Changan is an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xian. Changan means Perpetual Peace in Classical Chinese, during the short-lived Xin dynasty, the city was renamed Constant Peace, yet after its fall in AD23, the old name was restored. By the time of the Ming dynasty, the name was changed to Xian, meaning Western Peace. Changan had been settled since Neolithic times, during which the Yangshao Culture was established in Banpo in the citys suburb, from its capital at Xianyang, the Qin dynasty ruled a larger area than either of the preceding dynasties. The imperial city of Changan during the Han dynasty was located northwest of todays Xian. During the Tang dynasty, the area to be known as Changan included the area inside the Ming Xian fortification, plus small areas to its east and west. The Tang Changan hence, was 8 times the size of the Ming Xian, during its heyday, Changan was one of the largest and most populous cities in the world. Around AD750, Changan was called a million peoples city in Chinese records, while modern estimates put it at around 800, 000–1,000,000 within city walls.
According to the census in 742 recorded in the New Book of Tang,362,921 families with 1,960,188 persons were counted in Jingzhao Fu, the strategic and economic importance of ancient Changan was mainly due to its central position. The roads leading to Gansu, Henan, the site of the Han capital was located 3 km northwest of modern Xian. As the capital of the Western Han, it was the political, economic and it was the eastern terminus of the Silk Road, and a cosmopolitan metropolis. By 2 AD, the population was 246,200 in 80,000 households and this population consisted mostly of the scholar gentry class whose education was being sponsored by their wealthy aristocratic families. In addition to civil servants was a larger underclass to serve them. Initially, Emperor Liu Bang decided to build his capital at the center of the sun and this location was the site of the holy city Chengzhou, home of the last Zhou emperors. The magical significance of location was believed to ensure a long-lasting dynasty like the Zhou.
However, in practice the strategic value of a capital located in the Wei Valley became the deciding factor for locating the new capital. To this end, it is recorded c 200 BC he forcibly relocated thousands of clans in the aristocracy to this region. First, it kept all potential rivals close to the new Emperor and his adviser Liu Jing described this plan as weakening the root while strengthening the branch
Louis the Stammerer
Louis the Stammerer was the King of Aquitaine and the King of West Francia. He was the eldest son of emperor Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans, Louis the Stammerer was physically weak and outlived his father by only two years. He succeeded his younger brother Charles the Child as the ruler of Aquitaine in 866 and his father in West Francia in 877, in the French monarchial system, he is considered Louis II. The pope may have offered him the imperial crown. Louis had relatively little impact on politics and he was described a simple and sweet man, a lover of peace and religion. In 878, he gave the counties of Barcelona and his final act was to march against the invading Vikings, but he fell ill and died on 9 April or 10 April 879, not long after beginning this final campaign. On his death, his realms were divided between his two sons, Carloman II and Louis III of France, during the peace negotiations between his father and Erispoe, duke of Brittany, Louis was betrothed to an unnamed daughter of Erispoe in 856.
It is not known if this was the daughter who married Gurivant. The contract was broken in 857 after Erispoes murder and his first wife Ansgarde of Burgundy had two sons and Carloman, both of whom became kings of West Francia, and two daughters and Gisela. His second wife Adelaide of Paris had one daughter, Ermentrude and a son, Charles the Simple. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang
His reign of 43 years was the longest during the Tang Dynasty. In the early half of his reign he was a diligent, ably assisted by capable chancellors like Yao Chong, Song Jing and Zhang Yue, he was credited with bringing Tang China to a pinnacle of culture and power. Emperor Xuanzong, was blamed for over-trusting Li Linfu, Yang Guozhong and An Lushan during his late reign and this marked the beginning of the Tang dynastys decline. Li Longji was the son of Emperor Ruizong, and his mother was Emperor Ruizongs concubine Consort Dou. In 687, as the son, he was created the Prince of Chu. It was said that he was handsome as a child, and was talented in music. He had two older brothers – Li Chengqi, born of Emperor Ruizongs wife Empress Liu, and Li Chengyi and he has two full younger sisters, Princess Jinxian and Princess Yuzhen, who become Taoism nuns. In 690, Dowager Empress Wu had Emperor Ruizong yield the throne to her, in 692, Li Longji and his brothers were allowed to have residences outside the palace and were given staffs at their mansions.
Subsequently, all of Li Dans sons were reduced in title, and Li Longjis title was reduced to Prince of Linzi. In 705, Wu Zetian was overthrown in a coup, and Li Longjis uncle Li Xiăn, who was at that time crown prince, Li Longji was made the deputy minister of military supplies. In 708, he was made the general of Lu Prefecture. In 710, he was recalled to the capital Changan to attend to Emperor Zhongzong when Emperor Zhongzong was sacrificing to heaven and earth. For the time being, Emperor Zhongzongs son by a concubine, Li Chongmao the Prince of Wen, was named emperor, but Empress Wei retained actual power as empress dowager and regent. Originally, uu, and other officials Zhao Lüwen and Ye Jingneng were advising her to take the throne, like Wu Zetian did, the official Cui Riyong leaked their plan to Li Longji. Without first informing Li Dan, the rose on 21 July, first killing Wei Bo, Gao. When Empress Dowager Wei panicked and fled to an imperial guard camp, Li Guoer, Wu Yanxiu, and Lady Helou were killed as well.
Li Longji soon slaughtered a number of officials in Empress Dowagers faction as well as her clan, at the urging of Princess Taiping, Li Longji, and Li Longjis brother Li Chengqi, Li Dan soon took the throne from Li Chongmao and again became emperor. Li Chengqi declined consideration to be crown prince—stating to his father, If the state were secure, If the state were in danger, consideration should be first given for achievement
An Lushan Rebellion
The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China. The rebellion overtly began on 16 December 755, when general An Lushan declared himself emperor in Northern China, thus establishing a rival Yan Dynasty, the rebellion and subsequent disorder resulted in a huge loss of life and large-scale destruction. It significantly weakened the Tang dynasty, and led to the loss of the Western Regions, beginning in 742, Eurasia entered a 13-year period of major political turmoil, with the regional empires generally suffering a major rebellion, revolution, or dynastic change. In this year the Türk dynasty of the eastern Eurasian Steppe was overthrown, in 747, the Abbasids began their rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphate in Merv, resulting in the proclamation of a new Abbasid Caliph in about 750. This rebellion seems to have been organized by merchants and persons identifying themselves as merchants, the Arabs did not proceed any further after the battle, and the Tang retained their Central Asian territories until the An Lushan rebellion.
Further, southern expansion of the empire was limited by the ineffective, the concurrent Tang campaign against the Tibetan Empire was proceeding more successfully, with the campaign to capture the Tibetans Central Asian territories appearing near success. With the assassination of the Tibetan emperor Me Agtsom in 755 in the midst of a rebellion within the Tibetan polity, final Tang victory over the Tibetan Empire seemed all. An Lushan was a general of uncertain origin, but thought to have been adopted by a Sogdian father. Eventually he managed to become a favorite of the emperor of China. His success in this regard is shown, for example, by the luxurious house Emperor Xuanzong built for him in 751, the house was furnished with luxuries such as gold and silver objects and a pair of ten-foot-long by six-foot-wide couches appliqued with rare and expensive sandalwood. He was appointed by Emperor Xuanzong to be commander of three garrisons in the north—Pinglu and Hedong, in effect, An was given control over the entire area north of the lower reaches of the Yellow River, including garrisons about 164,000 strong.
He was a favorite in the Tang court, even calling himself the son of Yang Guifei. He was thus protected from criticism, even when her relative, Chief Minister Yang Guozhong, at the end of 755 An Lushan revolted. His army surged down from Fanyang, along the way, An Lushan treated surrendered local Tang officials with respect. As a result and more of them joined his ranks and he moved rapidly along the Grand Canal and captured the Eastern Capital city of Luoyang within the year, defeating the poorly supplied General Feng Changqing. There, An Lushan declared himself Emperor of the new Great Yan dynasty and his next steps would be to capture the Tang western capital of Changan and to attempt to continue into southern China to complete his conquest. However, the horrific Battle of Yongqiu, in the spring of 756 and this prevented the Yan forces from conquering southern China, before the Tang were able to recover. The Yan army did not take control of the Suiyang District until after the Siege of Suiyang, almost two years after their initial capture of Luoyang
West Francia extended further south than modern France, but it did not extend as far east. In Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the West Frankish king was barely felt, West Frankish kings were elected by the secular and ecclesiastic magnates, and for the half-century between 888 and 936 they chose alternatingly from the Carolingian and Robertian houses. By this time the power of king became weaker and more nominal, the Robertians, after becoming counts of Paris and dukes of France became kings themselves and established the Capetian dynasty. In August 843, after three years of war following the death of Louis the Pious on June 20,840. The youngest, Charles the Bald, received the western Francia, the contemporary West Frankish Annales Bertiniani describes Charles arriving at Verdun, where the distribution of portions took place. After describing the portions of his brothers, Lothair the Emperor and Louis the German, the Annales Fuldenses of East Francia describe Charles as holding the western part after the kingdom was divided in three.
Charles the Bald was at war with Pippin II from the start of his reign in 840, accordingly, in June 845, after several military defeats, Charles signed the Treaty of Benoît-sur-Loire and recognised his nephews rule. This agreement lasted until March 25,848, when the Aquitainian barons recognised Charles as their king, thereafter Charless armies had the upper hand and by 849 had secured most of Aquitaine. In May, Charles had himself crowned King of the Franks, the coronation was officiated by Archbishop Wenilo of Sens, and included the first instance of royal unction in West Francia. The idea of anointing Charles may be owed to Archbishop Hincmar of Reims, by the time of the Synod of Quierzy, Hincmar was claiming that Charles was anointed to the entire West Frankish kingdom. With the Treaty of Mersen in 870 the western part of Lotharingia was added to West Francia, in 875 Charles the Bald was crowned Emperor of Rome. The last record in the Annales Bertiniani dates to 882, the next set of original annals from the West Frankish kingdom are those of Flodoard, who began his account with the year 919.
After the death of Charless grandson, Carloman II, on December 12,884 and he was probably crowned King in Gaul on 20 May 885 at Grand. His reign was the time after the death of Louis the Pious that all of Francia would be re-united under one ruler. In his capacity as king of West Francia, he seems to have granted the title and perhaps regalia to the semi-independent ruler of Brittany. His handling of the Viking siege of Paris in 885–86 greatly reduced his prestige, in November 887 his nephew, Arnulf of Carinthia revolted and assumed the title as King of the East Franks. Charles retired and soon died on January 13,888, in Aquitaine, Duke Ranulf II may have had himself recognised as king, but he only lived another two years. Although Aquitaine did not become a kingdom, it was largely outside the control of the West Frankish kings
During the Taihe period of Emperor Xiaowen, court advisers instituted sweeping reforms and introduced changes that eventually led to the dynasty moving its capital from Datong to Luoyang, in 494. The Tuoba renamed themselves the Yuan as a part of systematic Sinicization, towards the end of the dynasty there was significant internal dissension resulting in a split into Eastern Wei and Western Wei. Many antiques and art works, both Daoist and Buddhist, from this period have survived, the Jin Dynasty had developed an alliance with the Tuoba against the Xiongnu state Han Zhao. In 315 the Tuoba chief was granted the title of the Prince of Dai, after Former Qins emperor Fu Jiān was defeated by Jin forces at the Battle of Fei River in his failed bid to unify China, the Former Qin state began to break apart. By 386, Tuoba Gui, the son of Tuoba Shiyijian, Later he changed his title to the Prince of Wei, and his state was therefore known as Northern Wei. In 391, Tuoba Gui defeated the Rouran tribes and killed their chief, initially Northern Wei was a vassal of Later Yan, but by 395 had rebelled and by 398 had conquered most of Later Yan territory north of the Yellow River.
In 399 Tuoba Gui he declared himself Emperor Daowu, and that title was used by Northern Weis rulers for the rest of the states history, as the empires history progressed, this appeared to be a major contributing factor leading to corruption among officials. Not until the 2nd century of the empires existence did the state begin to distribute salaries to its officials, only an imperial consort who was successful in forging a golden statue could become the empress. All men, regardless of ethnicity, were ordered to tie their hair into a braid that would be rolled and placed on top of the head. When a crown prince is named, his mother, if still alive, as a result, because emperors would not have mothers, they often honored their wet nurses with the honorific title, Nurse Empress Dowager. As sinicization of the Northern Wei state progressed, these customs, Five families formed a neighborhood Five lin formed a village Five li formed a commune At each of these levels, leaders that were associated with the central government were appointed.
In order for the state to reclaim dry, barren areas of land, the Sui and Tang Dynasties resurrected this system in the 7th century. During the reign of Emperor Daowu, the number of deported people from the regions east of Taihangshan to Datong was estimated to be around 460,000. Deportations typically took place once a new piece of territory had been conquered, as the Northern Wei state grew, the emperors desire for Han Chinese institutions and advisors grew. Cui Hao, an advisor at the courts in Datong played a part in this process. He introduced Han Chinese administrative methods and penal codes in the Northern Wei state, Chinese influence accelerated during the capitals move to Luoyang in 494 and Emperor Xiaowen continued this by establishing a policy of systematic sinicization that was continued by his successors. The royal family took the sinicization a step further by changing their name to Yuan. Marriages to Chinese families were encouraged, with this, Buddhist temples started appearing everywhere, displacing Taoism as the state religion
Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald was the King of West Francia, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor. After a series of wars during the reign of his father, Louis the Pious. He was a grandson of Charlemagne and the youngest son of Louis the Pious by his second wife and he was born on 13 June 823 in Frankfurt, when his elder brothers were already adults and had been assigned their own regna, or subkingdoms, by their father. The attempts made by Louis the Pious to assign Charles a subkingdom, first Alemannia, at a diet in Aachen in 837, Louis the Pious bade the nobles do homage to Charles as his heir. Pepin of Aquitaine died in 838, whereupon Charles at last received that kingdom, which angered Pepins heirs, the death of the emperor in 840 led to the outbreak of war between his sons. In the following year, the two confirmed their alliance by the celebrated Oaths of Strasbourg. The war was brought to an end by the Treaty of Verdun in August 843, Louis received the eastern part of the Carolingian Empire, known as East Francia and as Germany.
Lothair retained the title and the Kingdom of Italy. He received the regions from Flanders through the Rhineland. The first years of Charless reign, up to the death of Lothair I in 855, were comparatively peaceful, during these years the three brothers continued the system of confraternal government, meeting repeatedly with one another, at Koblenz, at Meerssen, and at Attigny. In 858, Louis the German, invited by disaffected nobles eager to oust Charles, Charles was so unpopular that he was unable to summon an army, and he fled to Burgundy. He was saved only by the support of the bishops, who refused to crown Louis the German king, and by the fidelity of the Welfs, in 860, he in his turn tried to seize the kingdom of his nephew, Charles of Provence, but was repulsed. On the death of his nephew Lothair II in 869, Charles tried to seize Lothairs dominions, besides these family disputes, Charles had to struggle against repeated rebellions in Aquitaine and against the Bretons. Led by their chiefs Nomenoë and Erispoë, who defeated the king at the Battle of Ballon and the Battle of Jengland, the Bretons were successful in obtaining a de facto independence.
Charles fought against the Vikings, who devastated the country of the north, the valleys of the Seine and Loire, at the Vikings successful siege and sack of Paris in 845 and several times thereafter Charles was forced to purchase their retreat at a heavy price. By the same edict, he ordered fortified bridges to be put up at all rivers to block the Viking incursions, two of these bridges at Paris saved the city during its siege of 885–886. In 875, after the death of the Emperor Louis II, Charles the Bald, supported by Pope John VIII, traveled to Italy, receiving the crown at Pavia. Louis the German, a candidate for the succession of Louis II, revenged himself by invading and devastating Charles dominions, and Charles had to return hastily to West Francia
Ašmiany is a town in Grodno Region, located at 50 km from Vilnius, capital of the Ašmiany raion. It lies in the basin of the Oshmianka River and it is known as Aschemynne in the Chronicles of the Teutonic Knights. It was the birthplace of Lucjan Żeligowski, who was a Polish general and region surrounding modern Ašmiany was once within the ethnic Lithuanian territory. Between the 17th and 18th centuries a lot of local Lithuanians died out due to wars and famine, with time Lithuanians were outnumbered by Slavs. Presently, its Lithuanian past is sealed in the townss name, towns name derivative from river name Ašmena, which is originated from appellative Lithuanian word akmuo. Link between consonants š and k is old and echoed in Lithuanian words, respectively ašmuo and akmuo, present name Ashmyany is using plural form of name and is a modern invention, as through ancient towns history, its name was recorded in Lithuanian singular form. The first reliable mentioning of Ašmiany tells that after the death of Gediminas in 1341 the town was inherited, among other places, in 1384, the Teutonic Knights attempted to attack Ašmiany as a beginning attempt to destroy the hereditary state of Jogaila.
The Teutons managed to destroy the town, but it quickly recovered, in 1402 another Teutonic attack on the city occurred, but was bloodily repelled and the Teutons were forced to withdraw to Medininkai. In 1413 the town one of the most notable centres of trade. Because of that, in 1432 it became a battlefield of an important battle between the forces of Jogaila under Žygimantas Kęstutaitis and the forces of Švitrigaila allied with the Teutonic Order. After the town was taken by the royalists, it became a property of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania. However, less than a century the town was yet again destroyed and burnt to the ground, the recovery did not occur as quickly as the previous time and in 1537 the town was granted with several royal privileges to facilitate the reconstruction. In 1566 the town received a city charter based on the Magdeburg Law. In the 16th century the town became one of the most notable centres of Calvinism in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, after Mikołaj the Red Radziwiłł founded a collegiate.
It was then that the received the first Coat of Arms in its history. Composed of three fields parted per pale, it featured a shield, a holding a weigh and the Ciołek coat of arms. In the effect of the Partitions of Poland of 1795, the town was annexed by Imperial Russia, during the November Uprising it was liberated by a local priest Jasiński and Colonel Count Karol Przeździecki with help of town population. However, in April 1831 they were forced to withdraw to the Naliboki forest in the face of a Russian offensive, some 500 people, women and elderly seeking refuge in the Dominican Catholic Church were massacred there
Du Fu was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty. Along with Li Bai, he is called the greatest of the Chinese poets. His greatest ambition was to serve his country as a civil servant. His life, like the country, was devastated by the An Lushan Rebellion of 755. Although initially he was little-known to other writers, his works came to be influential in both Chinese and Japanese literary culture. Of his poetic writing, nearly fifteen hundred poems have been preserved over the ages, since many of Du Fus poems feature morality and history, this practice is particularly important. Most of what is known of Du Fus life comes from his poems and his paternal grandfather was Du Shenyan, a noted politician and poet during the reign of Empress Wu. Du Fu was born in 712, the birthplace is unknown, except that it was near Luoyang. In life, he considered himself to belong to the city of Changan. Du Fus mother died shortly after he was born, and he was raised by his aunt. He had a brother, who died young.
He had three brothers and one half sister, to whom he frequently refers in his poems. The son of a minor scholar-official, his youth was spent on the education of a future civil servant and memorisation of the Confucian classics of philosophy. He claimed to have produced creditable poems by his early teens, in the early 730s, he travelled in the Jiangsu/Zhejiang area, his earliest surviving poem, describing a poetry contest, is thought to date from the end of this period, around 735. In that year, he took the civil service exam, likely in Changan and he failed, to his surprise and that of centuries of critics. Hung concludes that he failed because his prose style at the time was too dense and obscure. After this failure, he went back to traveling, this time around Shandong, Du Fu would have been allowed to enter the civil service because of his fathers rank, but he is thought to have given up the privilege in favour of one of his half brothers. He spent the four years living in the Luoyang area