In ancient Greece, the symposium was a part of a banquet that took place after the meal, when drinking for pleasure was accompanied by music, recitals, or conversation. Literary works that describe or take place at a symposium include two Socratic dialogues, Plato's Symposium and Xenophon's Symposium, as well as a number of Greek poems such as the elegies of Theognis of Megara. Symposia are depicted in Etruscan art that shows similar scenes. In modern usage, it has come to mean an academic conference or meeting such as a scientific conference; the equivalent of a Greek symposium in Roman society is the Latin convivium. The Greek symposium was a key Hellenic social institution, it was a forum for men of respected families to debate, boast, or to revel with others. They were held to celebrate the introduction of young men into aristocratic society. Symposia were held by aristocrats to celebrate other special occasions, such as victories in athletic and poetic contests, they were a source of pride for them.
Symposia were held in the andrōn, the men's quarters of the household. The participants, or "symposiasts", would recline on pillowed couches arrayed against the three walls of the room away from the door. Due to space limitations, the couches would number between seven and nine, limiting the total number of participants to somewhere between fourteen and twenty seven. If any young men took part, they sat up. However, in Macedonian symposia, the focus was not only on drinking but hunting, young men were allowed to recline only after they had killed their first wild boar. Food and wine were served. Entertainment was provided, depending on the occasion could include games, flute-girls or boys, slaves performing various acts, hired entertainment. Symposia were held for specific occasions; the most famous symposium of all, described in Plato's dialogue of that name was hosted by the poet Agathon on the occasion of his first victory at the theater contest of the 416 BC Dionysia. According to Plato's account, the celebration was upstaged by the unexpected entrance of the toast of the town, the young Alcibiades, dropping in drunken and nearly naked, having just left another symposium.
The men at the symposium would discuss a multitude of topics—often philosophical, such as love and the differences between genders. A symposium would be overseen by a "symposiarch" who would decide how strong the wine for the evening would be, depending on whether serious discussions or sensual indulgence were in the offing; the Greeks and Romans customarily served their wine mixed with water, as the drinking of pure wine was considered a habit of uncivilized peoples. However, there were major differences between the Greek symposia. A Roman symposium served wine before and after food, women were allowed to join. In a Greek symposium, wine was only drunk after dinner, women were not allowed to attend; the wine was drawn from a krater, a large jar designed to be carried by two men, served from pitchers. Determined by the Master of Ceremonies, the wine was diluted to a specific strength and was mixed. Slave boys would manage the krater, transfer the wine into pitchers, they attended to each man in the symposium with the pitchers and filled their cups with wine.
Certain formalities were observed, most important among which were libations, the pouring of a small amount of wine in honour of various deities or the mourned dead. In a fragment from his c. 375 BC play Semele or Dionysus, Eubulus has the god of wine Dionysos describe proper and improper drinking: For sensible men I prepare only three kraters: one for health, the second for love and pleasure, the third for sleep. After the third one is drained, wise men go home; the fourth krater is not mine any more – it belongs to bad behaviour. In keeping with the Greek virtue of moderation, the symposiarch should have prevented festivities from getting out of hand, but Greek literature and art indicate that the third-krater limit was not observed. Symposiums are featured on Attic pottery and Richard Neer has argued that the chief function of Attic pottery was for use in the symposium. An amphora was used as a jug to hold the wine and one single cup was passed amongst the men. Cups used at symposiums were not as nearly intricate as amphoras.
Pottery used at symposiums featured painted scenes of the god Dionysus and other mythical scenes related to drinking and celebration. Poetry and music were central to the pleasures of the symposium. Although free women of status did not attend symposia, high-class female prostitutes and entertainers were hired to perform and converse with the guests. Among the instruments, women might play was the aulos, a Greek woodwind instrument sometimes compared to an oboe; when string instruments were played, the barbiton was the traditional instrument. Slaves and boys provided service and entertainment; the guests participated in competitive entertainments. A game sometimes played at symposia was kottabos, in which players swirled the dregs of their wine in a kylix, a platter-like stemmed drinking vessel, flung them at a target. Another feature of the symposia were skolia, drinking song
Cross dressing ball
Gay balls, cross dressing balls or drag balls, depending on the place and type, were public or private balls, celebrated in the first third of the twentieth century, where cross dressing and ballroom dancing with same sex partners was allowed. By the 1900s, the balls had become important cultural events for gays and lesbians attracting tourists, their golden age was during the Interwar period in Berlin and Paris though they could be found in many big cities in Europe and the Americas. By the end of the 17th century, a gay subculture is documented in Europe, with their cruising areas, their bars, their parties and balls, their cross-dressers, their own slang. Scholars like Randolph Trumbach consider. On the contrary, historian Rictor Norton considers unlikely that such a subculture would appear formed, thinks that it was the increase in surveillance and police procedures that brought to the surface an underground culture that had not been visible up to that moment; the archives of the Portuguese Inquisition in Lisbon preserve information of the so-called "danças dos fanchonos" from the beginning of the 17 century.
About 1620, the "fachonos", the baroque equivalent of modern drag queens, organized big parties in the Gaia Lisboa, the gay Lisbon. These itinerant celebrations, called "escarramão", or "esparramão", used to include pantomimes with racy scenes, where some of the participants were dressed as women, other as men, his Majesty's High Court in Mexico City discovered in 1656 a similar case, when Juan Correa, an old man, over 70 years old, confessed that he had been committing the unspeakable vice since his childhood. Correa's house, in the outskirts of the city, had been used as a meeting point to celebrate balls, where many men dressed as women. Several studies have not found similar phenomena in the judicial cases in Aragon, the Basque Country or Valencia though in the Valencian case there are evidences of a subculture and a possible gay ghetto. In Spain, cross-dressing was only allowed for carnival, when those closest to the king could dress as women. On the other hand, in France, during Louis XIV's reign, no ball was complete without cross-dressers.
By the end of the 17th century, there was a developed gay subculture in London, with the molly houses used as clubs, where gays met to drink and have fun. These taverns are well known thanks to the Mother Clap's molly house scandal from 1726, when a police raid discovered that her molly house was a gay brothel. Berlin's clandestine gay underground can be followed up to the 18th century, in spite of the persecution gays were suffering. In Prussia, Paragraph 143 of the penal code, the introduction of Paragraph 175 in the German penal code, with other laws for public scandal, child protection, made the life of gays difficult. Not the activities of Magnus Hirschfeld or the first homosexual movement could avoid the regular police raids and closing of premises in the 1900s, and not just the premises were being watched by the police, in 1883, the moral police had 4799 "transvestite" and transgender woman under vigilance though "permits" could be handed out to cross-dressers in cases considered "medical".
It is thus surprising that, beginning mid 19th century, the Urningsball or Tuntenball came to be, balls of uranians, or queens, but watched by the police. By the 1900s, these balls had achieved such a fame in Germany, that people from all around the country, foreign tourists, would travel to Berlin to participate; these balls were celebrated in large ballrooms, as the Deutscher Kaiser, in the Lothringer Straße, or the Filarmonía, in the Bernburgstraße, the Dresdner Kasino, in the Dresdner Straße, or the Orpheum, in the Alter Jakobstraße 32. For example, the Berliner Morgenpost described extensively on October 17, 1899, a gay ball that had taken place in the hotel König von Portugal, where balls were still being celebrated in 1918; the ball season used to begin in October and go until Easter, with a frequency of several baa week, sometimes two the same day. Hirschfeld, in his book Berlins drittes Geschlecht, described the balls in following fashion: The innkeepers of uranian taverns, but not just them, organize large urning balls in the course of the winter, that, in their size and type, are a specialty of Berlin.
Outstanding strangers foreigners, who want to see something special in the youngest European world-cities, are shown by higher officials as one of the most interesting sights. During the high season from October to Easter, these balls are held several times a week even several a night. Though the entrance fee is less than 1.50 marks, these events are well visited. Always, several secret policemen are present that make sure that nothing disgraceful happens; the organizers have the right to admit, if possible, only people who are known to them as homosexual. Some of the balls were well known those shortly after New Year, on which the new self-made dresses are presented; when I visited this ball last year with some medical colleagues, there were about 800 people participating. Around 10 o'clock in the evening, the large halls are still deserted; the rooms begin to fill only after eleven o'clock. Many visitors dress in formal or street suit; some appear densely masked in impenetrable dominoes, they come and go without anyone knowing who they are.
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
International Debutante Ball
The International Debutante Ball is an invitation-only, formal debutante ball, to present well-connected young ladies of distinction from upper-class families to high society. Founded in 1954, it occurs every two years at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City. Young women from all over the United States and from around the globe are brought together at the ball and the surrounding parties, including daughters of Presidents of the United States, billionaire businessmen, nobility and governors. Over the years the ball has benefited numerous charities from the International Debutante Ball Foundation including the Soldiers', Sailors', Marines', Coast Guard and Airmen's Club of New York, a social club for members of the United States Armed Services; the International Debutante Ball is considered the most prestigious debutante ball in the world. The International Debutante Ball is held biennially in the Grand Ballroom of the exclusive and historical Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City; each ball is preceded by a number of events and parties for the debutantes, including the Bachelor's Brunch, in private Manhattan members-only clubs such as the Colony Club, 21 Club or the University Club of New York.
At the ball, each debutante is escorted by two men: one United States Military Academy cadet and one American civilian. According to New York magazine, the current organizer of the International Debutante Ball stated that "Every young lady should have two men." Civilian escorts of the debutantes are young men of distinction, who are scions of distinguished families, e.g. the Rockefeller family. Each debutante represents her state or country at the International Debutante Ball and a song, e.g. a national anthem or a song associated with the country where the debutante is from, is played by the renowned Lester Lanin Orchestra for the debutante when she is presented on stage. The military escort of the debutante carries the flag of the country or US state where the debutante comes from; each debutante must greet one thousand or more guests, from a close-knit social world, individually in the receiving line. Due to the fact that there are debutantes representing their own US state or country, the International Debutante Ball has been dubbed by publications as'The United Nations of Debutante Balls and the private world of polite society'.
Gold and pink are the main traditional colors of the ball. The Grand Ballroom is thus decorated with gold and pink decorations, which Countess Bobrinskoy oversees at each ball biennially, guests dine on edible gold leaves; the debutantes receive flower bouquets containing pink roses and golden leaves. The ball is considered the "ultimate networking event" where members of the world's elite and powerful meet up and mingle and where their daughters are prepared to enter the world of high society and foster lifelong international friendship with each other; the pink invitation that the chosen debutantes receive is written with gold ink and is therefore sometimes jokingly called the "Golden Ticket". The International Debutante Ball has been described as a ball which "most young women nowadays will never attend" and which has become a "who’s who of the upper class", with daughters of US Presidents, billionaire businessmen, European royalty, US governors, diplomats receiving invitations; the scene at the International Debutante Ball has been described as a "Gatsby-style splendour in Manhattan's Waldorf-Astoria".
In order to be presented as a debutante at the International Debutante Ball, debutantes must be recommended by a previous debutante of the International Debutante Ball. Debutantes must be accepted by the Chairmen of the Debutante Committee of the International Debutante Ball and be able to afford the debutante presentation fee. Once chosen, each debutante is required to pay at least $22,000. Additionally, many debutantes spend thousands more for their required white haute couture gowns, celebrity hairdressers and other related expenses. Debutantes who are accepted are "women of distinction" who are accomplished young ladies in athletics, community service, academics and charity and are from well-connected families; the debutantes are young women who maintain the standards of civility, manners and gentility. Chosen debutantes are between the ages of 17 and 21 years old. According to the current organizer of the ball, the debutantes must be well-known with connections in the New York debutante and high society and as long as'the debutante has the right connections, she has a chance of being invited'.
According to the New York Times, the organiser of the ball stated that the ball does not want any "Tootsie" to participate or join "the club". Debutantes of the International Debutante Ball have been referred to as "members of a special and select, social group and of a guarded social circle" and they have been dubbed as "high profile" and "preppy", it has been reported. The debutantes include royalty, members of imperial families, heiresses and daughters of many political figures including Presidents of the United States, such as the daughters and granddaughters of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, President Richard Nixon, President Lyndon B. Johnson, President George H. W. Bush and President George W. Bush. Ivanka Trump and Sasha and Malia Obama have also
The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance in triple time, performed in closed position. There are many references to a sliding or gliding dance that would evolve into the waltz that date from 16th century Europe, including the representations of the printmaker Hans Sebald Beham; the French philosopher Michel de Montaigne wrote of a dance he saw in 1580 in Augsburg, where the dancers held each other so that their faces touched. Kunz Haas wrote, "Now they are dancing the godless Weller or Spinner." "The vigorous peasant dancer, following an instinctive knowledge of the weight of fall, uses his surplus energy to press all his strength into the proper beat of the bar, thus intensifying his personal enjoyment in dancing." The peasants of Bavaria and Styria began dancing a dance called Walzer, a dance for couples, around 1750. The Ländler known as the Schleifer, a country dance in 34 time, was popular in Bohemia and Bavaria, spread from the countryside to the suburbs of the city. While the eighteenth century upper classes continued to dance the minuet, bored noblemen slipped away to the balls of their servants.
In the 1771 German novel Geschichte des Fräuleins von Sternheim by Sophie von La Roche, a high-minded character complains about the newly introduced waltz among aristocrats thus: "But when he put his arm around her, pressed her to his breast, cavorted with her in the shameless, indecent whirling-dance of the Germans and engaged in a familiarity that broke all the bounds of good breeding—then my silent misery turned into burning rage."Describing life in Vienna, Don Curzio wrote, "The people were dancing mad... The ladies of Vienna are celebrated for their grace and movements of waltzing of which they never tire." There is a waltz in the second act finale of the 1786 opera Una Cosa Rara by Martin y Soler. Soler's waltz was marked andante con moto, or "at a walking pace with motion", but the flow of the dance was sped-up in Vienna leading to the Geschwindwalzer, the Galloppwalzer. In the transition from country to town, the hopping of the Ländler, a dance known as Langaus, became a sliding step, gliding rotation replaced stamping rotation.
In the 19th century, the word indicated that the dance was a turning one. The Viennese custom is to anticipate the second beat of each bar, making it sound as if the third is late and creating a certain buoyancy; the younger Strauss would sometimes break up the one-two-three of the melody with a one-two pattern in the accompaniment along with other rhythms, maintaining the 34 time while causing the dancers to dance a two-step waltz. The metronome speed for a full bar varies between 60 and 70, with the waltzes of the first Strauss played faster than those of his sons. Shocking many when it was first introduced, the waltz became fashionable in Vienna around the 1780s, spreading to many other countries in the years to follow. According to contemporary singer Michael Kelly, it reached England in 1791. During the Napoleonic Wars, infantry soldiers of the King's German Legion introduced the dance to the people of Bexhill, Sussex from 1804, it became fashionable in Britain during the Regency period, having been made respectable by the endorsement of Dorothea Lieven, wife of the Russian ambassador.
Diarist Thomas Raikes recounted that "No event produced so great a sensation in English society as the introduction of the waltz in 1813." In the same year, a sardonic tribute to the dance by Lord Byron was anonymously published. Influential dance master and author of instruction manuals, Thomas Wilson published A Description of the Correct Method of Waltzing in 1816. Almack's, the most exclusive club in London, permitted the waltz, though the entry in the Oxford English Dictionary shows that it was considered "riotous and indecent" as late as 1825. In The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, by Anne Brontë, in a scene set in 1827, the local vicar Reverend Milward tolerates quadrilles and country dances but intervenes decisively when a waltz is called for, declaring "No, no, I don't allow that! Come, it's time to be going home."The waltz its closed position, became the example for the creation of many other ballroom dances. Subsequently, new types of waltz have developed, including several ballroom dances.
In the 19th and early 20th century, numerous different waltz forms existed, including versions performed in 34, 38 or 68, 54 time. In the 1910s, a form called the "Hesitation Waltz" was introduced by Irene Castle, it was danced to fast music. A hesitation is a halt on the standing foot during the full waltz bar, with the moving foot suspended in the air or dragged. Similar figures are incorporated in the International Standard Waltz Syllabus; the Country Western Waltz is progressive, moving counter clock wise around the dance floor. Both the posture and frame are relaxed, with posture bordering on a slouch; the exaggerated hand and arm gestures of some ballroom styles are not part of this style. Couples may dance in the promenade position, depending on local preferences. Within Country Western waltz, there is the more modern Pursuit Waltz. At one time it was considered ill treatment for a man to make the woman walk backwards in some locations. In California the waltz was banned by Mission priests until after 1834 because of the "closed" dance position
A tailgate party is a social event held on and around the open tailgate of a vehicle. Tailgating, which originated in the United States involves consuming alcoholic beverages and grilling food. Tailgate parties occur in the parking lots at stadiums and arenas and after games and concerts. People attending such a party are said to be'tailgating'. Many people participate if their vehicles do not have tailgates. Tailgate parties involve people bringing their own alcoholic beverages, food etc., sampled and shared among fans attending the tailgate. Tailgates are intended to be non-commercial events, so selling items to the fans is frowned upon. Tailgate parties have spread to the pre-game festivities at sporting events besides football, such as basketball, hockey and baseball, occur at non-sporting events such as weddings and concerts. Tailgating involves the consumption of alcoholic beverages or soft drinks and the grilling of various meat products. Popular tailgate party foods include picnic staples such as hamburgers, hot dogs, baked beans, cold salads like coleslaw or potato salad.
Some food products were created because of tailgate parties. A brand of pimento cheese, called Palmetto Cheese, got its start at Atlanta Braves tailgate parties. Lawn games such as KanJam, ladder golf, Polish horseshoes, Louisville Chugger and Sholf are popular during tailgates and tailgate parties. Lawn games are associated with tailgating because of the simplicity in the game materials. Lawn games carry the connotation of drinking games because of their presence during tailgates. Other games include ladder toss, washer pitching and flipcup, it is common for fans to bring sports balls such as footballs, soccer balls, the like to casually play with. Many tailgaters have external stereos or use their car's sound system to play music, it is not unusual to see some tailgate parties hook up a television set and antenna/satellite to an electric generator so partygoers can watch other sporting events. In schools and communities throughout the United States, there are athletic departments and parents of student athletes who rely on post-game tailgating parties to build community and support for their program and team.
Smaller, underfunded programs are assisted by the voluntary participation of parents and friends to feed the team and coaching staff post-competition, which establishes a strong core of support year after year. In 2007, the NFL angered many football fans by banning tailgating before the Super Bowl; the NFL cited security risks, though many suspected it had more to do with corporate sponsored events than any real threat. In 2008, an online petition began circulating to encourage the NFL to lift the no tailgating at the Super Bowl policy. Members of the sports media questioned the validity of NFL's claim that security concerns was the real reason for the ban. In April 2019, Ontario Premier Doug Ford's staff announced the legalization of tailgating at sporting events across the province. In the Simpsons episode "Any Given Sundance", Homer takes his family to a tailgate party, he makes them get up early in order to be at the stadium hours before the football game, states that "the game is nothing", the tailgate party being the only reason for their being there.
Season 3 of the Travel Channel original series Man v. Food had a tailgating special consisting of various segments from previous episodes that featured food that would make an ultimate tailgate party. A number of television commercials those aired during football games, feature tailgating culture, including those for Bud Light beer and cellphones. Drinking in public Lawn game Reining In Tailgate Parties A Challenge For Colleges - report by NPR
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit