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Deborah number

The Deborah number is a dimensionless number used in rheology to characterize the fluidity of materials under specific flow conditions. It quantifies the observation that given enough time a solid-like material might flow, or a fluid-like material can act solid when it is deformed enough. Materials that have low relaxation times flow and as such show rapid stress decay; the Deborah number is the ratio of fundamentally different characteristic times. Formally, the Deborah number is defined as the ratio of the time it takes for a material to adjust to applied stresses or deformations, the characteristic time scale of an experiment probing the response of the material: D e = t c t p, where tc stands for the relaxation time and tp for the "time of observation" taken to be the time scale of the process; the numerator, relaxation time, is the time needed for a reference amount of deformation to occur under a applied reference load. The denominator, material time, is the amount of time required to reach a given reference strain.

Equivalently, the relaxation time is the time required for the stress induced, by a applied reference strain, to reduce by a certain reference amount. The relaxation time is based on the rate of relaxation that exists at the moment of the applied load; this incorporates both the viscosity of the material. At lower Deborah numbers, the material behaves in a more fluidlike manner, with an associated Newtonian viscous flow. At higher Deborah numbers, the material behavior enters the non-Newtonian regime dominated by elasticity and demonstrating solidlike behavior. For example, for a Hookean elastic solid, the relaxation time tc will be infinite and it will vanish for a Newtonian viscous fluid. For liquid water, tc is 10−12 s, for lubricating oils passing through gear teeth at high pressure it is of the order of 10−6 s and for polymers undergoing plastics processing, the relaxation time will be of the order of a few seconds. Therefore, depending on the situation, these liquids may exhibit elastic properties, departing from purely viscous behavior.

While De is similar to the Weissenberg number and is confused with it in technical literature, they have different physical interpretations. The Weissenberg number indicates the degree of anisotropy or orientation generated by the deformation, is appropriate to describe flows with a constant stretch history, such as simple shear. In contrast, the Deborah number should be used to describe flows with a non-constant stretch history, physically represents the rate at which elastic energy is stored or released; the Deborah number was proposed by Markus Reiner, a professor at Technion in Israel, who chose the name inspired by a verse in the Bible, stating "The mountains flowed before the Lord" in a song by the prophet Deborah in the Book of Judges. The Deborah number is useful in conceptualizing the time–temperature superposition principle. Time-temperature superposition has to do with altering experimental time scales using reference temperatures to extrapolate temperature-dependent mechanical properties of polymers.

A material at low temperature with a long experimental or relaxation time behaves like the same material at high temperature and short experimental or relaxation time if the Deborah number remains the same. This can be useful when working with materials which relax on a long time scale under a certain temperature; the practical application of this idea arises in the Williams–Landel–Ferry equation. Time-temperature superposition avoids the inefficiency of measuring a polymer's behavior over long periods of time at a specified temperature by utilizing the Deborah number. J. S. Vrentas, C. M. Jarzebski, J. L. Duda "A Deborah number for diffusion in polymer-solvent systems", AIChE Journal 21:894–901, weblink to Wiley Online Library

Nathan Oostendorp

Nathan Oostendorp is an American technologist and entrepreneur. He is from Holland, Michigan and is a co-founder of the popular technology news website and community Slashdot and founder of the online community Everything2. Oostendorp was a contributor and content editor of Slashdot as well as an author of the SlashCode software — Slashdot's licensed technological platform, he was a founder of the firm Blockstackers Intergalactic which developed the website. In addition to his work on Slashdot, Oostendorp's work at BSI included the creation of the early online encyclopedia project Everything2, the Perl programming web community PerlMonks which used the Everything Engine. After the sale of BSI to and subsequently to VA Linux Systems, Oostendorp worked as a developer and manager at the free software and open source hosting platform SourceForge — at one point, as the platform's sole web developer. Oostendorp has a master's degree in Information Economics from the University of Michigan School of Information.

While at Michigan, he published several academic papers based on his experience with online communities. Oostendorp founded the Ann Arbor, Michigan-based Internet of Things startup Sight Machine focused on industrial applications of computer vision techniques, he holds a patent related to computer vision. Oostendorp's personal homepage

Kathleen Sharp

Kathleen Sharp is an American author and award-winning journalist. A frequent contributor to the New York Times, Sharp has written for Vanity Fair, Playboy, Vogue and others, she is from California, much of the subject matter of her work is set in the West. Sharp is the author of several books including Blood Feud: The Man Who Blew the Whistle on One of the Deadliest Prescription Drugs Ever; the book known as Blood Medicine follows two salesmen as they race to blow the whistle on Epoetin alfa, a biotech blood drug sold by Johnson & Johnson and manufactured by Amgen. Oprah selected the book as a Top Ten Pick. New Regency has since purchased the film rights with Adam Cooper and Bill Collage writing the script; the whistle-blowing case remains mired in U. S. District Court in Boston. Sharp wrote Mr. & Mrs. Hollywood: Edie and Lew Wasserman and Their Entertainment Empire; the dual biography became the basis of a film documentary, The Last Mogul, directed by Barry Avrich and released in theatres in 2005.

Sharp worked as a consulting producer on the film, which featured interviews and clips of some of her 400 sources, including Presidents Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan. Sharp was the last person to interview the actress Fay Wray, which she did for a Playboy magazine feature about the Peter Jackson remake of King Kong; that feature became the book Stalking the Beast:. Sharp’s first book, In Good Faith: The Inside Story of Prudential-Bache’s Multibillion-Dollar Scandal was praised by The Wall Street Journal. Sharp has written shorter pieces that have appeared in several anthologies, including Thrillers: 100 Must Reads, a collection of essays written by members of International Thriller Writers. Sharp is on the membership committee and heads the non-fiction branch of IFC. Sharp worked for several years as a special correspondent for The Los Angeles Times, covering Central California, she became the Hollywood correspondent for the Boston Globe. She has won several awards for her investigative reporting and feature writing, including six from the Society of Professional Journalists.

Sharp has appeared in news segments about her work for TV5 World, viewed by more than 65 million Europeans. S. television shows including ABC News. She's been interviewed for numerous film documentaries broadcast by Bravo, A&E and The Biography Channel, she was a consultant for Moguls and Movie Stars: A History of Hollywood, a seven-part series produced by Turner Classic Movies and Bill Haber's Ostar Productions that debuted in 2011. From the American West, Sharp has contributed stories to National Public Radio’s All Things Considered and Morning Edition. She's been a guest on dozens of national and regional radio shows discussing health care reform and America’s medical problems. Blood Feud: The Man Who Blew the Whistle on One of the Deadliest Prescription Drugs Ever ISBN 978-0-525-95240-4Stalking the Beast: How Hollywood Supersized King Kong ISBN 978-1-4116-7385-4Mr. & Mrs. Hollywood: Edie and Lew Wasserman and Their Entertainment Empire In Good Faith: The Inside Story of Prudential-Bache’s Multibillion-Dollar Scandal Thrillers: 100 Must Reads Experiencing Race, Class & Gender Sports in America Sharp website Blood Medicine website Mr and Mrs Hollywood website

First Kiss (Kid Rock album)

First Kiss is the tenth studio album by American singer and songwriter Kid Rock. The album was released on February 24, 2015, through Warner Bros. Records and Top Dog Records, is his first and only with Warner Bros. after leaving sister label Atlantic Records in 2014. First Kiss received mixed reviews from music critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from critics, the album received an average score of 61, which indicates "generally favorable reviews", based on 9 reviews. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic said, "It's a bit bumpy and sometimes sleepy but it finds old Bob Ritchie settling into his comfort zone, knowing that he's in it for the long haul." Anthony DeCurtis of Rolling Stone said, "First Kiss presents few surprises because Kid Rock's journey from abrasive rap metal to unreconstructed heartland rock has landed him in a sweet spot: big guitars, big drums, big choruses and gravelly vocals." Richard Bienstock of Billboard said, "First Kiss is hardly his most adventurous project, but it is his most easygoing, tuneful one.

The production is crisp and clean, the guitars are sparkling, the vibe is rollicking but relaxed. He sounds better here than he has in a long time." The album debuted at number two on the Billboard 200, with sales of 137,000 copies in the United States. As of December 2015, First Kiss has sold more than 354,000 copies in the United States; the album debuted at number two in Canada on the Canadian Albums Chart, with sales of 8,000. All songs were produced by Kid Rock, except "First Kiss" and "Drinking Beer With Dad" were produced by Kid Rock and Dan Huff. Robert James Ritchie Sr. - drum programming, acoustic guitar, electric guitar, percussion, shaker, tambourine, background vocals, wah wah guitar Rayse Biggs - horns Dave McMurray - horns Barabara Payton - background vocals Herschel Boone - background vocals Jessica Wagner-Cowan - background vocals Laura Creamer - background vocals Russell Terrell - background vocals Shannon Curfman - background vocals Shawn Murphy - background vocals Stacy Michelle - background vocals Dorian Crozier Richard Millsap Jimmie Bones - piano, background vocals Rob Mathes - conductor, string arrangements Larry Franklin - fiddle David Huff - drum programming Marlon Young - bass guitar, acoustic guitar, electric guitar Dan Dugmore - steel guitar Dann Huff - acoustic guitar, electric guitar, mandolin Ed Jurdi - electric guitar, slide guitar Gordy Quist - electric guitar Adam Shoenfeld - electric guitar Nathan Young - electric guitar Charlie Judge - accordion, piano Trevor Nealon - organ, electric piano Vivek Kamath - viola Shmuel Katz Remi Pelletier Larry Frautchi - violin Lisa Kim - violin Hyunju Lee - violin Liz Kim - violin Joanna Maurer - violin Annaliesa Place - violin Sharon Yamada - violin Jung Sun Yoo - violin Suzanne Ornstein - violin David Southern - violin Mihai Marica - cello Alan Stepansky - cello Wendy Sutter - cello Jimmie Lee Sloas - bass guitar Darrel "Peanut" Smith - bass guitar

Ashleigh Sykes

Ashleigh Sykes is an Australian retired international football player, who played for Portland Thorns FC in the National Women's Soccer League and Canberra United FC in the W-League. Sykes grew up in New South Wales, she played for Dubbo SASS, was CSSA Athletics champion in 2006. She has a twin, a footballer. Sykes joined Canberra United along with her sister Nicole in the W-League whilst still finishing school for the league's inaugural season in 2008–09, she made her debut in Canberra's first match. On 30 November 2008, Sykes scored her first goal for the club – the equaliser in a two-all draw with Perth Glory. Canberra went on to make the Grand Final only to lose to Brisbane Roar, with Sykes playing the second half. Sykes was presented with the club's Rising Star award after a strong first season. A broken leg suffered in a challenge against Melbourne Victory saw Sykes miss much of the 2010–11 W-League. However, Ashleigh was able to recover in time for the end of the season and finals in January 2011.

Her late winner against Perth Glory saw. Despite this, Canberra were eliminated by Brisbane Roar in the semi-final after a penalty shootout. Sykes was a member of the Canberra side which won the W-League Premiership after going through the entire 2011–12 W-League undefeated. On 28 January 2012, Sykes scored Canberra's second goal and set up another to secure a win in the 2012 W-League Grand Final, winning the club its first W-League Championship. Sykes was once again a key player in the Canberra side which won a second Premiership in the 2013–14 W-League. On 7 December 2014, Sykes scored from a volley into the top corner from outside the area against Perth Glory to ensure Canberra's qualification for the finals of the 2014 W-League; the goal was awarded W-League Goal of the Season. Sykes went on to score twice in the Grand Final against Perth to earn Canberra its second Championship, was given the Player of the Grand Final award. On 10 February 2016, Sykes joined Japanese 2nd division club AS Harima ALBION.

Sykes signed with the Portland Thorns in 2017 and made her first appearance for the team on 17 June 2017. After finishing second during the regular season, the Thorns advanced to the NWSL Championship with 4-1 win over the Orlando Pride. Sykes became an NWSL champion when the Thorns defeated the regular-season winning team North Carolina Courage 1-0 in the 2017 NWSL Championship on 14 October 2017. On 16 February 2018, Sykes retired from football after 10 years at the top level. Ashleigh represented Australia U-20 on numerous occasions, including at the 2009 AFC U-19 Women's Championship. Sykes was first called up to the Australia senior side for the 2008 AFF Women's Championship in Vietnam and made her debut in the opening match against Thailand, setting up a goal after replacing Tameka Butt early in the match, she scored her first international goal in a win over Philippines. Sykes scored again in the next match – a 6–0 win over Singapore. Sykes played a full match in the final. Ashleigh was not called up to the national side again until 2013, when she was selected for two friendlies against China, along with sister Nicole.

Following the appointment of Alen Stajcic, Sykes was more involved with the national side. She was called up for the 2014 AFC Women's Asian Cup, played in the group stage match against Jordan. Australia finished second in the tournament after losing to Japan in the final, she was called up for the 2015 Cyprus Cup, scored in victories over Finland and Czech Republic. In May 2015, Sykes was called up for the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup in Canada, she made her World Cup debut in the first match of the group stage, playing the final seven minutes in a loss to USA. Canberra United W-League Championship: 2011–12, 2014 W-League Premiership: 2011–12, 2013–14Portland Thorns NWSL Championship: 2017 Australia AFF Women's Championship: 2008 AFC Olympic Qualifying Tournament: 2016 Dubbo Sportsperson of the Year: 2010 W-League Player of the Grand Final: 2015 W-League Goal of the Year: 2014 Julie Dolan Medal: 2015–16 Ashleigh Sykes profile Ashleigh Sykes at Soccerway Ashleigh Sykes – FIFA competition record

Atlantis (DC Comics)

The fictional island of Atlantis appears in pop-culture in comic books. The most notable example is related to Namor of Marvel Comics and a particular version of Aquaman in DC Comics. Atlantis is a fictional location appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, it is based on the mythical island of Atlantis first mentioned in Plato's initial dialogue the Timaeus, written c. 360 BC. In the Marvel Universe, Atlantis was a small continent with many human settlements. Over 21,000 years ago, an event called; the inhabitants of ancient Atlantis built an enormous glass-like dome over the capital city known as Atlantis. When barbarians sent by the Deviant Lemuria empire attacked Atlantis, King Kamuu opened the magma-pits which were the city's means of heating; this caused the continent to sink. Kamuu was warned of the Great Cataclysm by Zhered-Na; when she refused to recant, he had her exiled to the mainland, where she was stabbed to death by survivors of the submersion. The priests and intellectuals of the city Netheria foresaw the Lemurian attack and fortified their city, thus it sank intact.

Netheria still exists today, ruled by Queen Kala. Other ancient Atlanteans survived the sinking of the continent by various methods, including Dakimh the Enchanter and Stygyro. About 8,000 years ago, a group of Homo mermanus nomads discovered the ruins of the city of Atlantis, they made the ruins of the human settlements in Atlantis their home and went on to develop a society there using as much of the material as they could salvage from the wreckage. These people are thus referred to as "Atlanteans", as it is in the city of Atlantis that their first complex society emerged. Five hundred years after the settlement of Atlantis, another group of Homo mermanus leave Atlantis to find their own city; these "Lemurians", as they now call themselves, discover the Serpent Crown in the ruins of their city. The Serpent Crown had been crafted by ancient Atlantean alchemists as a vessel empowered by the demonic Elder God Set. Through their leader Naga's exposure and extensive use of the ancient mystical device, they become more serpent-like in appearance than their Atlantean cousins.

Atlanteans have little or no contact with their human cousins for millennia. However, the two races come into sustained contact hostile, beginning in the 20th century. On occasions, Atlanteans invade the surface world; the current Prince, Namor the Sub-Mariner, is hostile to the surface world, but fights in alliance with the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers during World War II. Namor defends Atlantis against villains like Attuma and Warlord Krang, who plot to overthrow him and take over Atlantis; the city of Atlantis is damaged when the super-villain Nitro explodes, taking with him Namor's traitorous son, Kamar. Following Namor's attack on Wakanda during Avengers vs. X-Men, the two nations engage in a violent conflict. After much bloodshed, Namor reaches out to Black Panther and extends a peace offering to Queen Shuri. Despite this, Wakanda launches an all out strike on Atlantis, destroying the city and killing a number of Namor's soldiers in the process. In Tales of Suspense #43, Iron Man meets a separate tribe of Atlanteans whose city sank to the bottom of the sea and has been renamed the Netherworld.

He soon discovers that their Queen, Kala, is planning to invade the surface with advanced technology. Iron Man stops her by bringing her to the surface, where it is revealed that Netherworlders age when above ground. Though she is restored to her desired age when she returns to the Netherworld, Kala’s hopes of ruling the surface world are diminished, though she attempts to do so several more times, all without success. In a “Tuk the Caveboy” story sequence from Captain America #2 & 3, Tuk and Tanir meet Eve, princess of the not-yet lost kingdom of Atlantis, whom they aid in reclaiming the throne from her wicked uncle; the Exiles visited other realities. On Earth-1016, the Exiles came across a reality where the forces of Atlantis were exterminating mankind, they teamed up with that reality's Doctor Doom to fend off the Atlanteans. Counter-Earth has its version of Atlantis. Proteus trapped the Atleanteans inside as a way to suffocate them. In the Marvel Noir reality, Atlantis matched the descriptions of Plato with it being near the Pillars of Heracles, being highly-advanced, powered by the Orichalcum.

As the Orichalcum proved to be too powerful to be the Atlantean's superconductor, it created a vortex that sunk Atlantis beneath the ocean. The ruins of the Ultimate Marvel version of Atlantis are discovered by the Fantastic Four during an expedition. Unlike its Earth-616 counterpart, this version of Atlantis is shown to have been devoid of any life for thousands of years. Upon being found by the Four, Namor suggests that the continent had been destroyed by Lemuria at some point during his time in stasis. During the Ultimatum storyline, it is revealed that the ruins of Atlantis do contain a small pocket of survivors led by Namora. One of the earliest mentions of Atlantis occurs in Action Comics #17, in a "Zatara the Magician" story; the city was visually depicted in the following month's "Zatara" story in Action Comics #18. The city appeared in several DC comics of the 1940s and 1950s: In Batman #19, Atlantis is shown to be inhabited by an advanced people ruled by an Emperor; the Nazis are using it as a Naval Base.

Batman and Robin discover the base and are able to reveal the deception of t