish-language media in the Basque Country, it is the spelling used in the Basque version of the Spanish constitution and in the Basque version of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country. Gipuzkoa is the only official spelling approved for the historical territory by the Juntas Generales of the province.
Guipúzcoa is the spelling in Spanish, it has been determined by the Association of Spanish Language Academies as being the only correct use outside official Spanish documents, where the use of the Basque spelling is mandatory. It is the Spanish spelling used in the Spanish version of the Constitution and in the Spanish version of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country. At 1,980 km2 Gipuzkoa is the smallest province in Spain; the province has 88 municipalities and 709,607 inhabitants, a quarter of whom live in the capital, San Sebastián. Other important towns are Irun, Zarautz, Arrasate, Oñati with an old university, Tolosa, the provincial capital for a short time, Pasaia, the main port and Hondarribia, an old fort town across from the French Atlantic coast. Gipuzkoa is hilly and green linking mountain and sea, populated with numerous urban nuclei that dot the whole territory; the conspicuous presence of hills and rugged terrain has added to a special leaning towards hiking and mountains on the part of Gipuzkoans.
Some mountains have an emblematic or iconic significance in the local tradition, their summits being topped with crosses and mountaineer postboxes. In addition, pilgrimages which have lost their former religious zeal and taken on a more secular slant are sometimes held to their summits; some renowned mountains are Aiako Harria, Txindoki and Izarraitz, amongst others. The Aralar Natural Park is a conservation area on the border of Gipuzkoa and Navarre in the Aralar Range; the rivers of Gipuzkoa are distinctly different from other Bay of Biscay rivers. They arise in the hilly Basque inland landscape, flow in a south- north direction, forming close, narrow valleys before joining the ocean; the rivers extend for a short length with only a small fluctuation in the volume of water thanks to the stable rainfall all year round, they show an abrupt drop between origin and mouth as far as the length of the river is concerned. From west to east the rivers are the Deba, Oria, Urumea and Bidasoa. Except for a narrow strip extending east from the hamlet Otzaurte and the tunnel of San Adrian, the province drains its waters to the Atlantic basin.
The region's communication layout is in step with its geographical features, with the main lines of infrastructure along a north -south axis up to recent times along the rivers heading to the ocean. Accordingly, the inland Way of St. James, i.e. the Tunnel Route penetrated the province via Irun and turned south-west along the Oria River towards the provincial limits at the tunnel of San Adrian. This stretch was in operation up to 1765. A minor St. James route crossed Gipuzkoa east to west along the coast; the main road cutting through Gipuzkoa follows that layout, i.e. the N-1 E-5 from Irun to Donostia and on to Altsasu all along the Oria River for the most part. The major Irun-Madrid railway runs close to the river up to its origin on the slopes of Aizkorri at train stop Otzaurte in Zegama. By 1973 engineering works for the Bilbao-Behobia A-8 E-70 motorway had been completed, with the new road cutting across the valleys east to west and turning into the main axis between Donostia and Bilbao, beside