A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals convened to elect a Bishop of Rome known as the pope. The pope is considered by Roman Catholics to be the apostolic successor of Saint Peter and earthly head of the Roman Catholic Church. Concerns around political interference led to reforms after the interregnum of 1268–1271 and Pope Gregory X's decree during the Second Council of Lyons in 1274 that the cardinal electors should be locked in seclusion cum clave and not permitted to leave until a new Bishop of Rome had been elected. Conclaves are now held in the Sistine Chapel of the Apostolic Palace. Since the Apostolic Age, the Bishop of Rome, like other bishops, was chosen by the consensus of the clergy and laity of the diocese; the body of electors was more defined when, in 1059, the College of Cardinals was designated the sole body of electors. Since other details of the process have developed. In 1970, Pope Paul VI limited the electors to cardinals under 80 years of age in Ingravescentem aetatem.
The current procedures were established by Pope John Paul II in his apostolic constitution Universi Dominici gregis as amended by Pope Benedict XVI in 2007 and 2013. A two-thirds supermajority vote is required to elect the new pope; the procedures relating to the election of the pope have undergone two millennia of development. Procedures similar to the present system were introduced in 1274 when Gregory X promulgated Ubi periculum following the action of the magistrates of Viterbo during the interregnum of 1268–1271; the process was further refined by Gregory XV with his 1621 bull Aeterni Patris Filius, which established the requirement of a two-thirds majority of cardinal electors to elect a pope. The Third Lateran Council had set the requirement that two-thirds of the cardinals were needed to elect a pope in 1179; this requirement had varied since depending on whether the winning candidate was allowed to vote for himself, in which cases the required majority was two-thirds plus one vote. Aeterni Patris Filius prohibited this practice and established two-thirds as the standard needed for election.
Aeterni Patris Filius did not eliminate the possibility of election by acclamation, but did require that a secret ballot take place first before a pope could be elected. As early Christian communities emerged, they elected bishops, chosen by the clergy and laity with the assistance of the bishops of neighbouring dioceses. St. Cyprian says that Pope Cornelius was chosen as Bishop of Rome "by the decree of God and of His Church, by the testimony of nearly all the clergy, by the college of aged bishops, of good men"; as in other dioceses, the clergy of the Diocese of Rome was the electoral body for the Bishop of Rome. Instead of casting votes, the bishop was selected by acclamation; the candidate would be submitted to the people for their general approval or disapproval. This lack of precision in the election procedures gave rise to rival popes or antipopes; the right of the laity to reject the person elected was abolished by a Synod held in the Lateran in 769, but restored to Roman noblemen by Pope Nicholas I during a Synod of Rome in 862.
The pope was subjected to oaths of loyalty to the Holy Roman Emperor, who had the duty of providing security and public peace in Rome. A major change came in 1059, when Pope Nicholas II decreed in In Nomine Domini that the cardinals were to elect a candidate, who would take office after receiving the assent of the clergy and laity; the cardinal bishops were to meet first and discuss the candidates before summoning the cardinal priests and cardinal deacons for the actual vote. The Second Council of the Lateran in 1139 removed the requirement for obtaining the assent of the lower clergy and the laity, while the Third Council of the Lateran in 1179 gave equal rights to the entire College of Cardinals when electing a new pope. Through much of the Middle Ages and Renaissance the Catholic Church had only a small number of cardinals at any one time, as few as seven under either Pope Alexander IV or Pope John XXI; the difficulty of travel further reduced the number arriving at conclaves. The small electorate magnified the significance of each vote and made it all but impossible to displace familial or political allegiances.
Conclaves lasted months and years. In his 1274 decree requiring the electors be locked in seclusion, Gregory X limited each cardinal elector to two servants and rationed their food progressively when a conclave reached its fourth and ninth days; the cardinals disliked these rules. Lengthy elections resumed and continued to be the norm until 1294, when Pope Celestine V reinstated the 1274 rules. Long interregna followed: in 1314–1316 during the Avignon Papacy, where the original conclaves were dispersed by besieging mercenaries and not reconvened for two years. In 1587 Pope Sixtus V limited the number of cardinals to 70, following the precedent of Moses, assisted by 70 elders in governing the Children of Israel: six cardinal bishops, 50 cardinal priests, 14 cardinal deacons. Beginning with the attempts of Pope John XXIII to broaden the representation of nations in the College of Cardinals, that number has increased. In 1970 Paul VI ruled that cardinals who reach the age of eighty before the start of a conclave are ineligible to participate.
In 1975 he limited the number of cardinal electors to 120. Though this remains the theoretical limit, John Paul II exceeded this for short periods of time, he changed the age limit sl
Jacopo Carucci known as Jacopo da Pontormo, Jacopo Pontormo or Pontormo, was an Italian Mannerist painter and portraitist from the Florentine School. His work represents a profound stylistic shift from the calm perspectival regularity that characterized the art of the Florentine Renaissance, he is famous for his use of twining poses, coupled with ambiguous perspective. Jacopo Carucci was born at Pontorme, near Empoli, to Bartolomeo di Jacopo di Martino Carrucci and Alessandra di Pasquale di Zanobi. Vasari relates how the orphaned boy, "young and lonely", was shuttled around as a young apprentice: Jacopo had not been many months in Florence before Bernardo Vettori sent him to stay with Leonardo da Vinci, with Mariotto Albertinelli, Piero di Cosimo, in 1512, with Andrea del Sarto, with whom he did not remain long, for after he had done the cartoons for the arch of the Servites, it does not seem that Andrea bore him any good will, whatever the cause may have been. Pontormo painted in and around Florence supported by Medici patronage.
A foray to Rome to see Michelangelo's work, influenced his style. Haunted elongated bodies are characteristic of his work. An example of Pontormo's early style is a fresco depicting the Visitation of the Virgin and St Elizabeth, with its dancelike, balanced figures, painted from 1514 to 1516; this early Visitation makes an interesting comparison with his painting of the same subject, done about a decade now housed in the parish church of St. Michael Archangel in Carmignano, about 20 km west of Florence. Placing these two pictures together—one from his early style, another from his mature period—throws Pontormo's artistic development into sharp relief. In the earlier work, Pontormo is much closer in style to his teacher, Andrea del Sarto, to the early sixteenth century renaissance artistic principles. For example, the figures stand at just under half the height of the overall picture, though a bit more crowded than true high renaissance balance would prefer, at least are placed in a classicizing architectural setting at a comfortable distance from the viewer.
In the work, the viewer is brought uncomfortably close to the Virgin and St. Elizabeth, who drift toward each other in clouds of drapery. Moreover, the clear architectural setting, constructed in earlier piece has been abandoned in favor of a peculiar nondescript urban setting; the Joseph canvases offer another example of Pontormo's developing style. Done around the same time as the earlier Visitation, these works show a much more mannerist leaning. According to Giorgio Vasari, the sitter for the boy seated on a step is his young apprentice, Bronzino. In the years between the SS Annunziata and San Michele Visitations, Pontormo took part in the fresco decoration of the salon of the Medici country villa at Poggio a Caiano, 17 km NNW of Florence. There he painted frescoes in a pastoral genre style uncommon for Florentine painters. In 1522, when the plague broke out in Florence, Pontormo left for the Certosa di Galluzzo, a cloistered Carthusian monastery where the monks followed vows of silence, he painted a series of frescoes, now quite damaged, on the resurrection of Christ.
The large altarpiece canvas for the Brunelleschi-designed Capponi Chapel in the church of Santa Felicita, portraying The Deposition from the Cross, is considered by many Pontormo's surviving masterpiece. The figures, with their modeled forms and brilliant colors are united in an enormously complex, swirling ovular composition, housed by a shallow, somewhat flattened space. Although known as The Deposition from the Cross, there is no actual cross in the picture; the scene might more properly be called a Bearing the Body of Christ. Those who are lowering Christ appear as anguished as the mourners. Though they are bearing the weight of a full-grown man, they seem to be touching the ground; these two boys have sometimes been interpreted as angels. In this case, the subject of the picture would be more akin to an Entombment, though the lack of any discernible tomb disrupts that theory, just as the lack of cross poses a problem for the Deposition interpretation, it has been noted that the positions of Christ and the Virgin seem to echo those of Michelangelo's Pietà in Rome, though here in the Deposition mother and son have been separated.
Thus in addition to elements of a Lamentation and Entombment, this picture carries hints of a Pietà. It has been speculated that the bearded figure in the background at the far right is a self-portrait of Pontormo as Joseph of Arimathea. Another unique feature of this particular Deposition is the empty space occupying the central pictorial plane as all the Biblical personages seem to fall back from this point, it has been suggested that this emptiness may be a physical representation of the Virgin Mary's emotional emptiness at the prospect of losing her son. On the wall to the right of the Deposition, Pontormo frescoed an Annunciation scene; as with the Deposition, the artist's primary attention is on the figures themselves rather than their setting. Placed against white walls, the Angel Gabriel and Virgin Mary are presented in an environment, so simplified as to seem stark; the fictive architectural de
Dean of the College of Cardinals
The Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals is the dean of the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church. The position was established in the early 12th century; the Dean presides over the College of Cardinals. He always holds the rank of cardinal bishop; the Dean of the College of Cardinals is assisted by the Vice-Dean. Both are elected by and from the Cardinal Bishops who are not Eastern Catholic patriarchs and subject to papal confirmation. Except for presiding, the Dean and Vice-Dean have no power over the other cardinals. In the order of precedence in the Catholic Church as the senior Cardinal Bishops, the Dean and Vice-Dean are placed second and third after the pope; the Dean is but not the longest-serving member of the whole College. It had been customary for centuries for the longest-serving of the six cardinal bishops of suburbicarian sees to be Dean; this was required by canon law from 1917 until 1965, when Pope Paul VI empowered the six to elect the Dean from among their number.
This election was a formality until the time of Pope John Paul II. The Dean holds the position until resignation, it is the Dean's responsibility to summon the conclave for the purposes of electing a new pope following a death or resignation. The Dean presides over the conclave. Additionally, the dean has the responsibility of communicating the "news of the Pope's death to the Diplomatic Corps accredited to the Holy See and to the Heads of the respective Nations" and is the public face of the Holy See during the sede vacante period, it is the Dean, unless he is impeded, who asks the Pope-elect if he accepts the election, asks the new Pope what name he wishes to use. According to Canon 355, if the newly elected Supreme Pontiff is not a bishop, it has always been the right of the Bishop of Ostia to ordain him; the Cardinal Dean has "the title of the diocese of Ostia, together with that of any other church to which he has a title," such as his suburbicarian diocese. This has been the case since 1914, by decree of Pope Pius X—previous deans had given up their prior suburbicarian see for the joint title of Ostia and Velletri, which were separated in that same 1914 decree.
Nine Deans have been elected pope: Anastasius IV, Lucius III, Gregory IX, Alexander IV, John XXI, Alexander VI, Paul III, Paul IV, Benedict XVI. The following is the list of Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, separated into three groups to account for the Western Schism, which ended after the Council of Constance; the earliest attested reference to the "College of Cardinals" is at the Council of Reims in 1148. Each name in the following list includes years of birth and death comma-separated years of cardinalate and deanship
Pope Celestine III
Pope Celestine III, born Giacinto Bobone, reigned from 30 March or 10 April 1191 to his death in 1198. He was born into the noble Orsini family in Rome and served as a cardinal-deacon prior to becoming pope, he was ordained as a priest on 13 April 1191 and he ruled the church for six years, nine months, nine days before he died aged 92. He was buried at the Lateran. Considered by the Roman Curia as an expert on Spain, Bobone conducted two legatine missions to Spain in and as the Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. Celestine crowned the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI on the day after his election in 1191 with a ceremony symbolizing his absolute supremacy, as described by Roger of Hoveden, after Henry VI promised to cede Tusculum. In 1192 he threatened to excommunicate King Tancred of Sicily, forcing him to release his aunt Empress Constance, wife of Henry VI and a contender of Sicilian crown, captured by Tancred in 1191, to Rome to exchange for his recognition of Tancred while put pressure on Henry, but Constance was released by German soldiers on borders of the Papal States before reaching Rome the following summer.
He subsequently nearly excommunicated the same Henry VI for wrongfully keeping King Richard I of England in prison. He placed Pisa under an interdict, lifted by his successor Innocent III in 1198, he condemned King Alfonso IX of León for his marriage to Theresa of Portugal on the grounds of consanguinity. In 1196, he excommunicated him for allying with the Almohad Caliphate while making war on Castile. Following his marriage with Berengaria of Castile, Celestine excommunicated Alfonso and placed an interdict over León. In 1198, Celestine confirmed the statutes of the Teutonic Knights as a military order. Celestine would have resigned the papacy and recommended a successor shortly before his death, but was not allowed to do so by the cardinals. List of popes Baaken, K.."Zur Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III." Deutsches Archiv, 41, 1985, pp. 203-211. Clarke, Peter D; the interdict in the thirteenth century: a question of collective guilt, Oxford University Press, 2007. Gregorovius, History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages Volume IV, part 2, pp. 625-638.
Lower, Michael. "The Papacy and Christian Mercenaries of Thirteenth-Century North Africa". Speculum; the University of Chicago Press. Vol. 89, No. 3 JULY. Moore, John Clare, Pope Innocent III: to root up and to plant, BRILL, 2003. Mann, Horace K; the Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages Volume X, pp. 383-441. Sikes, Thomas Burr, History of the Christian Church, from the first to the fifteenth century, Eliott Stock, 1885; the New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.1, Ed. David Luscombe, Jonathan Riley-Smith, Cambridge University Press, 2004. Urban, The Teutonic Knights, Greenhill Books, 2003. Pope Celestine III: Diplomat and Pastor, ed. Damian J. Smith, John Doran, Ashgate Publishing, 2008. Initial text from the 9th edition of an old encyclopedia
Roman Catholic Suburbicarian Diocese of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto
The Diocese of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto a suburbicarian see of the Holy Roman Church and a diocese of the Catholic Church in Italy in the Roman province of the Pope. Sabina has been the seat of such a bishopric since the 6th century, though the earliest names in the list of bishops may be apocryphal; the ancient cathedral of San Salvatore of Sabina was located in Forum Novum. The official papal province of Sabina was established under Pope Paul V in 1605. Since 1842 the Cardinal Bishop of Sabina bears the title of Territorial Abbot of Farfa. Since 1925, the cardinalatial Titular Church of Sabina has been united to that of Poggio Mirteto, named Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, since 1986 Sabina–Poggio Mirteto; the current Cardinal-Bishop is Giovanni Battista Re, while the Ordinary of the Diocese is Bishop Ernesto Mandara. If?, century or c. is given, exact years or dates have not yet been found for his tenure. Mariano Pietro Issa Teodoro Samuele Sergio Leone Gregorio Anastasio Giovanni Giovanni Domenico Benedetto Rainiero Gaetano de Lai Donato Sbarretti Enrico Sibilia Adeodato Giovanni Piazza Marcello Mimmi Giuseppe Ferretto Antonio Samoré Agnelo Rossi, Eduardo Francisco Pironio Lucas Moreira Neves Giovanni Battista Re Kehr, Paul Fridolin.
Italia pontificia. Vol. II: Latium. Berlin: Apud Weidmannos. Pp. 53–74. Suburbicarian Diocese of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto Official Website Complete list Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. I-IV
Bavaria the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Nuremberg; the history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire while retaining its title of kingdom, became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism; the state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region. Modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia; the Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps inhabited by Celts, part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German, unlike other Germanic groups, they did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century; these peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, Heruli.
The name "Bavarian" means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555, their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.
After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy, his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed from neighboring Alemannia. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface, tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo, he was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Tassilo III succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria.
He ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and deposed him in 788; the deposition was not legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback; the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, he died a monk; as all of his family were forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and
Anagni is an ancient town and comune in the province of Frosinone, central Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome. It is a artistic center of the Latin Valley. Anagni still maintains the appearance of a small medieval hill town, with small twisting streets and steep lanes, it is built inside Roman boundary walls. The built-up area included only the acropolis and defended by walls in opus quasi-quadratum. Under Roman domination, the map of the city changed, starting from the modification of the boundary walls; the archaic inhabited places spread out protected by the so-called Servian walls, made with stone blocks placed in alternate lines and dating back to the beginning of the 3rd century BC. Most of the boundary walls have been subjected to rebuilding and restoration in the course of the first millennium AD; the municipality borders with Acuto, Fumone, Gorga, Paliano and Sgurgola. The town is divided into eight districts, or contrade of Castello, Colle Sant'Angelo, Torre, Trivio and Valle Sant'Andrea.
It counts the hamlets of Ara Stella, Cucugnano, Faito, Osteria della Fontana, San Filippo, San Bartolomeo, San Filippo, Tufano-Vallenova and Vignola-Monti. The first human settlements date back to more than 700,000 years, according to the dating of some Palaeolithic hand-made fragments recovered. Several objects made of bone and flint stone and two human molars and incisors belonging to fossil Homo erectus have been found in Fontana Ranuccio; the people who lived in those places were of the Hernici, migrated - as it seems - from the Aniene valley and descendant from the Marsi, at least according to the ethnical term deriving from the Marsian herna, that is: "Those who live on the stony hills". Only two words remain of their language: Samentum, a strip of sacrificial skin, Bututti, a sort of funeral lament. Anagni was an important city and spiritual centre of the Hernici; the city was the seat of temples and sanctuaries, where, in the 2nd century AD, many linen codices containing sacred Etruscan writings were still well-conserved, according to the testimony of Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
Of these writings, there is a sole survivor, the Liber Linteus. Recent archaeological discoveries have revealed cultural and economic relationships between the Hernici and the Etruscans around the 7th century BC it was commercial center, which conducted trade with Magna Graecia, it is speculated that, at the foot of the hill on which the city stands, there was the so-called Maritime Circle, where the Hernican held their national council. In 307 BC, the Hernici, with the exception of Aletrium and Ferentinum declared war on Rome. After suffering setbacks the Hernici offered unconditional surrender. In 306 BC the towns which had not joined the war remained independent, while “Anagnia and such others as had borne arms against the Romans were admitted to citizenship without the right to vote, they were prohibited from holding councils and from intermarrying, were allowed no magistrates save those who had charge of religious rites.” Anagni preserved her religious autonomy and strategic importance. In Imperial times, many emperors spent their summers in Anagni to escape the heat of Rome, the most notable ones being Marcus Aurelius, Septimius Severus and Caracalla.
By the end of the Roman Empire, a deep political and economic crisis caused the demographic collapse of Anagni's population. The suburban zones, which during the Roman Age had grown along the most important roads of the area, were depopulated. Anagni has been the seat of a bishop, since the 5th century. In the 9th century, the first Cathedral was built on the ruins of the temple dedicated to the Goddess Ceres; the agricultural reconquest, begun in the 10th century, was supported by the ecclesiastic power, which allowed the secular lords to exploit the land and to build fortified settlements for their peasants, favouring new economic and demographic growth. During the 10th and the 11th centuries, the city strengthened its link with the papal court: In fact, the popes began to consider the old capital city of the Hernici a safer and healthier spot compared to Rome, the place of frequent epidemic diseases. For this reason if the presence of factions inside the town could not be prevented, Anagni remained faithful to the Roman Church, becoming one of the favourite residences of the popes, in the 12th and 13th centuries.
As a result, several events connected with the struggle between Papacy and Empire took place in the city, including some of the most important political events in these two centuries. In 1122, Callistus II promulgated the basic Bull of the Concordat of Worms. In 1160, Alexander III excommunicated the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in the Cathedral.