Pedro I of Brazil
Dom Pedro I, nicknamed the Liberator, was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil. As King Dom Pedro IV, he reigned briefly over Portugal, born in Lisbon, Pedro I was the fourth child of King Dom João VI of Portugal and Queen Carlota Joaquina, and thus a member of the House of Braganza. When their country was invaded by French troops in 1807, he and his family fled to Portugals largest and wealthiest colony, Brazil. The outbreak of the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Lisbon compelled Pedro Is father to return to Portugal in April 1821 and he had to deal with threats from revolutionaries and insubordination by Portuguese troops, all of which he subdued. The Portuguese governments threat to revoke the autonomy that Brazil had enjoyed since 1808 was met with widespread discontent in Brazil. Pedro I chose the Brazilian side and declared Brazils independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822, on 12 October, he was acclaimed Brazilian emperor and by March 1824 had defeated all armies loyal to Portugal.
A few months later, Pedro I crushed the short-lived Confederation of the Equator, in March 1826, Pedro I briefly became king of Portugal before abdicating in favor of his eldest daughter, Dona Maria II. The situation worsened in 1828 when the war in the south resulted in Brazils loss of Cisplatina, during the same year in Lisbon, Maria IIs throne was usurped by Prince Dom Miguel, Pedro Is younger brother. The Emperors concurrent and scandalous affair with a female courtier tarnished his reputation. Other difficulties arose in the Brazilian parliament, where a struggle over whether the government would be chosen by the monarch or by the legislature dominated political debates from 1826 to 1831. Unable to deal with problems in both Brazil and Portugal simultaneously, on 7 April 1831 Pedro I abdicated in favor of his son Dom Pedro II, Pedro I invaded Portugal at the head of an army in July 1832. Pedro I died of tuberculosis on 24 September 1834, just a few months after he, Pedro was born at 08,00 on 12 October 1798 in the Queluz Royal Palace near Lisbon, Portugal.
He was named after St. Peter of Alcantara, and his name was Pedro de Alcântara Francisco António João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim. He was referred to using the honorific Dom from birth and his mother, Doña Carlota Joaquina, was the daughter of King Don Carlos IV of Spain. Pedros parents had an unhappy marriage, Carlota Joaquina was an ambitious woman, who always sought to advance Spains interests, even to the detriment of Portugals. Reputedly unfaithful to her husband, she went as far as to plot his overthrow in league with dissatisfied Portuguese nobles, as the second eldest son, Pedro became his fathers heir apparent and Prince of Beira upon the death of his elder brother Francisco António in 1801. Prince Dom João had been acting as regent on behalf of his mother, Queen Maria I, by 1802, Pedros parents were estranged, João lived in the Mafra National Palace and Carlota Joaquina in Ramalhão Palace. Pedro and his siblings resided in the Queluz Palace with their grandmother Maria I, far from their parents, in late November 1807, when Pedro was nine, the royal family escaped from Portugal as an invading French army sent by Napoleon approached Lisbon
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
The Apostolic Palace is the official residence of the Pope, which is located in Vatican City. It is known as the Papal Palace, Palace of the Vatican and Vatican Palace, the Vatican itself refers to the building as the Palace of Sixtus V in honor of Pope Sixtus V. The modern tourist can see these last and other parts of the palace, the Scala Regia can be seen into from one end but not entered. In the fifth century, Pope Symmachus built a palace close to the Old St. Peters Basilica which served an alternative residence to the Lateran Palace. The construction of a fortified palace was sponsored by Pope Eugene III. The Vatican Palace had fallen into disrepair from lack of upkeep, in 1447, Pope Nicholas V razed the ancient fortified palace of Eugene III to erect a new building, the current Apostolic Palace. In the 15th century, the Palace was placed under the authority of a prefect and this position of Apostolic Prefect lasted from the 15th century till the 1800s, when the Papal States fell into economic difficulties.
In 1884, when this post was reviewed in light of saving money, the major additions and decorations of the palace are the work of the following popes for 150 years. In the 20th century, Pope Pius XI built an art gallery. Construction of the Papal Palace at the Vatican in Vatican City, covering 162, 000m squared, it contains the Papal Apartments, offices of the Roman Catholic Church and Holy See, Vatican Library and art galleries. The Apostolic Palace is run by the Prefecture of the Pontifical Household, the palace is more accurately a series of self-contained buildings within the well-recognized outer structure which is arranged around the Courtyard of Sixtus V. It is located northeast of St Peters Basilica and adjacent to the Bastion of Nicholas V, the Apostolic Palace houses both residential and support offices of various functions as well as administrative offices not focused on the life and functions of the Pope himself. Perhaps the best known of the Palace chapels is the Sistine Chapel named in honor of Sixtus IV and it is famous for its decoration that was frescoed throughout by Renaissance artists including Michelangelo, Sandro Botticelli, Pietro Perugino, Domenico Ghirlandaio, and others.
One of the functions of the chapel is as a venue for the election of each successive Pope in a conclave of the College of Cardinals. In this closed-door election, the cardinals choose a successor to the first pope, St. Peter and this suite of rooms is famous for its frescos by a large team of artists working under Raphael. They were originally intended as a suite of apartments for Pope Julius II and he commissioned Raphael, a relatively young artist from Urbino, and his studio in 1508 or 1509 to redecorate the existing interiors of the rooms entirely. It was possibly Julius intent to outshine the apartments of his predecessor Pope Alexander VI and they are on the third floor, overlooking the south side of the Belvedere Courtyard. After the death of Julius in 1513, with two rooms frescoed, Pope Leo X continued the program, following Raphaels death in 1520, his assistants Gianfrancesco Penni, Giulio Romano and Raffaellino del Colle finished the project with the frescoes in the Sala di Costantino
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors, during the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings. The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback, since the early modern period, the title of knight is purely honorific, usually bestowed by a monarch, as in the British honours system, often for non-military service to the country. The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame, Geoffroi de Charnys Book of Chivalry expounded upon the importance of Christian faith in every area of a knights life. This novel explored the ideals of knighthood and their incongruity with the reality of Cervantes world, in the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations.
Some orders of knighthood, such as the Knights Templar, have become the subject of legend, each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is generally granted by a head of state or monarch to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement. This linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry, the special prestige accorded to mounted warriors finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, and the Greek hippeus and Roman eques of classical antiquity. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht and this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight, the Anglo-Saxon cniht had no connection to horsemanship, the word referred to any servant. A rādcniht, riding-servant, was a servant delivering messages or patrolling coastlines on horseback, a narrowing of the generic meaning servant to military follower of a king or other superior is visible by 1100.
The specific military sense of a knight as a warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years War. The verb to knight appears around 1300, from the same time, an Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. This class is often translated as knight, the medieval knight, both Greek ἳππος and Latin equus are derived from the Proto-Indo-European word root ekwo-, horse. In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier, Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider, German Ritter, and Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, to ride, in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-, in ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris from which European knighthood may have been derived.
Some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, in the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin
The governments and legal traditions of each kingdom remained independent of each other. Alien laws determined that the national of one kingdom was a foreigner in all the other Iberian kingdoms, the unification of the peninsula had long been a goal of the regions monarchs with the intent of restoring the Visigothic monarchy. Sebastians successor, the Cardinal Henry of Portugal, was 70 years old at the time. Henrys death was followed by a crisis, with three grandchildren of Manuel I claiming the throne, Infanta Catarina, Duchess of Braganza, António, Prior of Crato. António had been acclaimed King of Portugal by the people of Santarém on July 24,1580, some members of the Council of Governors of Portugal who had supported Philip escaped to Spain and declared him to be the legal successor of Henry. Philip II of Spain marched into Portugal and defeated the troops loyal to the Prior of Crato in the Battle of Alcântara, the troops occupying the countryside commanded by the 3rd Duke of Alba arrived in Lisbon.
Philip II of Spain was crowned Philip I of Portugal in 1581, when Philip left in 1583 to Madrid, he made his nephew Albert of Austria his viceroy in Lisbon. In Madrid he established a Council of Portugal to advise him on Portuguese affairs, both monarchs gave excellent positions to Portuguese nobles in the Spanish courts, and Portugal maintained an independent law and government. It was even proposed to move the Royal capital to Lisbon, the history of Portugal from the dynastic crisis in 1578 to the first Braganza Dynasty monarchs was a period of transition. The Portuguese Empires spice trade was peaking at the start of this period and it continued to enjoy widespread influence after Vasco da Gama had finally reached the East by sailing around Africa in 1497–98. Vasco da Gamas achievement completed the exploratory efforts inaugurated by Henry the Navigator, after that, the Council answered afterwards a session to treat the issue and to raise the formal consultation to the monarch. The secretary raise the consultation to the king, and was returned to the Council with his response to be executed, the meetings of the Councils took place in the royal palace, and they did not count on the presence of the king habitually.
In this polisynodial system, Consejo de Estado stood out for its importance, the Council of War exercised its jurisdiction on the troops placed in the Castilian strongholds established on the Portuguese littoral. Any decision of the king who concerning his Kingdom must do the object of a consultation to the Council before being transmitted to the chancellery of Lisbon and to the concerned courts. The Council of Portugal knows two eclipses, in 1619, for the presence of the King in Lisbon, and between 1639–1658, replaced with the Junta of Portugal, relating to the particular government of the kingdom of Portugal itself. Public offices were reserved for Portuguese subjects at home and overseas, the king was represented at Lisbon sometimes by a governor and sometimes by a viceroy. So, Spain left the administration of Portugal and its empire largely to the Portuguese themselves, important matters, were referred to Madrid, where they came before the Council of Portugal. In the kingdom of Portugal, the system is reinforced
Pope Leo III
Pope Saint Leo III was Pope from December 26,795 to his death in 816. Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome, he subsequently strengthened Charlemagnes position by crowning him Holy Roman Emperor, Leo was a Roman, the son of Atyuppius and Elizabeth. At the time of his election he was Cardinal-Priest of Santa Susanna and he was elected on the very day his predecessor, Adrian I, was buried, and consecrated on the following day. It is quite possible that this haste may have due to a desire on the part of the Romans to anticipate any interference of the Franks with their freedom of election. With the letter informing Charlemagne that he had been elected pope, Leo sent him the keys of the confession of St. Peter, and the standard of the city. This he did to show that he regarded the Frankish king as the protector of the Holy See, in return he received from Charlemagne letters of congratulation and a great part of the treasure which the king had captured from the Avars. The acquisition of this wealth enabled Leo to be a benefactor to the churches.
Charlemagnes reply stated that it was his function to defend the Church, prompted by jealousy or ambition, or by feelings of hatred and revenge, a number of the relatives of Pope Adrian I formed a plot to render Leo unfit to hold his sacred office. On the occasion of the procession of the Greater Litanies, when the pope was making his way towards the Flaminian Gate and he was dashed to the ground, and an effort was made to root out his tongue and tear out his eyes which left him injured and unconscious. He was rescued by two of the kings missus dominicus, who came with a considerable force, the Duke of Spoleto sheltered the fugitive pope, who went to Paderborn, where the kings camp was. He was received by the Frankish king with the greatest honour at Paderborn and this meeting forms the basis of the epic poem Karolus Magnus et Leo Papa. His enemies had accused Leo of adultery and perjury, Charlemagne ordered them to Paderborn, but no decision could be made. He had Leo escorted back to Rome, in November 800, Charlemagne himself went to Rome, and on 1 December held a council there with representatives of both sides.
Leo, on 23 December, took an oath of purgation concerning the charges brought against him, Charlemagnes father, Pepin the Short, defended the papacy against the Lombards and issued the Donation of Pepin, which granted the land around Rome to the pope as a fief. Two days after Leos oath, on Christmas Day 800, he crowned Charlemagne as Roman emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, according to Charlemagnes biographer, Charles had no suspicion of what was about to happen, and if informed would not have accepted the imperial crown. In 808, Leo committed Corsica to Charlemagne for safe-keeping because of Muslim raids, originating from Al-Andalus, Corsica, along with Sardinia, would still go on to be occupied by Muslim forces in 809 and 810. On Christmas Day in 800, Leo crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor at St Peters Basilica in Rome, Charlemagne gathered to his court the cream of available intellect, centered on the scholar Alcuin, whom he brought from York in England. Monks and other copyists were set to transcribing ancient manuscripts, both classical and Christian, for the preservation and extension of learning, schools were established at monasteries and cathedrals, the forerunners of the great universities
Sir Francis Walsingham was principal secretary to Queen Elizabeth I of England from 20 December 1573 until his death and is popularly remembered as her spymaster. Born to a family of gentry, Walsingham attended Cambridge University. Walsingham rose from obscurity to become one of the small coterie who directed the Elizabethan state, overseeing foreign, domestic. He served as English ambassador to France in the early 1570s, as principal secretary, he supported exploration, the use of Englands maritime strength and the plantation of Ireland. He worked to bring Scotland and England together, his foreign policy demonstrated a new understanding of the role of England as a maritime, Protestant power in an increasingly global economy. Francis Walsingham was born in or about 1532, probably at Foots Cray, near Chislehurst and his parents were William and Joyce Walsingham. After Williams death, Joyce married the courtier Sir John Carey in 1538, careys brother William was the husband of Mary Boleyn, Anne Boleyns elder sister.
Of Francis Walsinghams five sisters, Mary married Sir Walter Mildmay, who was Chancellor of the Exchequer for over 20 years, and Elizabeth married the parliamentarian Peter Wentworth. Francis Walsingham matriculated at Kings College, Cambridge, in 1548 with many other Protestants, from 1550 or 1551, he travelled in continental Europe, returning to England by 1552 to enrol at Grays Inn, one of the qualifying bodies for English lawyers. Upon the death in 1553 of Henry VIIIs successor, Edward VI, many wealthy Protestants, such as John Foxe and John Cheke, fled England, and Walsingham was among them. He continued his studies in law at the universities of Basel and Padua, Mary I died in 1558 and was succeeded by her Protestant half-sister Elizabeth I. At the subsequent election in 1563, he was returned for both Lyme Regis, another constituency under Bedfords influence, and Banbury, Oxfordshire and he chose to sit for Lyme Regis. In January 1562 he married Anne, daughter of Sir George Barne, Lord Mayor of London in 1552–3, Anne died two years leaving her son Christopher Carleill in Walsinghams care.
In 1566, Walsingham married Ursula St. Barbe, widow of Sir Richard Worsley, the following year, she bore him a daughter, Frances. Walsinghams other two stepsons, Ursulas sons John and George, were killed in an accident at Appuldurcombe in 1567. By 1569, Walsingham was working with William Cecil to counteract plots against Elizabeth and he was instrumental in the collapse of the Ridolfi plot, which hoped to replace Elizabeth with the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots. In 1570, the Queen chose Walsingham to support the Huguenots in their negotiations with Charles IX of France, that year, he succeeded Sir Henry Norris as English ambassador in Paris. One of his duties was to continue negotiations for a marriage between Elizabeth and Charles IXs younger brother Henry, Duke of Anjou, the marriage plan was eventually dropped on the grounds of Henrys Catholicism
The Philippine Dynasty, known as the House of Habsburg in Portugal, was the third royal house of Portugal. It was named after the three Spanish kings who ruled Portugal between 1581 and 1640 in a union of the two crowns. The three kings, all named Philip, were from the House of Habsburg, the history of Portugal from the dynastic crisis in 1580 to the House of Braganza monarchs is a period of transition. The Portuguese Empire spice trade was near its height at the start of this period and it continued to enjoy widespread influence after Vasco da Gama had finally reached the East by sailing around Africa in 1497–1498. Vasco da Gamas achievement completed the exploratory efforts inaugurated by Henry the Navigator and this sent the Portuguese spice trade into a long decline. These events, and those that occurred at the end of the House of Aviz and this complexity needed a permanent seat, and the king Philip II of Spain established in 1562 the permanent capital in Madrid, seat of the Royal Court and of the administrative staff.
Although transferred-in Valladolid, with the administrative staff, during a brief period. After that, the Council answered afterwards a session to treat the issue, the secretary raise the consultation to the king, and was returned to the Council with his response to be executed. The meetings of the Councils took place in the royal palace, in this polisynodial system stood out for its importance, the Consejo de Estado. Even, the Council of War exercised its jurisdiction on the placed in the Castilian strongholds established on the Portuguese littoral. The Council of Portugal, established in 1582, was integrated with a president and six counselors, any decision of the king who concerning his Kingdom must do the object of a consultation to the Council before being transmitted to the chancellery of Lisbon and to the concerned courts. The Council of Portugal knows two eclipses, in 1619, for the presence of the King in Lisbon, and between 1639–1658, replaced with the Junta of Portugal, relating to the particular government of the kingdom of Portugal itself.
Public offices were reserved for Portuguese subjects at home and overseas, the king was represented at Lisbon sometimes by a governor and sometimes by a viceroy. So, Spain left the administration of Portugal and its empire largely to the Portuguese themselves, important matters, were referred to Madrid, where they came before the Council of Portugal. In the kingdom of Portugal, the system is reinforced. The Conselho de Estado of Lisbon is the Kings private Council, entrusted of debating major issues related to the Crown, the counselors could send their remarks to the king, and the King consulted them through his Viceroy. Portuguese Inquisition remained independent from the Mesa da Consciência e Ordens, there were three major courts in Lisbon, Coimbra and Évora. Also preserved was the Desembargo do Paço, the pinnacle of the entire Portuguese judicial system was the Desembargo do Paço or Royal Board of Justice in Lisbon
Fredensborg (slave ship)
Fredensborg was a frigate built in Copenhagen in 1752 or 1753. She was named Cron Prindz Christian after the prince who was to become king Christian VII of Denmark and Norway, after an unsuccessful stint in the triangular trade, her operational area was limited to the Caribbean, where she sailed as a trader until 1756. On 1 December 1768 Fredensborg sank in a storm off Tromøy in Arendal, the wreck was discovered by three divers in September 1974, Leif Svalesen, Tore Svalesen and Odd Keilon Ommundsen. Leif Svalesen worked extensively to document the ship and its history
Slave ships were large cargo ships specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves. Only a few decades after the arrival of Europeans to America, the peak time of slave ships to the Atlantic passage was between the 18th and early-19th centuries, when large plantations developed in the colonies of America. In order to profit, the owners of the ships divided their hulls into holds with little headroom. Unhygienic conditions, dehydration and scurvy led to a mortality rate, on average 15%. Often the ships, known as Guineamen, transported hundreds of slaves, for example, the slave ship Henrietta Marie carried about 200 slaves on the long Middle Passage. They were confined to cargo holds with each slave chained with little room to move, the most significant routes of the slave ships led from the north-western and western coasts of Africa to South America and the south-east coast of what is today the United States, and the Caribbean. As many as 20 million Africans were transported by ship, the transportation of slaves from Africa to America was known as the Middle Passage.
These people were not treated as human, living like animals throughout their voyage to the New World. The enslaved were naked and shackled together with different types of chains. They spent a portion of time pinned to floorboards which would wear skin on their elbows down to the bone. Firsthand accounts from former slaves, such as Olaudah Equiano, describe the conditions that enslaved people were forced to endure. The Slave Trade Act 1788 regulated conditions on board British slave ships for the first time and it was introduced to the United Kingdom parliament by Sir William Dolben, an advocate for the abolition of slavery. For the first time, limits were placed on the number of enslaved people that could be carried. Under the terms of the act, ships could transport 1.67 slaves per ton up to a maximum of 207 tons burthen, the well-known slave ship Brookes was limited to carrying 454 people, it had previously transported as many as 609 enslaved. This limited reduction in the overcrowding on slave ships may have reduced the death rate.
In the eighteenth and early centuries, the sailors on slave ships were often badly paid. Furthermore, a mortality rate of around 20% was expected during a voyage, with sailors dying as a result of disease. While conditions for the crew were vastly better than those of the people, they remained harsh
Henry V of England
Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422. He was the second English monarch who came from the House of Lancaster, after his fathers death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years War between the two nations. His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt and he was the son of 20-year-old Henry of Bolingbroke, and 16-year-old Mary de Bohun. He was the grandson of the influential John of Gaunt, at the time of his birth, Richard II of England, his cousin once removed, was king. As he was not close to the line of succession to the throne and his grandfather, John of Gaunt, was the guardian of the king at that time. Upon the exile of Henrys father in 1398, Richard II took the boy into his own charge, the young Henry accompanied King Richard to Ireland, and while in the royal service, he visited Trim Castle in County Meath, the ancient meeting place of the Irish Parliament.
He was created Prince of Wales at his fathers coronation, and Duke of Lancaster on 10 November 1399 and his other titles were Duke of Cornwall, Earl of Chester, and Duke of Aquitaine. A contemporary record notes that during that year Henry spent time at The Queens College, under the care of his uncle Henry Beaufort, from 1400 to 1404, he carried out the duties of High Sheriff of Cornwall. It was there that the prince was almost killed by an arrow that became stuck in his face. An ordinary soldier might have died from such a wound, the operation was successful, but it left Henry with permanent scars, evidence of his experience in battle. The Welsh revolt of Owain Glyndŵr absorbed Henrys energies until 1408, then, as a result of the kings ill health, Henry began to take a wider share in politics. From January 1410, helped by his uncles Henry Beaufort and Thomas Beaufort – legitimised sons of John of Gaunt – he had control of the government. Both in foreign and domestic policy he differed from the king, the quarrel of father and son was political only, though it is probable that the Beauforts had discussed the abdication of Henry IV, and their opponents certainly endeavoured to defame the prince.
It may be that the tradition of Henrys riotous youth, immortalised by Shakespeare, is due to political enmity. Henrys record of involvement in war and politics, even in his youth, the most famous incident, his quarrel with the chief justice, has no contemporary authority and was first related by Sir Thomas Elyot in 1531. The story of Falstaff originated in Henrys early friendship with Sir John Oldcastle, shakespeares Falstaff was originally named Oldcastle, following his main source, The Famous Victories of Henry V. However, his descendants objected, and the name was changed. That friendship, and the political opposition to Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury. If so, their disappointment may account for the statements of ecclesiastical writers like Thomas Walsingham that Henry, after Henry IV died on 20 March 1413, Henry V succeeded him and was crowned on 9 April 1413 at Westminster Abbey, Kingdom of England