Livingston, West Lothian
Livingston is the largest town in West Lothian, Scotland. Designated in 1962, it is the fourth post-war new town to be built in Scotland. Taking its name from the village of Livingston in West Lothian, it was developed in the then-counties of Midlothian and West Lothian, it is situated fifteen miles west of Edinburgh and thirty miles east of Glasgow, is close to the towns of Broxburn to the north-east and Bathgate to the north-west. It was built around a collection of small villages, Livingston Village and Livingston Station, it has a number of residential areas. These include Craigshill, Ladywell, Deans, Murieston, Eliburn, Kirkton and Dedridge. There are industrial estates in Livingston Houston industrial estate and Kirkton Campus The locality of Livingston as defined by the General Register Office for Scotland includes Uphall Station and Pumpherston; the wider urban settlement as defined by the GRO includes Mid Calder and East Calder. Other neighbouring villages include: Kirknewton and West Calder.
The 2001 UK Census reported that the town had population of 50,826. The 2011 UK Census showed the population of Livingston had increased to 56,269. Livingston is the second-largest settlement in the Lothians after Edinburgh; until 1963, the area surrounding the ancient village of Livingston was open farmland, the ancient village is now called Livingston Village. The area around Livingston was an important shale oil area, the world's first oil boom occurred in West Lothian; this was based on oil extracted from shale, by 1870 over 3 million tons of shale were being mined each year in the area around Livingston. Output declined with the discovery of liquid oil reserves around the world in the early 1900s, but shale mining only ceased in 1962; the "bings" that characterise oil shale mining in West Lothian have been flattened. In 1898 Livingston had several houses, a Church of Scotland church, a United Free church and a school. Around 1 mile north of Livingston there was a railway station in a settlement called Livingston Station, now part of Deans.
The old part of Livingston is now called Livingston Village. Livingston was built in part to ease overcrowding in Glasgow. Livingston was the fourth new town of five; the others were East Kilbride, Glenrothes and Irvine. Livingston was designated as a New Town on 16 April 1962; the first people moved into Livingston in April 1966. Three villages and numerous farmsteads remain islands of old buildings within the new developments. In 1984 Livingston gained its first railway station on the Shotts Line called Livingston South, followed by Livingston North on the Edinburgh to Bathgate Line in 1986; these stations replaced the former Livingston and Newpark stations which had closed before the construction of the town. In 1995 Livingston gained its professional football team, Livingston F. C., the relocation of Meadowbank Thistle F. C. from Edinburgh. In order to build and promote Livingston a quango organisation was formed, the Livingston Development Corporation. Sir David Lowe a local large scale farmer and businessman was appointed chairman.
The first tenants to be housed by 1964. The corporation guided Livingston until its mandate expired on 22 March 1997 and the town was transferred to West Lothian Council; the last major construction operation carried out by the LDC was the Almondvale Stadium, to become the home to the renamed Livingston F. C. A new purpose built campus for West Lothian College and other major developments have taken place in Livingston over the last 10 years. Construction in Livingston has continued under the management of West Lothian Council. In 1979, an employee of the LDC claimed he was knocked unconscious after an alleged conflict with activities from a UFO. Robert Taylor, in his sixties at this point in time, was working as a Forester for Livingston Development Corporation near Dechmont Law when the supposed incident took place; the incident was reported to the police, but nearly 40 years after taking place, the incident has never been resolved. It remains one of the UK's most notable claimed UFO sightings.
Livingston is the 8th largest settlement and the 3rd largest town in Scotland, it is the 171st largest settlement in the United Kingdom. It lies 30 miles away from Glasgow and 15 miles from Edinburgh, it has the River Almond flowing through the town centre, what the old Almondvale Centre was named after. The districts which make up Livingston include: Craigshill Howden Ladywell Knightsridge Deans Dedridge Murieston Almondvale Eliburn Kirkton Adambrae Bellsquarry The area where Livingston now sits was dominated by oil shale mining, evident from the bings which still exist on much of the surrounding landscape; the designation of Livingston in the 1960s attracted new light industries to the area, with high technology and pharmaceutical companies moving into the town. Livingston formed a major hub in Scotland's Silicon Glen. Like most other areas this went into a slow decline with the closures of companies including Motorola and NEC. Several multi-national companies still have factories in the town.
Sky UK is the largest private sector employer in West Lothian with a range of offices and contact centres. Other large employers include those in the retail sector and in the health care sector the National Health Service, Q Squared Solutions and Quintiles IMS
A volcanic plug called a volcanic neck or lava neck, is a volcanic object created when magma hardens within a vent on an active volcano. When present, a plug can cause an extreme build-up of pressure if rising volatile-charged magma is trapped beneath it, this can sometimes lead to an explosive eruption. Glacial erosion can lead to exposure of the plug on one side, while a long slope of material remains on the opposite side; such landforms are called tail. If a plug is preserved, erosion may remove the surrounding rock while the erosion-resistant plug remains, producing a distinctive upstanding landform. An example of two volcanic plugs can be found at the Pitons, in Saint Lucia, as they rise abruptly out of the eastern Caribbean Sea. Near the village of Rhumsiki in the Far North Province of Cameroon, Kapsiki Peak is an example of a volcanic plug and is one of the most photographed parts of the Mandara Mountains. Spectacular volcanic plugs are present in the center of La Gomera island in the Canary Islands archipelago, within the Garajonay National Park.
Borgarvirki is a volcanic plug located in north Iceland. A volcanic plug is situated in the town of Motta Sant'Anastasia in Italy. Saint Michel d'Aiguilhe chapel, whose construction started near Le Puy-en-Velay in France; the volcanic plug rises about 85 metres above the surroundings. Another building on a volcanic plug is the 14th century Trosky Castle in the Czech Republic. Strombolicchio, the northernmost of the Aeolian Islands, Rockall, a small, remote islet in the North Atlantic Ocean, are volcanic plugs. In the United Kingdom, two examples of a building on a volcanic plug are the Castle Rock in Edinburgh and Deganwy Castle, Wales; the Law, Ailsa Craig, Bass Rock, North Berwick Law and Dumgoyne hill are other examples of volcanic plugs located in Scotland. There are over 30 volcanic plugs in Northern Ireland, including Slemish in Ballymena, Scawt Hill, Carrickarede and Slieve Gallion. There are several volcanic plugs in the United States, including Morro Rock in California and Shiprock in New Mexico.
Devils Tower in Wyoming and Little Devils Postpile in Yosemite National Park, are believed to be volcanic plugs by many geologists. In Canada, the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province gives rise to several confirmed and suspected plugs. Chief among these is Castle Rock, located in British Columbia, which last erupted during the Pleistocene; the southern coast of Saint Lucia is dominated by a UNESCO World Heritage site. The twin peaks, Gros Piton and Petit Piton, steeply rise more than 770 metres above the Caribbean. There are several volcanic plugs in the North Island of New Zealand, including: the Pinnacles in the Coromandel Peninsula Bream Head in Northland Paritutu and the adjacent Sugar Loaf Islands in Taranaki St. Paul's Rock at Whangaroa Harbour Piha's Lion Rock, which hosted a fortified Maori pa. In New Zealand's South Island, Ōnawe Peninsula on Banks Peninsula is a prominent volcanic plug, erosion of Saddle Hill near Dunedin has revealed a plug. Dunedin's Mount Cargill displays two plugs: its main summit and the subsidiary summit of Buttar's Peak.
In Australia, the Nut and Table Cape in Tasmania are further examples along with Mount Warning in New South Wales
A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain. It has a distinct summit, although in areas with scarp/dip topography a hill may refer to a particular section of flat terrain without a massive summit; the distinction between a hill and a mountain is unclear and subjective, but a hill is universally considered to be less tall and less steep than a mountain. In the United Kingdom, geographers regarded mountains as hills greater than 1,000 feet above sea level, which formed the basis of the plot of the 1995 film The Englishman Who Went Up a Hill But Came Down a Mountain. In contrast, hillwalkers have tended to regard mountains as peaks 2,000 feet above sea level: the Oxford English Dictionary suggests a limit of 2,000 feet and Whittow states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 m as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." Today, a mountain is defined in the UK and Ireland as any summit at least 2,000 feet or 610 meters high, while the official UK government's definition of a mountain is a summit of 600 meters or higher.
Some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 feet or 500 feet. In practice, mountains in Scotland are referred to as "hills" no matter what their height, as reflected in names such as the Cuillin Hills and the Torridon Hills. In Wales, the distinction is more a term of land use and appearance and has nothing to do with height. For a while, the U. S. defined a mountain as being more tall. Any similar landform lower; the United States Geological Survey, has concluded that these terms do not in fact have technical definitions in the U. S; the Great Soviet Encyclopedia defined "hill" as an upland with a relative height up to 200 m. A hillock is a small hill. Other words include its variant, knowe. Artificial hills may be referred to including mound and tumulus. Hills may form through geomorphic phenomena: faulting, erosion of larger landforms such as mountains, movement and deposition of sediment by glaciers The rounded peaks of hills results from the diffusive movement of soil and regolith covering the hill, a process known as downhill creep.
Various names used to describe types of hill, based on method of formation. Many such names originated in one geographical region to describe a type of hill formation peculiar to that region, though the names are adopted by geologists and used in a wider geographical context; these include: Brae -- Scottish term for a brow of a hill. Drumlin – an elongated whale-shaped hill formed by glacial action. Butte – an isolated hill with steep sides and a small flat top, formed by weathering. Kuppe – a rounded hill or low mountain, typical of central Europe Tor – a rock formation found on a hilltop. Puy – used in the Auvergne, France, to describe a conical volcanic hill. Pingo – a mound of earth-covered ice found in the Arctic and Antarctica. Many settlements were built on hills, either to avoid floods, or for defense, or to avoid densely forested areas. For example, Ancient Rome was built on seven hills; some settlements in the Middle East, are located on artificial hills consisting of debris that has accumulated over many generations.
Such a location is known as a "tell". In northern Europe, many ancient monuments are sited in heaps; some of these are defensive structures. In Britain, many churches at the tops of hills are thought to have been built on the sites of earlier pagan holy places; the National Cathedral in Washington, DC has followed this tradition and was built on the highest hill in that city. Hills provide a major advantage to an army, giving them an elevated firing position and forcing an opposing army to charge uphill to attack them, they may conceal forces behind them, allowing a force to lie in wait on the crest of a hill, using that crest for cover, firing on unsuspecting attackers as they broach the hilltop. As a result, conventional military strategies demand possession of high ground. Hills have been the sites of many noted battles, such as the first recorded military conflict in Scotland known as the battle of Mons Graupius. Modern conflicts include the Battle of Bunker Hill in the American War of Independence and Cemetery Hill and Culp's Hill in the Battle of Gettysburg, the turning point of the American Civil War.
The Battle of San Juan Hill in the Spanish–American War won Americans control of Santiago. The Battle of Alesia was fought from a hilltop fort. Fighting on Mamayev Kurgan during the Battle of Stalingrad and the Umurbrogol Pocket in the Battle of Peleliu were examples of bloody fighting for high ground. Another recent example is the Kargil War between Pakistan; the Great Wall of China is an example of an advantage provider. It is built on mountain tops, was meant to defend against invaders from the north, among others, Mongolians. Hillwalking is a British English term for a form of hiking; the activity is distinguished from mountaineering as it does no
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Dechmont known as the twilight zone, is a small village located near Uphall, West Lothian in Scotland. Bangour Village Hospital is located to the west of Dechmont, it has an approximate population of 989 people. Its postal code is EH52. There was said to be an alien encounter in 1979 in the nearby Dechmont Woods; the village has a small infant/primary school providing learning for pre-school through to primary three pupils. In 2012 the school roll was thirteen, he died there in 1875. Scott Arfield from dechmont is a professional footballer who has played with Falkirk and Huddersfield Town and Burnley and now plays with Rangers and captains the Canadian national team. Robert Taylor incident West Lothian Archaeology Group - Dechmont Law
A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. They are European and of the Bronze and Iron Ages; some were used in the post-Roman period. The fortification follows the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines of earthworks, with stockades or defensive walls, external ditches. Hillforts developed in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age the start of the first millennium BC, were used in many Celtic areas of central and western Europe until the Roman conquest; the terms "hill fort", "hill-fort" and "hillfort" are all used in the archaeological literature. They all refer to an elevated site with one or more ramparts made of earth, stone and/or wood, with an external ditch. Many small early hillforts were abandoned, with the larger ones being redeveloped at a date; some hillforts contain houses. Similar but smaller and less defendable earthworks are found on the sides of hills; these may have been animal pens.
They are most common during periods: Urnfield culture and Atlantic Bronze Age Bronze Age Hallstatt culture late Bronze Age to early Iron Age La Tène culture late Iron AgePrehistoric Europe saw a growing population. It has been estimated that in about 5000 BC during the Neolithic between 2 million and 5 million lived in Europe. Outside Greece and Italy, which were more densely populated, the vast majority of settlements in the Iron Age were small, with no more than 50 inhabitants. Hillforts were the exception, were the home of up to 1,000 people. With the emergence of oppida in the Late Iron Age, settlements could reach as large as 10,000 inhabitants; as the population increased so did the complexity of prehistoric societies. Around 1100 BC hillforts in the following centuries spread through Europe, they served a range of purposes and were variously tribal centres, defended places, foci of ritual activity, places of production. During the Hallstatt C period, hillforts became the dominant settlement type in the west of Hungary.
Julius Caesar described the large late Iron Age hillforts he encountered during his campaigns in Gaul as oppida. By this time the larger ones had become more like cities than fortresses and many were assimilated as Roman towns. Hillforts were occupied by conquering armies, but on other occasions the forts were destroyed, the local people forcibly evicted, the forts left derelict. For example, Solsbury Hill was sacked and deserted during the Belgic invasions of southern Britain in the 1st century BC. Abandoned forts were sometimes reoccupied and refortified under renewed threat of foreign invasion, such as the Dukes' Wars in Lithuania, the successive invasions of Britain by Romans and Vikings. Excavations at hillforts in the first half of the 20th century focussed on the defenses, based on the assumption that hillforts were developed for military purposes; the exception to this trend began in the 1930s with a series of excavations undertaken by Mortimer Wheeler at Maiden Castle, Dorset. From 1960 onwards, archaeologists shifted their attention to the interior of hillforts, re-examining their function.
Post-processual archaeologists regard hillforts as symbols of wealth and power. Michael Avery has stated the traditional view of hillforts by saying, "The ultimate defensive weapon of European prehistory was the hillfort of the first millennium B. C.". Beyond the simple definition of hillfort, there is a wide variation in types and periods from the Bronze Age to the Middle Ages. Here are some considerations of general appearance and topology, which can be assessed without archaeological excavation: Location Hilltop Contour: the classic hillfort. Examples: Brent Knoll, Mount Ipf. Inland Promontory: an inland defensive position on a ridge or spur with steep slopes on 2 or 3 sides, artificial ramparts on the level approaches. Example: Lambert's Castle. Interfluvial: a promontory above the confluence of two rivers, or in the bend of a meander. Examples: Kelheim, Miholjanec. Lowland: an inland location without special defensive advantages, but surrounded by artificial ramparts. Examples: Maiden Castle, Old Oswestry, Stonea Camp.
Sea Cliff: a semi-circular crescent of ramparts backing on to a straight sea cliff. Examples: Daw's Castle, Dinas Dinlle, Dún Aengus. Sea Promontory: a linear earthwork across a narrow neck of land leading to a peninsula with steep cliffs to the sea on three sides. Examples: Huelgoat. Sloping Enclosure or Hill-slope enclosure: smaller earthwork on sloping hillsides. Examples: Goosehill Camp, Plainsfield Camp, Trendle Ring. Area > 20 ha: large enclosures, too diffuse to defend used for domesticated animals. Example: Bindon Hill. 1–20 ha: defended areas large enough to support permanent tribal settlement. Example: Scratchbury Camp < 1 ha: small enclosures, more to be individual farmsteads or animal pens. Example: Trendle Ring. Ramparts and ditches Univallate: a single circuit of ramparts for enclosure and defence. Example: Solsbury Hill. Bivallate: a double circuit of defensive earthworks. Example: Battlesbury Camp. Multivallate: more than one layer of defensive earthworks, outer works might not be complet
Unidentified flying object
An unidentified flying object is an object observed in the sky, not identified. Most UFOs are identified as conventional objects or phenomena; the term is used for claimed observations of extraterrestrial spacecraft. The term "UFO" was coined in 1953 by the United States Air Force to serve as a catch-all for all such reports. In its initial definition, the USAF stated that a "UFOB" was "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object." Accordingly, the term was restricted to that fraction of cases which remained unidentified after investigation, as the USAF was interested in potential national security reasons and/or "technical aspects". During the late 1940s and through the 1950s, UFOs were referred to popularly as "flying saucers" or "flying discs"; the term UFO became more widespread during the 1950s, at first in technical literature, but in popular use.
UFOs garnered considerable interest during the Cold War, an era associated with a heightened concern for national security, more in the 2010s, for unexplained reasons. Various studies have concluded that the phenomenon does not represent a threat to national security, nor does it contain anything worthy of scientific pursuit; the Oxford English Dictionary defines a UFO. The first published book to use the word was authored by Donald E. Keyhoe; the acronym "UFO" was coined by Captain Edward J. Ruppelt, who headed Project Blue Book the USAF's official investigation of UFOs, he wrote, "Obviously the term'flying saucer' is misleading when applied to objects of every conceivable shape and performance. For this reason the military prefers the more general, if less colorful, name: unidentified flying objects. UFO for short." Other phrases that were used and that predate the UFO acronym include "flying flapjack", "flying disc", "unexplained flying discs", "unidentifiable object". The phrase "flying saucer" had gained widespread attention after the summer of 1947.
On June 24, a civilian pilot named Kenneth Arnold reported seeing nine objects flying in formation near Mount Rainier. Arnold estimated the speed of discs to be over 1,200 mph. At the time, he claimed he described the objects flying in a saucer-like fashion, leading to newspaper accounts of "flying saucers" and "flying discs". Ufo's were referred to colloquially, as a "Bogey" by military personal and pilots during the cold war; the term "bogey" was used to report anomalies in radar blips, to indicate possible hostile forces that might be roaming in the area. In popular usage, the term UFO came to be used to refer to claims of alien spacecraft, because of the public and media ridicule associated with the topic, some ufologists and investigators prefer to use terms such as "unidentified aerial phenomenon" or "anomalous phenomena", as in the title of the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena. "Anomalous aerial vehicle" or "unidentified aerial system" are sometimes used in a military aviation context to describe unidentified targets.
Studies have established that the majority of UFO observations are misidentified conventional objects or natural phenomena—most aircraft, noctilucent clouds, nacreous clouds, or astronomical objects such as meteors or bright planets with a small percentage being hoaxes. Between 5% and 20% of reported sightings are not explained, therefore can be classified as unidentified in the strictest sense. While proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis suggest that these unexplained reports are of alien spacecraft, the null hypothesis cannot be excluded that these reports are other more prosaic phenomena that cannot be identified due to lack of complete information or due to the necessary subjectivity of the reports. Instead of accepting the null hypothesis, UFO enthusiasts tend to engage in special pleading by offering outlandish, untested explanations for the validity of the ETH; these violate Occam's razor. No scientific papers about UFOs have been published in peer-reviewed journals. There was, in the past, some debate in the scientific community about whether any scientific investigation into UFO sightings is warranted with the general conclusion being that the phenomenon was not worthy of serious investigation except as a cultural artifact.
UFOs have been the subject of investigations by various governments who have provided extensive records related to the subject. Many of the most involved government-sponsored investigations ended after agencies concluded that there was no benefit to continued investigation; the void left by the lack of institutional or scientific study has given rise to independent researchers and fringe groups, including the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena in the mid-20th century and, more the Mutual UFO Network and the Center for UFO Studies. The term "Ufology" is used to describe the collective efforts of those who study reports and associated evidence of unidentified flying objects. UFOs have become a prevalent theme in modern culture, the social phenomena have been the subject of academic research in sociology and psychology. Unexplained aerial observations have been reported throughout history; some were undoubtedly astronomical in nature: comets, bright meteors, one or more of the five planets that can be readily