Exsurge Domine is a papal bull promulgated on 15 June 1520 by Pope Leo X. It was written in response to the teachings of Martin Luther, it censured forty one propositions extracted from Luther's Ninety-five Theses and subsequent writings, threatened him with excommunication unless he recanted within a sixty-day period commencing upon the publication of the bull in Saxony and its neighboring regions. Luther refused to recant and responded instead by composing polemical tracts lashing out at the papacy and by publicly burning a copy of the bull on 10 December 1520; as a result, Luther was excommunicated in 1521. The historical impetus for this bull arose from an effort to provide a decisive papal response to the growing popularity of Luther's teachings. Beginning in January 1520, a papal consistory was summoned to examine Luther's fidelity to Catholic teachings. After a short time, it produced a hasty list of several perceived errors found in his writings, but Curial officials believed that a more thorough consideration was warranted.
The committee was reorganized and subsequently produced a report determining that only a few of Luther's teachings could be deemed heretical or erroneous from the standpoint of Catholic theology. His other teachings perceived as problematic were deemed to warrant lesser degrees of theological censure, including the designations "scandalous" or "offensive to pious ears". Johann Eck subsequently became involved in these proceedings, he had confronted Luther a year earlier in the Leipzig disputation and had obtained copies of condemnations issued against Luther by the universities of Cologne and Leuven. In a letter to a friend, Eck said he became involved because "no one else was sufficiently familiar with Luther's errors." Soon after having joined the committee when it was halfway through its deliberations, he began to exert his considerable influence on the direction it subsequently took. The committee on which Eck sat consisted of some forty members, including cardinals and canon lawyers; the heads of the three major mendicant orders, the Dominicans and Augustinians, were represented.
Central to the committee's proceedings was the matter of whether Luther and his teachings should be formally condemned. Some members argued that Luther's popular support in Germany made it too politically risky to issue a bull at that time; the theologians supported an immediate condemnation of Luther. But the canon lawyers advocated a mediating position: Luther should be given a hearing and a chance to defend himself before being excommunicated as a heretic; the committee negotiated a compromise. Luther would be given no hearing, but he would be offered a sixty-day window in which to repent before further action would be taken. Prior to Eck's involvement, Cajetan had expressed his desire that the committee members examine the whole context of Luther's writings and specify careful distinctions among the various degrees of censure to be applied to Luther's teachings. Eck's approach was markedly different, he bulldozed a final decision through the committee to ensure a speedy publication. As a result, the text it drafted contained a list of various statements by Luther perceived as problematic.
No attempt was made to provide specific responses to Luther's propositions based upon Scripture or Catholic tradition or any clarification of what degree of theological censure should be associated with each proposition listed. All quoted statements were to be condemned as a whole as either heretical, false, offensive to pious ears, or seductive of simple minds. Eck may have employed this tactic in order to associate more the taint of error with all of Luther's censured teachings. However, this in globo formula for censure had been employed by the earlier Council of Constance to condemn various propositions extracted from the writings of Jan Hus; when the committee members had obtained agreement among themselves regarding the selection of forty-one propositions which they deemed to be problematic, they subsequently submitted their draft text to Leo X. He appended a preface and conclusion and issued the document as an official papal bull on 15 June 1520. Copies were printed, notarized and distributed to specially appointed papal nuncios who were tasked with disseminating the bull in those regions where Luther's followers were most active, ensuring that its instructions were carried out.
Printed copies of this bull bore the Latin title Bulla contra errores Martini Lutheri et sequacium, but it is more known by its Latin incipit, Exsurge Domine. These words serve to open a prefatory prayer within the text of the bull calling on the Lord to arise against the "foxes have arisen seeking to destroy the vineyard" and the destructive "wild boar from the forest." Both references to passages of Scripture: "Catch the foxes for us, The little foxes that are ruining the vineyards, While our vineyards are in blossom..." and "A boar from the forest eats it away And whatever moves in the field feeds on it. O God of hosts, turn again now, we beseech You. In these poetic metaphors may be found an echo of Leo X's engagement in the hunting of wild boars while residing at a hunting lodge in the Italian hills during the spring of 1520. Following additional prayers of intercession directed towards the Apostles Peter and Paul and the "whole church of the saints" to defend Catholicism against Luther, the bull proceeds to list the forty-one propositions
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II, called the Catholic, was King of Aragon from 1479 until his death. His marriage in 1469 to Isabella, the future queen of Castile, was the marital and political "cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy." As a consequence of his marriage to Isabella I, he was de jure uxoris King of Castile as Ferdinand V from 1474 until her death in 1504. At Isabella's death the crown of Castile passed to their daughter Joanna, by the terms of their prenuptial agreement and her last will and testament. Following the death of Joanna's husband Philip I of Spain, her alleged mental illness, Ferdinand was recognized as regent of Castile from 1508 until his own death. In 1504, after a war with France, he became King of Naples as Ferdinand III, reuniting Naples with Sicily permanently and for the first time since 1458. In 1512, he became King of Navarre by conquest. In 1506 he married Germaine of Foix of France, but Ferdinand's only son and child of that marriage died soon after birth. Ferdinand had a role in inaugurating the first European encounters in the future Americas, since he and Isabella sponsored the first voyage of Christopher Columbus, in 1492.
That year was the final victory in the war with Granada which defeated the last Muslim state in Iberia and all of Western Europe. This brought to a close the centuries-long Christian reconquest of Iberia. For that Christian victory, Pope Alexander VI, born in the Kingdom of Valencia, awarded the royal couple the title of Catholic Monarchs. At Ferdinand's death Joanna's son, Ferdinand's grandson, Charles I, co-ruler in name over all the several Iberian kingdoms except for Portugal, succeeded him, making Charles the first King of Spain. However, during the regency of Ferdinand, many called him the King of Spain as distinct from his daughter Joanna, "queen of Castile". Ferdinand was born in Sada Palace, Sos del Rey Católico, Kingdom of Aragon, as the son of John II of Aragon by his second wife, Juana Enríquez, he married Infanta Isabella, the half-sister and heiress of Henry IV of Castile, on 19 October 1469 in Valladolid, Kingdom of Castile and Leon. Isabella belonged to the royal House of Trastámara, the two were cousins by descent from John I of Castile.
They were married with a clear prenuptial agreement on sharing power, under the joint motto "tanto monta, monta tanto." He became jure uxoris King of Castile when Isabella succeeded her deceased brother in 1474 to be crowned as Queen Isabella I of Castile. The two young monarchs were obliged to fight a civil war against Joan of Castile, the purported daughter of Henry IV, were swiftly successful; when Ferdinand succeeded his father as King of Aragon in 1479, the Crown of Castile and the various territories of the Crown of Aragon were united in a personal union. The various states were not formally administered as a single unit, but as separate political units under the same Crown; the first years of Ferdinand and Isabella's joint rule saw the Spanish conquest of the Nasrid dynasty of the Emirate of Granada, the last Islamic al-Andalus entity on the Iberian peninsula, completed in 1492. The completion of the Reconquista was not the only significant act performed by Ferdinand and Isabella in that year.
In March 1492, the monarchs issued the Edict of Expulsion of the Jews called the Alhambra Decree, a document which ordered all Jews either to be baptised and convert to Christianity or to leave the country. It allowed Mudéjar Moors and converso Marrano Jews to stay, while expelling all unconverted Jews from Castile and Aragon. 1492 was the year in which the monarchs commissioned Christopher Columbus to find a westward maritime route for access to Asia, which resulted in the Spanish arrival in the Americas. In 1494 the Treaty of Tordesillas divided the entire world beyond Europe between Portugal and Castile for conquest and dominion purposes – by a north–south line drawn down the Atlantic Ocean. Ferdinand violated the 1491 Treaty of Granada peace treaty in 1502 by dismissing the guaranteed religious freedom for Mudéjar Muslims. Ferdinand forced all Muslims in Castile and Aragon to convert, converso Moriscos, to Catholicism, or else be expelled; some of the Muslims who remained were mudéjar artisans, who could design and build in the Moorish style.
This was practised by the Spanish inquisitors on the converso Marrano Jewish population of Spain. The main architect behind the Spanish Inquisition was King Ferdinand II. Ferdinand destroyed over ten thousand Arabic manuscripts in Granada alone; the latter part of Ferdinand's life was taken up with disputes with successive Kings of France over control of Italy, the so-called Italian Wars. In 1494, Charles VIII of France invaded Italy and expelled Alfonso II, Ferdinand's first cousin once removed and stepson of Ferdinand's sister, from the throne of Naples. Ferdinand allied with various Italian princes and with Emperor Maximilian I to expel the French by 1496 and install Alfonso's son, Ferdinand, on the Neapolitan throne. In 1501, following the death of Ferdinand II of Naples and accession of his uncle Frederick, Ferdinand signed an agreement with Charles VIII's successor, Louis XII, who had just asserted his claims to the Duchy of Milan, to partition Naples between them, w
Zoë Porphyrogenita reigned as Byzantine Empress alongside her sister Theodora from 10 April 1042 to June 1050. She was enthroned as empress consort to a series of co-rulers between 1028 and 1042. Zoë was born to a nominal co-emperor, Constantine VIII, but lived a life of relative obscurity until the age of 47, her uncle Basil II died, leaving the Byzantine throne to her father. As he had no sons, Constantine hoped to continue the dynasty by marrying off one of his daughters. Zoë, aged 50, was married to Romanos III Argyros, who became emperor three days on her father's death; the marriage was troubled and after five years Romanos was found dead in his bath. His death has been variously attributed to her young lover, they were married on the same day as the murder, he was crowned emperor as Michael IV on the following day. Seven years Zoë was persuaded to adopt her dying husband's nephew named Michael. Once Michael V became emperor, he promptly exiled Zoë; this sparked a popular revolt which dethroned him and installed Zoë and her sister Theodora as joint empresses.
After a two-month joint reign Zoë married a former lover, installed as Constantine IX Monomachos, transferring power to him. Eight years Zoë died aged 72. Zoë was Porphyrogenita, "born into the purple", she was the second daughter of his wife Helena. Her father became co-emperor, at the age of two, in 962 and sole emperor in 1025, his reign as sole emperor lasted less than three years, from 15 December 1025 to 15 November 1028. As an eligible imperial princess Zoë was considered a possible bride for the Holy Roman Emperor, Otto III, in 996. A second embassy sent in 1001, headed by Arnulf, Archbishop of Milan, was tasked with selecting Otto’s bride from among Constantine’s three daughters; the eldest, was disfigured by smallpox, while the youngest, was a plain girl. Arnulf therefore selected the attractive 23-year-old Zoë. In January 1002 she accompanied Arnulf back to Italy, only to discover when the ship reached Bari that Otto had died, forcing her to return home. Another opportunity arose in 1028, when an embassy from the Holy Roman Empire arrived in Constantinople with a proposal for an imperial marriage.
Constantine VIII and Zoë rejected the idea out of hand when it was revealed that the intended groom, the son of Conrad II, was only ten years old. Basil II prevented his nieces from marrying any of the Byzantine nobility, as this would have given their husbands a claim on the imperial throne; as women they were unable to exercise any state authority, their only say in this was in choosing, or more accepting or not, a husband who would acquire their authority upon marriage. Zoë lived a life of virtual obscurity in the imperial gynaeceum for many years. Constantine determined that the ruling house would be continued by one of his daughters being married to an appropriate aristocrat; the first potential match was the distinguished noble Constantine Dalassenos, the former dux of Antioch. The emperor's advisors preferred a weak ruler whom they could control and they persuaded him to reject Dalassenos after he had been summoned to the capital. Romanos Argyros, the urban prefect of Constantinople, was the next to be considered as a match.
Theodora defied her father by refusing to marry Romanos, arguing that he was married – his wife having been forced to become a nun to allow Romanos to marry into the imperial family – and that as third cousins they had too close a blood relationship for marriage to occur. Constantine VIII chose Zoë to be Romanos's wife instead of Theodora. Zoe and Romanos married on 10 November 1028 in the imperial chapel of the palace. Three days Constantine died and the newly-weds were seated on the imperial throne. Spending years in the same restrictive quarters with her sister, Zoë had come to loathe Theodora. Zoë convinced Romanos to appoint one of his own men as the chief of Theodora’s household, with orders to spy on her. Shortly afterwards, Theodora was accused of plotting to usurp the throne, first with Presian of Bulgaria in 1030, followed by Constantine Diogenes, the Archon of Sirmium, in 1031. Zoë accused her of being part of the conspiracy, Theodora was forcibly confined in the monastery of Petrion.
Zoë visited her sister and forced her to take religious vows. Zoë was obsessed with continuing the Macedonian dynasty. Upon marrying Romanos the fifty-year-old Zoë tried to become pregnant, she used magic charms and potions, all without effect. This failure to conceive helped alienate the couple, soon Romanos refused to share the marriage bed with her. Romanos paid her little attention. Zoë, furious and frustrated, engaged in a number of affairs. Romanos took a mistress himself. In 1033 Zoë became, she flaunted her lover and spoke about making him emperor. Hearing the rumours, Romanos was concerned and confronted Michael. In early 1034 Romanos became ill and it was believed that Zoë and Michael were conspiring to have him poisoned. On 11 April Romanos was found dying in his bath. According to court official and chronicler Michael Psellus some of his retinue had "held his head for a long time beneath the water, attempting at the same time to strangle him". John Scylitzes writes as a simple fact. Matthew of Edessa's account has Zoë poisoning Romanos.
Zoë and Michael were married on the same day that R
Birger, King of Sweden
Birger was King of Sweden from 1290 to 1318. Birger was the son of King Magnus III of Hedwig of Holstein, he was hailed king of Sweden. This was done by his father. In 1275, King Magnus had led a rebellion against his elder brother, King Valdemar, ousted him from the throne. Before his death, King Magnus ordered his kinsman, Torgils Knutsson, the Constable of the Realm, to be the guardian of his son Birger. In 1293, Birger was crowned at Söderköping after marrying Martha of Denmark, the daughter of King Eric V of Denmark. Birger was only ten years old when his father died, at which time Torgils Knutsson was the most influential statesman in Sweden. In 1293, Torgils Knutsson led the Swedes to a victory; this expedition has traditionally been dubbed as the Third Swedish Crusade. When Torgils Knutsson returned from leading the crusade in Finland, a feud had developed between the brothers. Torgils Knutsson supported King Birger. Birger came of age when there was a conflict within the Church of Sweden over interpretation of the Privileges of 1280, the cost of the support of the Church for his father's usurpation.
The king's brothers Erik Magnusson, Duke of Södermanland and Valdemar Magnusson, Duke of Finland took advantage of this conflict. Duke Eric tried to establish an independent kingdom around Bohuslän, which he had received as part of his marriage to the Norwegian princess Ingeborg, Halland at the boundary between Sweden and Denmark. A civil war broke out, but by 1306 emotions had cooled to the point where the dukes acknowledged the son of Birger, Magnus Birgersson, as the successor to the throne. Torkel Knutsson, Duke Valdemar's father-in-law, was executed in 1306 as a token of reconciliation between King Birger and his brothers; the same year, in an event known as the Håtuna games, Birger was taken captive by his brothers on the Håtuna royal estate in Uppland and taken as prisoner to Nyköping Castle. In 1308, Eric and Valdemar were forced by the Danish king to release King Birger, but they did so under humiliating conditions; when King Birger was free, he sought aid in Denmark, the strife began anew.
Birger remained king in name, but had to give up the Royal Domain, exchanging it for eastern Uppland, Närke, his brother Erik's former Duchy Södermanland, Östergötland and the Castle of Viborg. In 1312, Duke Eric married Ingeborg of Norway, daughter of King Haakon V of Norway in a double wedding in Oslo. At the same time, Eric's brother Duke Valdemar married Ingeborg Eriksdottir of Norway, the daughter of King Eric II of Norway. Duke Erik held Bohuslän from Norway as well as northern Halland and was creating a separate kingdom centered on Göta älv. In 1317 however, Birger captured his brothers during the Nyköping Banquet. According to Eric's Chronicle, the dukes were starved to death in a cellar of Nyköping Castle. Birger was ousted by his brothers' supporters in 1318 and went into exile to his brother-in-law King Eric VI of Denmark, taking the Royal Archives with him, his son, Prince Magnus Birgersson, was executed at Stockholm. In 1319, the three-year-old son of Duke Erik, King Magnus VII of Norway, was hailed King Magnus IV of Sweden under the Regency of his grandmother Queen Helvig and his mother Duchess Ingeborg.
Magnus Birgersson Eric Birgersson Agnes Birgersdotter Katarina Birgersdotter In 2003, the band Falconer released The Sceptre of Deception, a concept album based on this period of Swedish history. The album covers events during the reign of King Birger of Sweden and lengthy strife with his brothers, the Danish and Norwegian crowns. Barck, Sven Eric. Från islossning till kungarike Harrison, Dick Jarlens sekel: en berättelse om 1200-talets Sverige Bergman, Mats Nyköpingshus. En rundvandring i historia och nutid Mannervik, Cyrus Sagor och sägner – Från Nordens forntid och medeltid
War of the League of Cambrai
The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names, was a major conflict in the Italian Wars. The main participants of the war, fought from 1508 to 1516, were France, the Papal States and the Republic of Venice. Pope Julius II, intending to curb Venetian influence in northern Italy, had created the League of Cambrai, an anti-Venetian alliance consisting of himself, Louis XII of France, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Maximilian I, the Holy Roman Emperor. Although the League was successful, friction between Julius and Louis caused it to collapse by 1510; the Veneto–Papal alliance expanded into the Holy League, which drove the French from Italy in 1512. Under the leadership of Francis I, who had succeeded Louis to the throne, the French and Venetians would, through victory at Marignano in 1515, regain the territory they had lost. In the aftermath of the First Italian War, Pope Alexander VI had, with French assistance, moved to consolidate Papal control over central Italy by seizing the Romagna.
Cesare Borgia, acting as Gonfalonier of the Papal armies, had expelled the Bentivoglio family from Bologna, which they had ruled as a fief, was well on his way towards establishing a permanent Borgia state in the region when Alexander died on 18 August 1503. Although Cesare managed to seize the remnants of the Papal treasury for his own use, he was unable to secure Rome itself, as French and Spanish armies converged on the city in an attempt to influence the Papal conclave. Sensing Cesare's weakness, the dispossessed lords of the Romagna offered to submit to the Republic of Venice in exchange for aid in regaining their dominions. Julius II, having secured his own control of the Papal armies by arresting and imprisoning Cesare, first in Rome and in Madrid moved to re-establish Papal control over the Romagna by demanding that Venice return the cities she had seized; the Republic of Venice, although willing to acknowledge Papal sovereignty over these port cities along the Adriatic coast and willing to pay Julius II an annual tribute, refused to surrender the cities themselves.
In response, Julius concluded an alliance with the Holy Roman Empire against Venice. Julius, although unsatisfied with his gains, did not himself possess sufficient forces to fight the Republic. In 1507, Julius returned to the question of the cities in Venetian hands. Maximilian, using his journey to Rome for the Imperial coronation as a pretext, entered Venetian territory with a large army in February 1508 and advanced on Vicenza, but was defeated by a Venetian army under Bartolomeo d'Alviano. A second assault by a Tyrolean force several weeks was an greater failure. Julius, humiliated by the failure of the Imperial invasion, turned to Louis XII of France with an offer of alliance. In mid-March, the Republic provided a pretext for an attack on itself by appointing her own candidate to the vacant bishopric of Vicenza. On 10 December 1508, representatives of the Papacy, the Holy Roman Empire and Ferdinand I of Spain concluded the League of Cambrai against the Republic; the agreement provided for the complete dismemberment of Venice's territory in Italy and for its partition among the signatories: Maximilian, in addition to regaining Istria, would receive Verona, Vicenza and the Friuli.
On 15 April 1509, Louis left Milan at the head of a French army and moved into Venetian territory. To oppose him, Venice had hired a condottiere army under the command of the Orsini cousins – Bartolomeo d'Alviano and Niccolò di Pitigliano – but had failed to account for their disagreement on how best to stop the French advance; when Louis crossed the Adda River in early May and Alviano advanced to meet him, believing it best to avoid a pitched battle, moved away to the south. On 14 May, Alviano confronted the French at the Battle of Agnadello.
Michael V Kalaphates
Michael V was Byzantine emperor for four months in 1041–1042. He was the adoptive son of his wife Empress Zoe, he was popularly called "the Caulker" in accordance with his father's original occupation. Michael V was the son of Stephen by Maria, a sister of Emperor Michael IV, his father had been a caulker before becoming an admiral under Michael IV and botching an expedition to Sicily. Although the emperor preferred another of his nephews, the future Michael V was advanced as heir to the throne by his other uncle John the Orphanotrophos and the Empress Zoe. Shortly before his death, Michael IV granted Michael V the title of Kaisar, together with Zoe, adopted his nephew as a son. On 10 December 1041, Michael V succeeded to the throne. Determined to rule on his own, Michael V came into conflict with his uncle John the Orphanotrophos, whom he immediately banished to a monastery. Michael now reversed his uncle's decisions, recalling the nobles and courtiers, exiled during the previous reign, including the future patriarch Michael Keroularios and the general George Maniakes.
Maniakes was promptly sent back to Southern Italy in order to contain the advance of the Normans. On the night of 18 April to 19 April 1042, Michael V banished his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoe, for plotting to poison him, to the island of Principo, thus becoming sole Emperor, his announcement of the event in the morning led to a popular revolt. The demand was met, Zoe was brought back, though in a nun's habit. On 20 April 1042 Zoe's sister Theodora, removed from her nunnery against her will, was declared Empress. In response, Michael fled to seek safety in the monastery of the Stoudion together with his remaining uncle. Although he had taken monastic vows, Michael was arrested and castrated, he died as a monk on 24 August 1042. List of Byzantine emperors Thurn, Hans, ed.. Ioannis Scylitzae Synopsis historiarum. Berlin-New York: De Gruyter. Gregory, Timothy E.. A History of Byzantium. Wiley-Blackwell. Hussey, J. M. ed.. The Cambridge Medieval History:The Byzantine Empire Part 1. Vol. IV. Cambridge University Press.
Tougher, Shaun. The Eunuch in Byzantine History and Society. Routledge. Krallis, Dimitrios. "Democratic Praxis and Republican Ideology in the Eleventh Century". Byzantine Studies Conference. Dumbarton Oaks; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Michael". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 359–360. Michael Psellus, Fourteen Byzantine Rulers, trans. E. R. A. Sewter. ISBN 0-14-044169-7 Michael Angold, The Byzantine empire 1025–1204. ISBN 0-582-29468-1 Jonathan Harris, Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium. ISBN 978-1-84725-179-4 The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium ISBN 0-19-504652-8 Warren Treadgold, A History of the Byzantine State and Society ISBN 0-8047-2630-2
Eric Magnusson (duke)
Eric Magnusson was a Swedish prince, Duke of Svealand, Södermanland, Dalsland, Västergötland, Värmland and North Halland and heir to the throne of Sweden. He was the father of King Magnus who became king of both Sweden. Eric was born circa 1282, the second son of King Magnus III of Sweden and his Queen consort Helvig of Holstein, he became the Duke of Södermanland and a part of Uppland in 1302. Eric is reported as being more skilled and intelligent than his elder brother who became King Birger of Sweden, he was bold and ambitious, his social skills won him many allies. His younger brother Valdemar Magnusson, the duke of Finland, became his close ally and helped him in all his projects. King Birger, who feared his brothers' plans, forced them to sign a paper, in 1304, so as to render them less dangerous, they fled to Norway, but in 1305, they reconciled with the king and regained their duchies. Eric was in possession of Kungahälla, which he had been given during his exile by the Norwegian king, northern Halland which he had been given by the Danish king Eric VI of Denmark.
Duke Eric planned to topple Birger's marshal Torgils Knutsson, in the way of his ambitious plans. As the clergy were in opposition to the marshal, they joined Eric, they prevailed on the weak Birger in 1306 to execute Torgils, a faithful counsellor. Little more than half a year Birger was imprisoned by his brothers, his brothers took control of Sweden. Birger's brother-in-law, Eric VI of Denmark arrived with his army to support Birger. Haakon V of Norway, was on the side of the younger brothers. In 1308, Eric and Valdemar were forced by the Danish king to release Birger, but they did so under humiliating conditions; when Birger was free, he sought aid in Denmark, the strife began anew. The course of events turned against duke Eric. By concluding a peace treaty with the Danish king, unbeknownst to Haakon V, Eric lost Haakon's trust. Håkon wanted to have Kungahälla back. A war broke out between Haakon V of Norway and Eric in 1309, the kings of Norway and Denmark concluded peace, allied against the dukes.
Through his strategic skills, Eric managed to ride out the storm, defeated the Norwegians, the Danes who arrived as far as Nyköping in 1309. He attacked Norway and reconquered Kungahälla, which he had lost to Haakon in 1310. There was peace at Helsingborg, in which Sweden was divided between Birger and his brothers. Eric received Västergötland, Dalsland, Värmland and Kalmar County, as well was northern Halland as a fief from Denmark, but he promised to return Kungahälla to Norway. In spite of the fact that Eric never returned Kungahälla, broke all his promises to Haakon, he managed to win his approval, he married Haakon V of Norway's 11-year-old daughter Ingeborg Haakonsdatter. In 1312, Eric married Ingeborg in a double wedding in Oslo. At the same time, Eric's brother Valdemar Magnusson married Ingeborg Eriksdottir of Norway, the daughter of King Eric II of Norway. In 1316 Eric and Ingeborg had a son, the future king Magnus IV of Sweden and in 1317 daughter Euphemia of Sweden. Duke Eric seemed close to reaching his goals: he was now in possession of a composite territory consisting of some parts of all the three Scandinavian kingdoms, centered on the coast of Skagerrak-Kattegat with Varberg as his ducal seat, he had a son, the heir apparent of the kingdom of Norway, he was the de facto ruler of Sweden.
However, his career was stopped and his life was shortened by the treachery of his brother King Birger, the de jure ruler of Sweden. During a call on his brother in Nyköping, the so-called Nyköping Banquet and his brother Valdemar were arrested and chained, the night between the 10th and 11 December 1317. No one knows for certain. At the imprisonment of their husbands, their wives became the leaders of their spouses' followers. On 16 April 1318, the two duchesses entered into a treaty in Kalmar with Esger Juul, Archbishop of Lund and Christopher, brother of Eric VI of Denmark and Duke of Halland-Samsö, to free their husbands; the same year their husbands were confirmed to have died. King Birger was subsequently ousted by his brothers' supporters in 1318 and sent into exile to his brother-in-law King Eric VI of Denmark. Eric's son, Magnus was elected king of Sweden on 8 July 1319 and acclaimed as hereditary king of Norway in August of the same year under the regencies of his grandmother Queen Helvig and his mother Duchess Ingeborg.
In all of Scandinavia, the death of Eric and Valdemar caused great dismay and sorrow, which caused many people to forgive their misdeeds, only to remember their positive qualities. However, their ambitions had caused great troubles for Sweden; the time of civil war between the brothers were one of the grimmest eras in Swedish history. Eric's life was portrayed in a positive light in Eric's Chronicle created by his supporters. Eric's Chronicle is the oldest surviving Swedish chronicle written between about 1320 and 1335, it is one of most important narrative sources. Its authorship and precise political significance and biases are debated, but it is clear that the chronicle's main protagonist and hero is Eric. Lindqvist, Herman Historien om Sverige. Från islossning till kungarike Harrison, Dick Jarlens sekel: en berättelse om 1200-talets Sverige Bergman, Mats Nyköpingshus. En rundvandring i historia och nutid Mannervik, Cyrus Sagor och sägner - Från Nordens forntid och medeltid This article contains content from the Owl Edition of