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Erwin Rothbarth

Erwin Rothbarth was a German economist and statistician. He worked as a research assistant for John Maynard Keynes and made important contributions to the measurement of GDP and the modelling of individual consumption. Rothbarth was born in Frankfurt am Main to a German Jewish family, his father, Otto Rothbarth was a lawyer. Rothbarth joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany, he studied Law at the University of Frankfurt from 1932 to 1933, when he fled Germany to the United Kingdom. He graduated from the London School of Economics in 1936 and remained there as a researcher in economics and statistics until 1938, he moved to Cambridge University in 1938 and became a research assistant for John Maynard Keynes in 1939. From May to August 1940 Rothbarth was interned by the British government due to his German nationality. In September 1940 he married Myfawwy Charles, he volunteered for the Suffolk Regiment of the British Army and was killed in heavy fighting near Venray, The Netherlands. While working as Keynes' research assistant for the influential article How to Pay for the War Rothbarth developed techniques which are now used to calculate GDP.

Rothbarth calculated for Keynes statistics for private income and outlay, government income and outlay, national output, savings and investment. Rothbarth's main contribution, the main advancement from the older work of Colin Clark on national income, is the concept of Gross National Income, a large component of modern GDP figures. Rothbarth's and Keynes' figures are the first GDP figures to be based on a double-entry accounting system in order to ensure their accuracy; the problem of New Goods in Industrial Organisation is of how to estimate the value that consumers put on the availability of goods and services which did not exist. A book-length treatment of the subject by Timothy Bresnahan and Robert J. Gordon credits Rothbarth with pioneering the subject in his 1941 article'The Measurement of Changes in Real Income under Conditions of Rationing'. Rothbarth's treatment of the problem was the first mathematical attempt at the problem, his approach involves the estimation of a'virtual reservation price' at which consumers would choose to purchase none of the good and examining the changes in consumers' consumption choices once the new good becomes available in order to infer the consumers' valuation of the new good.

Rothbarth, E.'Retail Sales in Great Britain, 1931-1938.' Cambridge Research Scheme of the National Institute of Economic and Social Research, Interim Report 3 Rothbarth, E.'The Measurement of Changes in Real Income under Conditions of Rationing.' Review of Economic Studies, 8, pp. 100–107 Rothbarth, E.'The Conditions of Economic Progress, By Colin Clark.' Economic Journal, 51, pp. 120–124 Rothbarth, E.'Statistical Testing of Business Cycle Theories: II. Economic Journal, 51, pp. 293–297 Rothbarth, E.'Business Cycles: A Theoretical and Statistical Analysis of the Capitalist Process, By Joseph A. Schumpeter.' Economic Journal, 52, pp. 223–229 Rothbarth, E.'A Note on the Index Number Problem.' Review of Economic Studies, 11 & 12, pp. 91–98 Rothbarth, E.'Causes of the Superior Efficiency of USA Industry as Compared to British Industry.' Economic Journal, 56, pp. 383–390 Erwin Rothbarth's life and work - Ludo Cuyvers, Journal of Post Keynesian Economics - Includes photograph Keynes's Collaboration with Erwin Rothbarth - Ludo Cuyvers, The Economic Journal German-speaking Economists in British Exile 1933-1945 - Harald Hagemann The work of Erwin Rothbarth - Michał Kalecki, The Review of Economic Studies

Imperial and Royal Hussars

Together with the Dragoons and Uhlans, the Imperial and Royal Hussars, made up the cavalry of the Austro-Hungarian Army from 1867 to 1918, both in the Common Army and in the Hungarian Landwehr, where they were known as the Royal Hungarian Hussars. The Austrian monarchy, weakened by the losing the war against Prussia in 1866, had to guarantee the autonomy of Kingdom of Hungary in the so-called Compromise of 15 March 1867; as a result, the Hungarian half of the Empire began to establish its own army, the Royal Hungarian Landwehr. The cavalry of the Hungarian Landwehr was made up of the Landwehr Hussars. Following the signing of the Compromise, the Austrian half of the Empire started to build an army, the Imperial-Royal Landwehr; the two new Landwehr forces thus existed alongside the Common Army, the imperial army of the whole Empire. In effect this meant; the Common Army had 16 hussar regiments and the Royal Hungarian Landwehr had ten. By tradition, the majority of the hussars were recruited from the Hungarian lands.

The regiments, with a few exceptions, were all stationed there. The Imperial and Royal Cavalry regiments each had two divisions each of three squadrons A list of the Imperial and Royal Hussars regiments in 1914 is given below by short title. 1st Hussars 2nd Hussars 3rd Hussars 4th Hussars 5th Hussars 6th Hussars 7th Hussars 8th Hussars 9th Hussars 10th Hussars 11th Hussars 12th Hussars 13th Hussars 14th Hussars 15th Hussars 16th Hussars The regiments listed below were part of the Royal Hungarian Hussars known as the Royal Hungarian Honved Hussars, Honvéd being Hungarian for "Home-defender". English sources refer to regiments as e.g. the "1st Hussars" or "1st Honved Hussars".: 1st Hussars 19th Cavalry Brigade, 5th Cavalry Division Commander: Colonel Colbert Zech von Deybach Freiherr von Hart und Sulz - Debachi Zech Colbert harti ès sulzi baró ezredes2nd Hussars 22nd Cavalry Brigade, 11th Cavalry Division Kommandant: Lieutenant Colonel Johann Flór - Flór János alezredes3rd Hussars 22nd Cavalry Brigade, 11th Cavalry Division Commander: Lieutenant Colonel Árpád Cserépy von Kisruszka - Kisruszkai Cserépy Árpád alezredes 4th Hussars I and II Squadrons, 23rd Infantry Division III and IV Squadrons, 20th Infantry Division V and VI Squadrons, 41st Infantry Division Commander: Lieutenant Colonel Nikolaus Jankovich von Jeszenicze - Jesceniczai Jankovich Miklos alezredes5th Hussars 24th Cavalry Brigade, 11th Cavalry Division Commander: Colonel Paul Hegedüs - Hegedüs Pál ezredes6th Hussars 23rd Cavalry Brigade, 5th Cavalry Division Commander: Lieutenant Colonel Ladislaus Forster von Szenterzsébet - Szenterzsébeti Forster László alezredes7th Hussars 23rd Cavalry Brigade, 5th Cavalry Division Commander: Colonel Johann Graf Lubienski - Gróf Lubienski János ezredes8th Hussars 19th Cavalry Brigade - 5th Cavalry Division Commander: Lieutenant Colonel Alexius Thege von Konkily - Konkoly Thege Elek alezredes9th Hussars 24th Cavalry Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division Commander: Colonel Koloman Géczy von Garamszeg - Garamszegi Gèczy Kálmán ezredes10th Hussars I and II Sqns, 36th Infantry Division III and IV Sqns, 42nd Infantry Division V and VI Sqns, 13th Infantry Brigade Commander: Lieutenant Colonel Alois Hauer - Hauer Alajos alezredesShako-coating of the k.u.k.

Hussars Regiment Johann C. Allmayer-Beck, Erich Lessing: Die K.u.k. Armee. 1848-1918. Verlag Bertelsmann, München 1974, ISBN 3-570-07287-8. Stefan Rest: Des Kaisers Rock im ersten Weltkrieg. Verlag Militaria, Wien 2002, ISBN 3-9501642-0-0 Das k.u.k. Heer im Jahre 1895 Schriften