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Decemviri

The decemviri or decemvirs were any of several 10-man commissions established by the Roman Republic. The most important were those of the two Decemvirates, formally the "Decemvirs Writing the Laws with Consular Imperium" who reformed and codified Roman law during the Conflict of the Orders between ancient Rome's patrician aristocracy and plebeian commoners. Other decemviri include the "Decemviri Adjudging Litigation", the "Decemviri Making Sacrifices", the "Decemviri Distributing Public Lands"; the setting up of the Decemviri Legibus Scribundis Consulari Imperio occurred within the context of the two-hundred-year Conflict of the Orders between the patrician order and the plebeian order. The patricians had developed into the upper class by monopolising the priesthoods, which played an important part in the politics of archaic Rome and, in the Early Republic, the consulship, the seats of the senate, the advisory body for the consuls, they were large landowners. The form of labour exploitation during this archaic period was the nexum, what historians call debt bondage, bonded labour, or debt slavery.

The debtor pledged his labour services as collateral for debt. Defaulting debtors were liable to have their labour bonded for life. In the early 5th century BC there was an increase in the problem of indebtedness due the appropriation of public land by the rich landowners to expand their estates, Rome’s territory being attacked by neighbouring peoples and taxation; this led to an increase in the problem of the abuse of defaulting debtors. Because of the absence of defined laws and judicial procedures, the creditors could imprison and torture the debtors and, sell them as slaves; this led to the First Plebeian Secession, the start of the Conflict of the Orders. The plebeians demanded that the state protect small farmers from the abuse of defaulting debtors by the creditors, who were the wealthy patrician landowners; when this was not forthcoming, they resorted to boycotting the military levy. At that time the Roman army was a part-time militia of peasant farmers who were drafted each year for the military campaigning season and went back to their farms.

Refusing the call-up gave plebeians significant political leverage. When their demands were not met, on their return from a defensive military campaign the soldiers refused to obey orders and seceded to Mons Sacer, outside Rome, they threatened to stay there until their demands were met. There were negotiations and the secession ended. However, the plebeian demands were not met. Rather, they obtained the recognition of the institutions which they had created during the rebellion, the Plebeian Council and the plebeian tribunes; the latter acted as the defenders of the plebeians from abuse by consuls or officials through the provocatio, the power to veto the actions of the consuls and officials. They used it for actions they judged inequitable or abusive to any plebeian, they convened and presided over the Plebeian Council and presented bills for its vote. An element of this conflict was about whether the resolutions of this council should be binding on all Roman citizens, including the patricians, or only on the plebeians.

The plebeian institutions were parallel and separate from that of the Roman state. Livy said "wo states had been created out of one; the main role of the plebeian institutions in the early days of the conflict of the orders was self-defence. The next step in the conflict was the Lex Terentilia proposed by Gaius Terentilius Harsa, a plebeian tribune, in 462 BC, it provided for a five-man commission to set out the norms through which the power of the consuls would be defined. With the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the republic, the powers of the king were transferred to the consuls, who were regarded as the representatives of regal power; as such, consular powers were undefined and therefore without limits. Gaius Terentilus wanted to have them defined, therefore curtailed, as a way of proving further protections for the plebeians; the patricians were opposed to this curtailment and managed to postpone the debate on this law for eight years. In 454 BC the plebeian tribunes dropped the fruitless pursuit of this law.

They asked the senate to “consent to the appointment of a body of legislators, chosen in equal numbers from plebeians and patricians to enact what would be useful to both orders and secure equal liberty for each”. The patricians replied that this was worthy of consideration, but said that only patricians could legislate. Although disputed by historians such as Niebuhr and Grant, according to Livy and Dionysius, three envoys were sent to Athens to study the Law of Solon and inquire about the laws of other Greek city-states. In 452 BC the envoys “returned with the laws of Athens.” The plebeian tribunes pressed to begin the compilation of the laws. It was agreed to appoint decemviri with consular powers which would not be subject to appeal and to suspend both the consulship and the plebeian tribunate; this made the decemvirate an extraordinary magistracy as well as a commission tasked with compiling laws. After a long debate about whether plebeians should sit on the decemvirate, the p

Sadat (miniseries)

Sadat is a 1983 American two-part, four-hour made-for-television biographical film based on the life and death of the late 3rd President of Egypt, Anwar Sadat starring Louis Gossett Jr. as Sadat and Madolyn Smith as Sadat's wife, Jehan. It was distributed by Columbia Pictures Television through Operation Prime Time. Gossett's performance earned him a nomination for a Golden Globe Award; the film begins by depicting Sadat's involvement with violent anti-British insurgents. He becomes a follower of Gamal Abdel Nasser as the latter begins his ascent to political supremacy in Egypt; as Egypt becomes more of a regional power led by Nasser, Sadat suffers the strain of being Nasser's yes man, while clashing with him. Nasser enjoys widespread popularity once he nationalizes the Suez Canal, but suffers a fatal downfall in the wake Egypt's crushing defeat in the Six-Day War. Succeeding Nasser, Sadat finds himself beholden to the Soviets for military assistance; the Soviets know the Egyptians are determined to go to war with Israel and reclaim the Sinai, but doubt that Egypt's military can cross the Suez without their help.

Determined to make the Egyptians masters of their own nation, Sadat forgoes Soviet assistance. In October 1973, Egypt and Syria launch a two-front attack on Israel. Egypt's planning proves immensely successful at the outset, building on a well-executed amphibious crossing of the Suez. Egyptian air defense units hold off Israel's Air Force, depriving soldiers on the ground of air support; the assault founders when an Israeli tank unit led by Ariel Sharon holds its own without air support. Sadat suffers the loss of a relative shot down during the war. Sadat realizes the futility of war, seeks a peaceful dialog with Israel, leading up to his meetings with Menachem Begin. While the resulting Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty normalizes relations between Egypt and the west, in the midst of the Israeli occupation of Palestine alienates Sadat from the rest of the Arab world. On October 6, 1981, Sadat is assassinated as he and several foreign dignitaries review a military procession marking the 1973 crossing of the Suez.

The film was negatively received in Egypt and was accused there of distorting history and slandering the Egyptian people, was criticized for the casting of a black actor, Lou Gossett, Jr. as Sadat. The Egyptian Ministry of Culture announced a ban on all films and television programs distributed by Columbia Pictures, Egypt's artists' and film unions sued Columbia Pictures and the film's director and producers; the lawsuit was dismissed by an Egyptian court for lack of jurisdiction because the film's "distortions" and "slanders" occurred outside Egypt. Director Michaels said that the Egyptian government deserved the 1984 "overreaction award" for its handling of the miniseries. Sadat on IMDb The full translated movie https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gwwYARiWon0

Tenmile Creek (Lewis and Clark County, Montana)

Tenmile Creek is a 26.5-mile long tributary of Prickly Pear Creek, located in southern Lewis and Clark County in the state of Montana in the United States. Although somewhat polluted by abandoned mines and mine tailings in its upper watershed, Tenmile Creek supplies about half the water for the city of Helena, the state capitol. Tenmile Creek rises near the top of the Continental Divide on the east slopes of the Rocky Mountains the Lewis and Clark Range; the upper watershed consists of forested mountain slopes. The lower watershed consists of the final 5 miles of the stream, which travels over prairie and through residential and retail developments in and near the city of Helena, Montana before reaching its outlet at Prickly Pear Creek. Lake Helena is only 1.5 miles downstream from the confluence of Tenmile Creek and Prickly Pear Creek. Tenmile Creek is a typical mountain stream. Water flows are heaviest in late spring and early summer, when snowmelt and spring rains are heaviest. Land uses in the upper watershed consist of outdoor timber harvesting.

The town of Rimini, Montana, is located in the upper watershed, as is a small residential subdivision, a few scattered single-family homes and recreational cabins. The lower watershed is used for farm land and urban residential and retail development. Irrigation for farmland, draws on water in Tenmile Creek, leaving the stream dry at points, but some or most of this water returns to the stream through seepage. Hard rock mining was common in the upper watershed from about 1870 into the 1990s; the upper 13 miles of the stream is located within the Upper Tenmile Creek National Priorities List, a federal Superfund site about 53 square miles in size. Arsenic, copper, nitrate and zinc are released into the stream when water flows over or through mines or main tailings and reaches Tenmile Creek. At times, water in the creek contains levels of arsenic and lead which exceed State of Montana limits for safe human consumption, water treatment is needed to render the water safe to drink and use; as of 2012, there were 150 inactive mines in the upper watershed.

Reclamation activity began in 1996, was expected to be complete in 2012. Between 2002 and 2010, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the state of Montana spent $87.5 million in designing and constructing remediation plants and contaminated soil repositories, remediation projects and removal of contaminated soil. Tenmile Creek provides the city of Helena with about 50 percent of its drinking water. Water was first diverted to city use in the 1880s by the Helena Water Works Company, which constructed a 4.8-mile system of wood flumes and trestles to bring water to local residents. The city of Helena purchased the flume system in 1911, continues to maintain it into the 21st century; the city owns first and second Prior-appropriation water rights for a total of 550 miner's inches of the streamflow, amounting to about 8.9 million gallons of water per day. The city built and maintains Chessman Reservoir and Scott Reservoir near the stream's headwaters, which retain excess water during periods of high precipitation, release this water during periods of high demand.

Nearly all the water in Tenmile Creek is diverted by underground pipeline to the Tenmile Water Treatment Plant located on Rimini Road west of Helena. In 2011, the city of Helena and local landowners sued one another over how much water the city was permitted to take from Tenmile Creek. Landowners argued, they argued that the city should take more water from the nearby Missouri River so that Tenmile Creek could sustain greater flows. The following year, the Bates Land Company put 1,212 acre feet of Tenmile Creek water up for sale at a price of $9.6 million. The water rights were third in line; the company offered the water rights to the city of Helena for just $1 million, but the city said its Tenmile Water Treatment Plant could not accommodate the extra inflows. Fire is a serious threat to Helena's water supply. Fire could not only destroy the nearly 140-year-old wooden flume system that brings Tenmile Creek water to the city, but loss of forest and undercover would create immense erosion that would pollute Tenmile Creek and render it unusable for human use for as long as five years.

Between 2000 and 2008, the city of Helena spent about $415,000 to create a 432-foot wide vegetationless buffer zone on either side of portions of the flume to reduce the likelihood of fire damage. But with much of the flume running through the Helena National Forest, the city needs the permission of the National Forest Service to do additional work; the Tenmile Watershed Collaborative Committee was formed in 2008 to develop recommendations to address issues in the watershed, including fire alleviation, but no action had been taken on its recommendations as of 2013. Tenmile Creek's ability to support a viable fishery is limited by both high concentrations of deadly elements in the water as well as the minimal or nonexistent water flows during certain parts of the year; the stream has no significant fish populations anywhere in its watershed. Lake Helena List of Montana rivers