DebConf, the Debian developers conference is the yearly conference where developers of the Debian operating system meet to discuss further development of the system. Besides the scheduled workshops and talks, Debian developers take the opportunity to hack on the Debian system in a more informal setting; this has been institutionalised by introducing the DebCamp in the Oslo DebConf in 2003: a room is set aside and computing infrastructure provided. Locations of past and future DebConf events: These were one-day miniature conferences, held in association with the main linux.conf.au conference. They were targeted towards specific communities of interest and offered delegates an opportunity to network with other enthusiasts while immersing themselves in a specific topic or project. Locations of past LCA Miniconf events: This is a smaller Debian event, held annually in various places in the world. Locations of past and future MiniDebConf events: According to a 2013 brochure, the conference had about 30 attendees in 2000 while in 2011 there were around 300 attendees, about 250 are expected.
DebConf website DebConf video archive
Deb (file format)
Deb is the format, as well as extension of the software package format for the Linux distribution Debian and its derivatives. Debian packages are standard Unix ar archives. One archive holds the control information and another contains the installable data.dpkg provides the basic functionality for installing and manipulating Debian packages. End users don't manage packages directly with dpkg but instead use the APT package management software or other APT front-ends such as aptitude and synaptic. Debian packages can be converted into other package formats and vice versa using alien, created from source code using checkinstall or the Debian Package Maker; some core Debian packages are available as udebs, are used only for bootstrapping a Debian installation. Although these files use the udeb filename extension, they adhere to the same structure specification as ordinary deb files. However, unlike their deb counterparts, udeb packages contain only essential functional files. In particular, documentation files are omitted.
Udeb packages are used in Debian-Installer. Prior to Debian 0.93 a package consisted of two concatenated gzip archives. Since Debian 0.93, a deb package is implemented as an ar archive. This archive contains three files in a specific order: debian-binary - Contains a single line giving the package format version number.. Control archive - A tar archive named control.tar contains the maintainer scripts and the package meta-information. Compressing the archive with gzip or xz is supported; the file extension changes to indicate the compression method. Data archive - A tar archive named data.tar contains the actual installable files. Compressing the archive with gzip, bzip2, lzma or xz is supported; the file extension changes to indicate the compression method. The control archive contents can include the following files: control contains a brief description of the package as well as other information such as its dependencies. Md5sums contains MD5 checksums of all files in the package in order to detect corrupt or incomplete files.
Conffiles lists the files of the package. Configuration files are not overwritten during an update. Preinst, postinst and postrm are optional scripts that are executed before or after installing or removing the package. Config is an optional script. Shlibs list of shared library dependencies. Debian-based distributions support GPG signature verification of signed Debian packages, but most have this feature disabled by default. Instead packages are verified by signing the repository metadata; the metadata files in turn include checksums for the repository files as a means to verify authenticity of the files. There are two different implementations for signing individual packages; the first is done via the debsigs / debsig-verify toolset, supported by dpkg. The second is done through the dpkg-sig program, not supported by dpkg, so the packages have to be manually checked with the dpkg-sig program. Both formats add new section to the ar archive to store the signature information, but the formats are not compatible with one another.
Neither of the modifications to the package format are listed in the official Debian handbook or man page about the binary package format. Debian packages are used in distributions based on Debian, such as many others. Fink, a port of dpkg and APT to Mac OS X, uses deb packages. Nexenta OS, a discontinued OS based on OpenSolaris, included Debian package management software and the use of deb packages. Debian GNU/kFreeBSD, a OS that uses a GNU based userland and the FreeBSD kernel. Debian GNU/Hurd. Cydia package manager used on jailbroken iOS devices. Ipkg and Opkg, which both use.ipk packages that resemble Debian's dpkg List of archive formats dpkg wpkg CheckInstall List of software package management systems Debian FAQ: Debreate - Debian Package Creator GUI.deb feature support Manipulating debs directly with standard utilities Anatomy of a Debian package video
Bruce Perens is an American computer programmer and advocate in the free software movement. He created The Open Source Definition and published the first formal announcement and manifesto of open source, he co-founded the Open Source Initiative with Eric S. Raymond. In 2005, Perens represented Open Source at the United Nations World Summit on the Information Society, at the invitation of the United Nations Development Programme, he has appeared before national legislatures and is quoted in the press, advocating for open source and the reform of national and international technology policy. Perens is an amateur radio operator, with call sign K6BP, he promotes open radio communications open-source hardware. In 2016 Perens, along with Boalt Hall professor Lothar Determann, co-authored "Open Cars" which appeared in the Berkeley Technology Law Journal. In 2018 Perens founded the Open Research Institute, a non-profit research and development organization to address technologies involving Open Source, Open Hardware, Open Standards, Open Content, Open Access to Research.
ORI facilitate worldwide collaboration in the development of technology that would otherwise be restricted under national laws like ITAR and EAR. Perens is CEO of two companies: Algoram is a start-up, creating a 50-1000 MHz software-defined radio transceiver. Legal Engineering is a legal-technical consultancy which specializes in resolving copyright infringement in relation to open source software. Perens grew up in New York, he was born with cerebral palsy, which caused him to have slurred speech as a child, a condition that led to a misdiagnosis of him as developmentally disabled in school and led the school to fail to teach him to read. He developed an interest in technology at an early age: besides his interest in amateur radio, he ran a pirate radio station in the town of Lido Beach and engaged in phone phreaking. Perens worked for seven years at the New York Institute of Technology Computer Graphics Lab. After that, he worked at Pixar for 12 years, from 1987 to 1999, he is credited as a studio tools engineer on the Pixar films A Bug's Life and Toy Story 2.
Perens founded No-Code International in 1998 with the goal of ending the Morse Code test required for an amateur radio license. His rationale was that amateur radio should be a tool for young people to learn advanced technology and networking, rather than something that preserved antiquity and required new hams to master outmoded technology before they were allowed on the air. Perens lobbied intensively on the Internet, at amateur radio events in the United States, during visits to other nations. One of his visits was to Iceland, where he had half of that nation's radio amateurs in the room, their vote in the International Amateur Radio Union was equivalent to that of the entire United States. In 1995, Perens created BusyBox, a package of UNIX-style utilities for operating systems including Linux and FreeBSD, he stopped working on it in 1996. Starting in 2007, several lawsuits were filed for infringement of BusyBox licensing; these lawsuits were filed by the Software Freedom Law Center, some of the managing developers of BusyBox.
In 2009, Bruce Perens released a statement about those filing them. In it, he claims that he maintains a significant or majority ownership of the software in the litigation, but was not contacted nor represented by the plaintiffs. Perens supports enforcement of the GPL license used on Busybox; because he was denied participation in the Busybox cases on the side of the prosecution, Perens started a consulting business to assist the defendants in coming into compliance with the GPL and arriving at an amicable settlement with the Software Freedom Law Center. From April 1996 to December 1997, while still working at Pixar, Perens served as Debian Project Leader, the person who coordinates development of the Debian open source operating system, he replaced Ian Murdock, the creator of Debian, the first project leader. In 1997, Perens was a co-founder of Software in the Public Interest, a nonprofit organization intended to serve as an umbrella organization to aid open-source software and hardware projects.
It was created to allow the Debian Project to accept donations. In 1997, Perens carbon-copied an email conversation between Donnie Barnes of Red Hat and Ean Schuessler, working on Debian. Schuessler bemoaned. Perens took this as inspiration to create a formal social contract for Debian. In a blog posting, Perens claims not to have made use of the Three Freedoms published by the Free Software Foundation in composing his document. Perens proposed a draft of the Debian Social Contract to the Debian developers on the debian-private mailing list early in June 1997. Debian developers contributed discussion and changes for the rest of the month while Perens edited, the completed document was announced as Debian project policy. Part of the Debian Social Contract was the Debian Free Software Guidelines, a set of 10 guidelines for determining whether a set of software can be described as "free software", thus whether it could be included in Debian. On February 3, 1998, a group of people met at VA Linux Systems to discuss the promotion of Free Software to business in pragmatic terms, rather than the moral terms preferred by Richard Sta
Martin Michlmayr is a free and open-source software advocate and Debian developer president of Software in the Public Interest. Michlmayr joined the Debian project in 2000. In 2003, Michlmayr was elected as Debian Project Leader. Michlmayr contributed to Debian's New Member process, participating in the recruitment of over 120 new members. Additionally, Michlmayr made various contributions to Debian's quality assurance effort, he identified the problem of packages with inactive maintainers and implemented processes to address this problem systematically. He became involved in identifying inactive maintainers whose packages should be reassigned, he contributed to Debian's ports to the ARM and MIPS platforms, by porting Debian to several embedded devices and Network Attached Storage devices. He used snapshots of the GCC compiler to build the entire Debian archive; this work resulted in the identification of compiler bugs as well as build errors in many open source packages. Michlmayr completed a doctorate in technology management at the University of Cambridge in 2007.
The focus of this research was on quality improvement in free software and open source projects, on release management processes and practices. In 2013, O'Reilly awarded an open source award to Michlmayr, putting him in "the'unsung heroes' category—the people who devote themselves to the important but not always glorious jobs that keep open source healthy". Between 2008 and 2014 Michlmayr served on the board of directors of the Open Source Initiative, acting as the organization's secretary, he is a member of Software Freedom Conservancy's evaluation committee, which evaluates projects that apply to Conservancy for membership. Michlmayr acted as an advisor to Software in the Public Interest in the past. Official website
Stefano Zacchiroli is an Italian/French academic and computer scientist who lives and works in Paris, a former Debian Project Leader, a position in which he served from April 2010 to April 2013. Succeeding Steve McIntyre, he was himself succeeded by Lucas Nussbaum in an election where he himself was no longer a candidate. Zacchiroli became a Debian Developer in 2001. After attending LinuxTag in 2004, he became more involved in the Debian community and the project itself. In 2016, Zacchiroli founded the Software Heritage project together with Roberto Di Cosmo. Zacchiroli earned a PhD in computer science in 2007 at University of Bologna in Italy and moved to Paris Diderot University in France for his Postdoctoral research, he is involved into the MANCOOSI project working on the application of formal methods to the solution of complexity issues in the management of GNU/Linux distributions. From the technical point of view, Zacchiroli has been involved in Debian in the OCaml packaging and in the quality assurance team.
In April 2011 he was re-elected as project leader unopposed. In April 2012 he was re-elected again, he was a director of the Open Source Initiative from 2014 to 2017 and is a member of Free Software Foundation's High Priority Projects committee. In 2015, O'Reilly awarded an open source award to Zacchiroli. Zacchiroli's home page 2010 DPL campaign platform How Debian has grown: Stefano Zacchiroli speaks, iTWire, May 2012 Keeping 1000 devs focused: new Debian leader speaks, iTWire, April 2010
Benjamin Mako Hill
Benjamin Mako Hill is a free software activist and author. He is a contributor and free software developer as part of the Debian and Ubuntu projects as well as the co-author of three technical manuals on the subject, Debian GNU/Linux 3.1 Bible, The Official Ubuntu Server Book, The Official Ubuntu Book. Hill is an assistant professor in Communication at the University of Washington, serves as a member of the Free Software Foundation board of directors. Hill has a master's degree from the MIT Media Lab and received a PhD in an interdepartmental program involving the MIT Sloan School of Management and the MIT Media Lab. Since fall 2013, he is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Washington, he is a Fellow at the MIT Center for Civic Media where he coordinates the development of software for civic organizing. He has worked as an contractor for the One Laptop per Child project, he is a speaker for the GNU Project, serves on the board of Software Freedom International.
Since 2006 he is married to Mika Matsuzaki, having used mathematically constrained wedding vows at the marriage ceremony. Since 1999, Hill has been an active member of Debian, he has served as a delegate of the Debian Project Leader, is a founder and coordinator of Debian Non-Profit, a Debian custom distribution designed to fill the needs of small non-profit organizations. In addition he served on the board of Software in the Public Interest from March 2003 until July 2006, serving as the organisation's vice-president from August 2004. Hill is a core developer and founding member of Ubuntu, continues to be an active contributor to the project. In addition to technical responsibilities, he coordinated the construction of a community around the Ubuntu Project as project "community manager" during Ubuntu's first year and a half. During this period, he worked full-time for Canonical Ltd. Within the Project, he served on the "Community Council" governance board that oversees all non-technical aspects of the project, until October 2011.
His work included contributing to a code of diversity statement for the project. In addition to software development, Hill writes extensively, he has been published in academic books and magazines and online journals, Slate Magazine republished one of his blog posts. He is the author of the Free Software Project Management HOWTO, the canonical document on managing FOSS projects, has published academic work on FOSS from anthropological, sociological and software engineering perspectives and has written and spoken about intellectual property and collaboration more generally, he has studied the sociology of community involvement in web communities, been published and cited about projects like Scratch and Wikipedia. He has talked about these topics publicly, as well as giving a keynote address at 2008 OSCON. Hill has worked for several years as a consultant for FOSS projects specializing in coordinating releases of software as free or open software and structuring development efforts to encourage community involvement.
He spends a significant amount of his time traveling and giving talks on FOSS and intellectual property in Europe and North America. Previous to his current positions, Hill pursued research full-time as a graduate researcher at the MIT Media Laboratory. At the lab, he has worked in both the Electronic Publishing and Computing Culture groups on collaborative writing and decision-making software. One project, Selectricity is an award-winning voting tool which received prizes and grants from MTV and Cisco, he was a fellow at the Harvard Berkman Center for Internet & Society and the MIT Center for Civic Media. He serves on the advisory board of the Wikimedia Foundation, the advisory council of the Open Knowledge Foundation and the board of the Free Software Foundation, he was a founding member of the Ubuntu Community Council in 2009. Debian GNU/Linux 3.1 Bible ISBN 978-0-7645-7644-7 The Official Ubuntu Server Book ISBN 978-0133017533 The Official Ubuntu Book ISBN 978-0-13-243594-9 Official website Copyrighteous — personal weblog Biography from the University of Washington revealingerrors.com MIT LabCAST: Selectricity Laboratories of Oligarchy, video recording of a presentation at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society
Ubuntu is a free and open-source Linux distribution based on Debian. Ubuntu is released in three editions: Desktop and Core. Ubuntu is a popular operating system for cloud computing, with support for OpenStack. Ubuntu is released every six months, with long-term support releases every two years; the latest release is 18.10, the most recent long-term support release is 18.04 LTS, supported until 2028. Ubuntu is developed by the community under a meritocratic governance model. Canonical provides security updates and support for each Ubuntu release, starting from the release date and until the release reaches its designated end-of-life date. Canonical generates revenue through the sale of premium services related to Ubuntu. Ubuntu is named after the African philosophy of ubuntu, which Canonical translates as "humanity to others" or "I am what I am because of who we all are". Ubuntu is built on Debian's architecture and infrastructure, comprises Linux server and discontinued phone and tablet operating system versions.
Ubuntu releases updated versions predictably every six months, each release receives free support for nine months with security fixes, high-impact bug fixes and conservative beneficial low-risk bug fixes. The first release was in October 2004. Current long-term support releases are supported for five years, are released every two years. LTS releases get regular point releases with support for new hardware and integration of all the updates published in that series to date. Ubuntu packages are based on packages from Debian's unstable branch. Both distributions use package management tools. Debian and Ubuntu packages are not binary compatible with each other, however, so packages may need to be rebuilt from source to be used in Ubuntu. Many Ubuntu developers are maintainers of key packages within Debian. Ubuntu cooperates with Debian by pushing changes back to Debian, although there has been criticism that this does not happen enough. Ian Murdock, the founder of Debian, had expressed concern about Ubuntu packages diverging too far from Debian to remain compatible.
Before release, packages are imported from Debian unstable continuously and merged with Ubuntu-specific modifications. One month before release, imports are frozen, packagers work to ensure that the frozen features interoperate well together. Ubuntu is funded by Canonical Ltd. On 8 July 2005, Mark Shuttleworth and Canonical announced the creation of the Ubuntu Foundation and provided an initial funding of US$10 million; the purpose of the foundation is to ensure the support and development for all future versions of Ubuntu. Mark Shuttleworth describes the foundation goal. On 12 March 2009, Ubuntu announced developer support for third-party cloud management platforms, such as those used at Amazon EC2. GNOME 3 has been the default GUI for Ubuntu Desktop since Ubuntu 17.10, while Unity is still the default in older versions, including all current LTS versions except 18.04 LTS. However, a community-driven fork of Unity 8, called Yunit, has been created to continue the development of Unity. Shuttleworth wrote on 8 April 2017, "We will invest in Ubuntu GNOME with the intent of delivering a fantastic all-GNOME desktop.
We're helping the Ubuntu GNOME team, not creating something different or competitive with that effort. While I am passionate about the design ideas in Unity, hope GNOME may be more open to them now, I think we should respect the GNOME design leadership by delivering GNOME the way GNOME wants it delivered. Our role in that, as usual, will be to make sure that upgrades, security and the full experience are fantastic." Shuttleworth mentioned that Canonical will cease development for Ubuntu Phone and convergence.32-bit i386 processors have been supported up to Ubuntu 18.04, but users "will not be allowed to upgrade to Ubuntu 18.10 as dropping support for that architecture is being evaluated". A default installation of Ubuntu contains a wide range of software that includes LibreOffice, Thunderbird and several lightweight games such as Sudoku and chess. Many additional software packages are accessible from the built in Ubuntu Software as well as any other APT-based package management tools. Many additional software packages that are no longer installed by default, such as Evolution, GIMP, Synaptic, are still accessible in the repositories still installable by the main tool or by any other APT-based package management tool.
Cross-distribution snap packages and flatpaks are available, that both allow installing software, such as some of Microsoft's software, in most of the major Linux operating systems. The default file manager is GNOME Files called Nautilus. Ubuntu operates under the GNU General Public License and all of the application software installed by default is free software. In addition, Ubuntu installs some hardware drivers that are available only in binary format, but such packages are marked in the restricted component. Ubuntu aims to be secure by default. User programs can not corrupt the operating system or other users' files. For increased security, the sudo tool is used to assign temporary privileges for performing administrative tasks, which allows the root account to remain locked and helps prevent inexperienced users from inadvertently making catastrophic system changes or opening secu