International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Darkthrone is a black metal band from Kolbotn, Norway. It formed in 1986 as a death metal band under the name Black Death. In 1991, the band embraced a black metal style influenced by Bathory and Celtic Frost and became one of the leading bands in the Norwegian black metal scene, their first three black metal albums—A Blaze in the Northern Sky, Under a Funeral Moon and Transilvanian Hunger — are considered the peak of the band's career and to be among the most influential albums in the genre. For most of this time, Darkthrone has been a duo of Fenriz and Nocturno Culto since the guitarist Zephyrous left the band in 1993; the band have sought to remain outside the music mainstream. Since 2006, their work has strayed from the traditional black metal style and incorporated more elements of traditional heavy metal and speed metal, being likened to Motörhead; the band that would become Darkthrone formed in late 1986 in a small suburb of Oslo. They were a death metal band by the name of Black Death whose members were Gylve Nagell, Ivar Enger and Anders Risberget.
Their main inspirations were Venom, Celtic Frost and Cryptic Slaughter. In late 1987, the band were joined by Dag Nilsen. Ted Skjellum joined in spring of 1988. During 1988 and 1989, the band independently released four demo tapes: Land of Frost, A New Dimension and Cromlech, they were subsequently signed to the independent record label Peaceville Records with a four-album contract. In 1990, they recorded Soulside Journey; because of a small recording budget, the band could not afford the kind of studio they wanted but, thanks to the members of Nihilist and Entombed, they were able to record their album at Sunlight Studios. Although death metal in style, there were some elements of black metal present in terms of artwork and songwriting. Following the release of this album, the band continued writing and recording new material, recording every new song on tape until it was a full album; these demos were instrumental but they demonstrated the band's gradual shift towards black metal. In 1997, they would be released on the compilation album Goatlord.
During 1991, Darkthrone adopted the aesthetic style that would come to represent the black metal scene, wearing corpse paint and working under pseudonyms. Gylve Nagell became "Fenriz", Ted Skjellum became "Nocturno Culto" and Ivar Enger became "Zephyrous". In August 1991, they recorded their second album, released at the beginning of 1992 and titled A Blaze in the Northern Sky; the album contained Darkthrone's first black metal recordings, Peaceville Records was skeptical about releasing it due to Darkthrone's extreme diversion from their original death metal style. After the album was recorded, bassist Dag Nilsen left the band, is credited as "session bass" with no picture on the album; the band's third album, Under a Funeral Moon, was recorded in the summer of 1992 and released in early 1993. It marked Darkthrone's total conversion to the black metal style, is considered a landmark for the development of the genre as a whole; this album marked the last album on which guitarist Zephyrous would perform.
It was followed by their fourth album, Transilvanian Hunger, released in February 1994. This was Darkthrone's first album to have Nocturno Culto and Fenriz; the band would remain a duo from this point onwards. Transilvanian Hunger was characterized by a "raw" or "low fidelity" recording style and musical simplicity; the album's release caused some controversy: half of its lyrics were written by the Norwegian black metal musician Varg Vikernes, its booklet contained the phrase "Norsk Arisk Black Metal", which translates into English as "Norwegian Aryan Black Metal". Darkthrone moved to Moonfog Productions, for subsequent releases; the label was run by Satyr of the black metal band Satyricon. Their fifth album, was released in 1995; the album was received well, although its production, similar to that of Transilvanian Hunger, encountered some criticisms. Their sixth album, Total Death, was released during 1996 and is notable for featuring lyrics written by four other black metal musicians, none at all written by the group's main lyricist Fenriz.
During the years 1993–1995, drummer Fenriz was involved with numerous side projects. This included his solo ambient project Neptune Towers, recording an album with Satyr as the trio Storm, playing bass on Dødheimsgard's debut album, he began playing drums for Valhall again, after having been one of the founding members in 1988 but leaving in 1990 to concentrate on Darkthrone. In 1999, Darkthrone released the album Ravishing Grimness, in 2001 their following album, Plaguewielder. While Transilvanian Hunger and Panzerfaust had songs written by Fenriz, these two albums had songs written by Nocturno Culto and were both recorded in Ronny Le Tekrøe's studio at Toten, Norway; this explains the somewhat "clearer" sound on those records. In the last years of the 1990s, two Darkthrone tribute albums were released: Darkthrone Holy Darkthrone in 1998 and The Next Thousand Years Are Ours in 1999; the band released Preparing for War, a compilation of songs from 1988–1994. In 2002, the intro of their song "Kathaarian Life Code" appeared in the last scene of the film Demonlover.
In 2003, the band released the album Hate Them. Although this record and their next contain electronic introductions, they remain true to Darkthrone's early black metal style. Sardonic Wrath was released in 2004, it was the band's last album with Moonfog Productions and their last to be recorded in the black metal style. This album was nominated for Nor
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Transilvanian Hunger is the fourth studio album by Norwegian black metal band Darkthrone. It was released 17 February 1994 by Peaceville Records. Transilvanian Hunger was the band's first album to be recorded with just two members, Nocturno Culto and Fenriz, following the departure of Zephyrous. Fenriz performed all instrumentation with Nocturno Culto adding vocals; as of 2018, this and Panzerfaust have been the only Darkthrone albums with this arrangement. The album was recorded on a 4-track recorder set up in Fenriz's bedroom. Lyrics for four of the album's songs were written by the Norwegian black metal musician Varg Vikernes, who performed solo as Burzum; the cover art was a black-and-white photograph of Fenriz with a candelabrum, which bore a likeness to the cover of Mayhem's 1993 live album Live in Leipzig. The back cover stated that "Darkthrone is for all the evil in man" and listed the slogan "True Norwegian Black Metal"; the back cover bore the words "Norsk Arisk Black Metal". Due to negative feedback from many distributors, the phrase was removed.
The band intended to issue another controversial statement to mark the album's release: "We would like to state that Transilvanian Hunger stands beyond any criticism. If any man should attempt to criticize this LP, he should be patronized for his Jewish behavior". In a press release, Peaceville Records issued both this statement and their own response, berating the sentiment but acknowledging that they could not censor their artists. Darkthrone issued a formal apology at Peaceville's behest, they said they had used "Arisk" to mean "true" or "pure" and that "Jewish" was Norwegian youth slang for "idiotic". Darkthrone included the following statement with their next album, the following year: "Darkthrone is not a Nazi band nor a political band; those of you who still might think so, you can lick Mother Mary's asshole in eternity". More Fenriz disowned these past statements, describing them as "disgusting", he admitted regret and noted that at the time, he was going through a phase of being "angry at several races".
The ending of the track "As Flittermice as Satans Spys" contained a backmasked message. When the voice is played backwards, it utters the phrase: "In the name of God, let the churches burn". In 2003, the album was remastered and reissued by Peaceville, as well as being repackaged in a cardboard digipak; the fourth and final chapter of a four-part video interview with Fenriz and Nocturno Culto was included as bonus material. All lyrics written by Varg Vikernes. Nocturno Culto – vocals Fenriz – guitar, bass guitar, lyrics Varg Vikernes - lyrics
Converge is an American hardcore punk band formed by vocalist Jacob Bannon and guitarist Kurt Ballou in Salem, Massachusetts in 1990. During the recording of their seminal fourth album Jane Doe, the group became a four-piece with the departure of guitarist Aaron Dalbec and the addition of bassist Nate Newton and drummer Ben Koller; this lineup has remained intact since. They have released nine studio albums, three live albums, numerous EPs; the band's sound is rooted in both hardcore punk and heavy metal, they are considered pioneers of metalcore as well as its subgenre mathcore. Converge have enjoyed a high level of recognition. According to AllMusic, they are "regarded as one of the most original and innovative bands to emerge from the punk underground." Their popularity rose with the release of Jane Doe, ranked as the best album of 2001 by Terrorizer and as the 61st best metal album of all time by Rolling Stone. Subsequently, Converge moved from Equal Vision Records to the larger label Epitaph Records and their records became more elaborate and expensive to produce.
Special releases have traditionally been handled by Deathwish Inc. established by Bannon in 1999. The band's ninth studio album, The Dusk in Us, was released in November 2017 through Deathwish and Epitaph. Converge was formed in the winter of 1990 by Bannon and Ballou, they were joined by high school friends Jeff Feinberg and Damon Bellorado in 1991, they started by playing covers of punk rock and heavy metal songs. The band soon graduated to playing live performances in mid-1991, after recording some demos on a 4-track recorder; the band started writing and playing what they consider "relevant" music in 1994. In 1994 the band became a five piece. In the year Converge released their debut album, Halo in a Haystack, released through Earthmaker Records; this was limited to 1000 copies. The album has not been reprinted since its release; the record was funded by Bannon through money he saved up from working at a nursing home. In 1995 Converge released their first compilation album and Killing; the album featured tracks from the band's early work from the years 1991 to 1994.
The album was released as a European exclusive through Lost & Found Records. However, Converge became dissatisfied with the way the label was handling the release and overcharging fans for their hard-to-find older songs; the album was re-released through Hydra Head Records on November 17, 1997 in America to "make an overpriced release obsolete". In 1996 Converge released a four-song EP, it was released through Ferret Music, was one of the earliest releases through the newly-formed label. That same year the record was re-released with four additional new tracks. Two years the record was reissued through Converge's new label Equal Vision Records on January 20, 1998; this version contained the previous eight tracks as well as three newly added live tracks, recorded during a radio broadcast. Due to the addition of the new tracks and sources consider this to be Converge's second studio album, while the band considers it a compilation album because it is a collection of songs recorded at different times.
In early 1997 the band's original bassist, left the band, was replaced with Stephen Brodsky. That year, the band signed to Equal Vision Records. On December 22, 1997, recording for the band's third studio album When Forever Comes Crashing began at Ballou's GodCity Studio. On April 14, 1998 Converge released. In 1998, Brodsky left the band and was replaced by Newton, who joined the band as a part-time member while he was still active in another band, Jesuit. Jesuit disbanded in 1999, allowing Newton to make Converge his main focus. In early 1999, the original drummer Bellorado left the band and was replaced with John DiGiorgio, who left the band in the same year. Koller joined Converge in late 1999. Ballou selected Koller to temporarily fill in while Converge searched for a more permanent replacement for Bellorado, as he was familiar with his work in previous bands, Force Fed Glass and Blue/Green Heart, a band that Ballou and Koller played in together. After working well with the band during some local shows in Boston, Converge made him an official member.
Newton and Koller remain in the band to this day. In mid-2000 Converge self-released a three-track demo record titled Jane Doe Demos; this was limited to 100 copies. It contained unreleased demo versions of "Bitter & Then Some" and "Thaw" from their upcoming album Jane Doe. Converge entered the studio to begin recording in the summer of 2001. On September 4, 2001, Converge released Jane Doe, it was met with immediate critical acclaim, with critics praising its poetic lyrics, dynamic range and production. The album was a commercial success in comparison to Converge's previous outings, both the band and the album have developed a cult following since its release, it is the band's first studio album to feature Newton and Koller, the last to feature Dalbec, asked to leave the band due to his devotion to his side project Bane. Converge's first tour in support of Jane Doe was in September, 2001 with Drowningman and Playing Enemy, however Drowningman dropped out of the tour to work on a new album. In 2002 a music video was released for the track/tracks "Concubine/Fault and Fracture" from the album Jane Doe.
On January 28, 2003 Converge released their second compilation album and Weeded Out. The album wa
Examiner.com was an American news website based in Denver, that operated using a network of "pro–am contributors"' for content. It had various local editions with contributors posting city-based items tailored to 238 markets throughout the United States and parts of Canada in two putative national editions, one for each country; as of early 2014, Examiner.com was a property of Philip Anschutz-owned AEG, announced it would be partnering with ticket merchant AXS. Subsequently, Examiner operations were announced to be shutting down on July 10, 2016. In August 2009, Examiner.com was named one of the fastest-growing network of localized websites by Nielsen Online. It grew faster in the 12 months from August 2008 than any of the other top 30 Internet news sites in the United States, as it increased page views more than 342 percent, attracting 7,569,000 unique users. Examiner.com reports that it received 20.8 million unique visitors to Examiner.com sites in July 2010, with 60.1 million page views served, according to Omniture.
As October 2010, Examiner.com reported adding over 3,000 articles a day, to a growing library of 1.5 million pieces of content. Examiner.com was criticized for the low compensation received by some contributors. The site claimed it told contributors that they should not consider this full-time employment, "tries to be clear and transparent that this isn't a'quit your day job' opportunity."Examiners were paid based on a black box system, which quantifies page views and other metrics, or the "Gawker-model" made famous by the blog Gawker.com. This resulted in writers not getting paid when blogs were not read, despite numerous online ads that should have given Examiner.com plenty of revenue. The profits that were made were not shared with those providing content and should have been used to place more ads. Writers received emails from Examiner.com that threatened to terminate their blogger status if they stopped writing on a regular basis. Examiner.com offered a variety of pay scale options to its writers.
Examiner.com based compensation on variables such as subscriptions, page view traffic and session length. The domain was registered by The San Francisco Examiner on September 13, 1994, was used by the San Francisco newspaper until 2004 when Anschutz/Clarity acquired the examiner.com domain as part of its acquisition of the newspaper. In 2006, David Schafer, Clarity Digital Media's CEO, transformed the domain from being San Francisco specific to being a hyperlocal news aggregator for the 60 markets in which Clarity Media trademarked the name "Examiner". By using online geo targeting technology, users were placed into their closest city where they could read the most recent news and updates from both their city's broadcast and print media streams. Readers could view local, state and international content from the Associated Press. A small team of engineers and developers worked over the next 18 months to develop the site into something more than a collection of news headlines. Schafer was replaced by the former AOL executive Michael Sherrod in February 2008..
In late April 2008, Sherrod unveiled the current model of using "Examiners," local writers and columnists recruited for expertise in a variety of areas, to feature local material about numerous cities. Launching the new model, which he called a "community knowledge site," were 115 "Examiners" in five markets: Denver, Baltimore, San Francisco, Washington, D. C; the latter three had free distribution of printed Examiner newspapers in certain neighborhoods of those cities. The flagship national edition was for users outside designated market areas. In March 2009, Sherrod was replaced by Rick Blair formerly of AOL. In September 2009 Clarity Media purchased NowPublic, a Vancouver-based website consisting of "citizen journalists" contributing from around the world. Clarity Media developed the Clarity Digital Group, including both NowPublic. Blair serves as the CEO of Examiner.com. On October 29, 2009, the website's first international expansion took place when Examiner.com Canada was launched in Calgary, Ottawa and Vancouver, along with a national Canadian edition.
In 2010 it moved from a Coldfusion to Drupal platform. Examiner had significant problems with the transition to Drupal. In February 2011, Google changed its algorithm reducing how high Examiner.com and other aggregators of "how-to" content, appear in search results. It is trying to spot and downplay what are called "content farms" and to highlight more reliable sources. Commentators suggest that some readers may rely more on articles recommended by their social networks. Due to Google's change, search results decreased by 79% for Examiner.com. On January 23, 2014, Examiner.com announced that it had been acquired by AEG and that it will be partnering with AXS. On July 1, 2016, Examiner.com announced it would shut down on or around July 10, 2016, the website redirects to AXS.com. Matt Smith of the San Francisco Weekly noted in 2007 that numerous articles and photos by Sharon Gray were from other sources, including the Sacramento Bee, constituted apparent plagiarism. Smith suggested that the case showed that "free isn't always a bargain."
When questioned, Jim Pimentel, executive editor of Examiner said, They're blogs. They don't get edited. We don't give any direction to people on, and that's standard operating procedure. After Smith brought the issue to Pimentel's attention, the voluminous Gray material was removed from Examiner.com. Pimentel said the Examiner has "a less-strict standard for accuracy and attribution in stories that appear on the Web" than for publi