Origins of the American Civil War
While most historians agree that conflicts over slavery caused the war, they disagree sharply regarding which kinds of conflict—ideological, political, or social—were most important. Another explanation for secession, and the subsequent formation of the Confederacy, was white Southern nationalism, the primary reason for the North to reject secession was to preserve the Union, a cause based on American nationalism. Most of the debate is about the first question, as to why some southern states decided to secede, Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election without being on the ballot in ten of the Southern states. His victory triggered declarations of secession by seven states of the Deep South. They formed the Confederate States of America after Lincoln was elected, nationalists refused to recognize the declarations of secession. No foreign countrys government ever recognized the Confederacy, the U. S. government under President James Buchanan refused to relinquish its forts that were in territory claimed by the Confederacy.
The war itself began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces bombarded Fort Sumter, as a panel of historians emphasized in 2011, while slavery and its various and multifaceted discontents were the primary cause of disunion, it was disunion itself that sparked the war. Thus they were committed to values that could not logically be reconciled, other important factors were partisan politics, Southern nationalism, Northern nationalism, expansionism and modernization in the Antebellum period. The United States had become a nation of two distinct regions and their growth was fed by a high birth rate and large numbers of European immigrants, especially British and Germans. The heavily rural South had few cities of any size, Slave owners controlled politics and the economy, although about 75% of white Southern families owned no slaves and usually were engaged in subsistence agriculture. Overall, the Northern population was growing more quickly than the Southern population. By the time the 1860 election occurred, the heavily agricultural southern states as a group had fewer Electoral College votes than the rapidly industrializing northern states, Abraham Lincoln was able to win the 1860 Presidential election without even being on the ballot in ten Southern states.
Southerners felt a loss of federal concern for Southern pro-slavery political demands, after the Mexican–American War of 1846 to 1848, the issue of slavery in the new territories led to the Compromise of 1850. While the compromise averted an immediate crisis, it did not permanently resolve the issue of the Slave Power. Part of the Compromise of 1850 was the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, requiring that Northerners assist Southerners in reclaiming fugitive slaves, which many Northerners found to be extremely offensive. The compromise that was reached outraged many Northerners, and led to the formation of the Republican Party, the industrializing North and agrarian Midwest became committed to the economic ethos of free-labor industrial capitalism. Arguments that slavery was undesirable for the nation had long existed, after 1840, abolitionists denounced slavery as not only a social evil but a moral wrong. Activists in the new Republican Party, usually Northerners, had another view, Southern defenders of slavery, for their part, increasingly came to contend that black people benefited from slavery
Harpers Weekly, A Journal of Civilization was an American political magazine based in New York City. Published by Harper & Brothers from 1857 until 1916, it featured foreign and domestic news, essays on many subjects and it carried extensive coverage of the American Civil War, including many illustrations of events from the war. During its most influential period, it was the forum of the political cartoonist Thomas Nast, along with his brothers James and Wesley, Fletcher Harper began the publishing company Harper & Brothers in 1825. Following the successful example of the Illustrated London News, Harper started publishing Harpers Magazine in 1850, in 1857, his company began publishing Harpers Weekly in New York City. By 1860 the circulation of the Weekly had reached 200,000, among the recurring features were the political cartoons of Thomas Nast, who was recruited in 1862 and worked with the Weekly for more than 20 years. Nast was a feared caricaturist, and is called the father of American political cartooning.
He was the first to use an elephant as the symbol of the Republican Party and he drew the legendary character of Santa Claus, his version became strongly associated with the figure, who was popularized as part of Christmas customs in the late nineteenth century. Harpers Weekly was the most widely read journal in the United States throughout the period of the Civil War, so as not to upset its wide readership in the South, Harpers took a moderate editorial position on the issue of slavery. Publications that supported abolition referred to it as Harpers Weakly, the Weekly had supported the Stephen A. Douglas presidential campaign against Abraham Lincoln, but as the American Civil War broke out, it fully supported Lincoln and the Union. The photograph inspired many free blacks in the North to enlist, some of the most important articles and illustrations of the time were Harpers reporting on the war. Besides renderings by Homer and Nast, the magazine published illustrations by Theodore R. Davis, Henry Mosler, and the brothers Alfred and William Waud.
In 1863, George William Curtis, one of the founders of the Republican Party, became the editor of the magazine. His editorials advocated civil service reform, low tariffs, and adherence to the gold standard, after the war, Harpers Weekly more openly supported the Republican Party in its editorial positions, and contributed to the election of Ulysses S. Grant in 1868 and 1872. It supported the Radical Republican position on Reconstruction, in the 1870s, the cartoonist Thomas Nast began an aggressive campaign in the journal against the corrupt New York political leader William Boss Tweed. Nast turned down a $500,000 bribe to end his attack, Tweed was arrested in 1873 and convicted of fraud. Nast and Harpers played an important part in securing Rutherford B. Hayes 1876 presidential election, on Hayes remarked that Nast was the most powerful, single-handed aid had. After the election, Nasts role in the magazine diminished considerably, since the late 1860s, Nast and George W. Curtis had frequently differed on political matters and particularly on the role of cartoons in political discourse.
Harpers publisher Fletcher Harper strongly supported Nast in his disputes with Curtis, in 1877, Harper died, and his nephews, Joseph W. Harper Jr. and John Henry Harper, assumed control of the magazine
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Mississippi /ˌmɪsᵻˈsɪpi/ is a state in the southern region of the United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico. Its western border is formed by the Mississippi River, the state has a population of approximately 3 million. It is the 32nd most extensive and the 32nd most populous of the 50 United States, located in the center of the state, Jackson is the state capital and largest city, with a population of approximately 175,000 people. The state is heavily forested outside of the Mississippi Delta area, before the American Civil War, most development in the state was along riverfronts, where slaves worked on cotton plantations. After the war, the bottomlands to the interior were cleared, by the end of the 19th century, African Americans made up two-thirds of the Deltas property owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land after a financial crisis. Clearing altered the Deltas ecology, increasing the severity of flooding along the Mississippi, much land is now held by agribusinesses.
The states catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States, since the 1930s and the Great Migration, Mississippi has been majority white, albeit with the highest percentage of black residents of any U. S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its residents were mostly black, whites retained political power through Jim Crow laws. In 2010, 37% of Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of African Americans in any U. S. state, since gaining enforcement of their voting franchise in the late 1960s, most African Americans support Democratic candidates in local and national elections. Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party, African Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta, an area of historic settlement during the plantation era. Since 2011 Mississippi has been ranked as the most religious state in the country, the states name is derived from the Mississippi River, which flows along its western boundary.
Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi, in addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, and the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla Lake, Sardis Lake, Mississippi is entirely composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains,807 feet above sea level. The lowest point is sea level at the Gulf coast, the states mean elevation is 300 feet above sea level. Most of Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain, the coastal plain is generally composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations, yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state. The northeast is a region of black earth that extends into the Alabama Black Belt. The coastline includes large bays at Bay St.
Louis, the northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports. In other languages and very occasionally in English, tariff or its equivalent may be used to any list of prices. A customs duty or due is the tax levied on the import or export of goods in international trade. In economic sense, a duty is a kind of consumption tax, a duty levied on goods being imported is referred to as an import duty. Similarly, a duty levied on exports is called an export duty, a tariff, which is actually a list of commodities along with the leviable rate of customs duty, is popularly referred to as a customs duty. This is no longer the case, Customs duty is calculated on the determination of the assessable value in case of those items for which the duty is levied ad valorem. This is often the transaction value unless a customs officer determines assessable value in accordance with the Harmonized System, for certain items like petroleum and alcohol, customs duty is realized at a specific rate applied to the volume of the import or export consignments.
For the purpose of assessment of duty, products are given an identification code that has come to be known as the Harmonized System code. This code was developed by the World Customs Organization based in Brussels, a Harmonized System code may be from four to ten digits. For example,17.03 is the HS code for molasses from the extraction or refining of sugar, within 17.03, the number 17.03.90 stands for Molasses. Introduction of Harmonized System code in 1990s has largely replaced the Standard International Trade Classification, in drawing up the national tariff, the revenue departments often specifies the rate of customs duty with reference to the HS code of the product. A Customs authority in each country is responsible for collecting taxes on the import into or export of goods out of the country, Evasion of customs duties takes place mainly in two ways. In one, the trader under-declares the value so that the value is lower than actual. In a similar vein, a trader can evade customs duty by understatement of quantity or volume of the product of trade, a trader may evade duty by misrepresenting traded goods, categorizing goods as items which attract lower customs duties.
The Evasion of customs duty may take place with or without the collaboration of customs officials, Evasion of customs duty does not necessarily constitute smuggling. Many countries allow a traveler to bring goods into the country duty-free and these goods may be bought at ports and airports or sometimes within one country without attracting the usual government taxes and brought into another country duty-free. Some countries impose allowances which limit the number or value of items that one person can bring into the country. These restrictions often apply to tobacco, spirits, gifts, often foreign diplomats and UN officials are entitled to duty-free goods
Harry V. Jaffa
Harry Victor Jaffa was an American historian and professor. He was the Professor Emeritus at Claremont McKenna College and Claremont Graduate University, Robert P. Kraynak says his life work was to develop an American application of Leo Strausss revival of natural-right philosophy against the relativism and nihilism of our times. Jaffa wrote topics ranging from Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas to Abraham Lincoln, Winston Churchill and he has been published in the Claremont Review of Books, the Review of Politics, National Review, and the New York Times. His most famous work, Crisis of the House Divided, An Interpretation of the Issues in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates and he debated Robert Bork on American constitutionalism. Jaffa was born in New York City in 1918 to Arthur Solomon Jaffa and Frances Landau Jaffa, his name is a reference to World War I. His sister was Lillian Anne Jaffa, his grandmother was from Poland and he earned a Bachelor of Arts in English Literature from Yale University and a PhD in Political Philosophy from The New School.
As a Ph. D. student, he interested in Abraham Lincoln after discovering a copy of the Lincoln-Douglas Debates in a used bookshop. Jaffa was one of Leo Strauss first Ph. D. students and his dissertation on Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas became his first book and Aristotelianism. There, he argues that the Christian beliefs of Aquinas influenced Aquinas work on Aristotle, alasdair MacIntyre describes the book as an unduly neglected minor modern classic. Jaffa taught at Ohio State from 1951 through 1964, before moving to Claremont, Jaffa believed the American Founders, including Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and George Washington established the nation on political principles traceable from Locke to Aristotle. While he believed that governments are instituted to protect rights, he acknowledged the higher ends they serve, Jaffa points out that safety and happiness are the principal virtues of Aristotelian political life in his Politics. Jaffa points to Federalist No, Jaffa has written two books dealing exclusively with Abraham Lincoln.
His first, Crisis of the House Divided, An Interpretation of the Issues in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates, was written in 1959, forty years later, he followed it with A New Birth of Freedom, Abraham Lincoln and the Coming of the Civil War. Jaffa has written a number of essays on Lincoln for the Claremont Institute, National Review, Jaffa believes that the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution share a relationship whereby the latter is intended to preserve the principles of the former. This belief has garnered criticism from scholars, particularly Robert Bork. In Crisis of the House Divided, Jaffa discusses the Lincoln-Douglas debates that occurred on the eve of the American Civil War, during the 1850s, concern over the spread of slavery into the territories and into the free states became the primary concern of American politics. In contrast, Lincoln believed that sovereignty was another example of tyranny of the majority. Lincoln argued that a majority could not sanction the enslavement of other men due to the Founding principle that All men are created equal, both men squared off in a contest for Illinois Senate seat in 1858
History of South Carolina
South Carolina was one of the original thirteen states of the United States. In 1663 the English Crown granted land to eight proprietors of what became the colony, the first settlers came to the Province of Carolina at the port of Charleston in 1670, they were mostly wealthy planters and their slaves coming from the British Caribbean colony of Barbados. They started to develop their commodity crops of sugar and cotton, pushing back the Native Americans in the Yamasee War, colonists next overthrew the proprietors rule, seeing more direct representation. In 1719, the colony was made a crown colony, North Carolina was split off. In the Stamp Act Crisis of 1765, South Carolina banded together with the colonies to oppose British taxation. It became independent in March 1776 and joined the United States of America, the Revolution was bloody and hard fought in 1780–81, as the British invaded, captured the American army and were finally driven out. In the 19th century, invention of the cotton gin enabled profitable processing of short-staple cotton, with outspoken leaders such as John C.
Calhoun, the state vied with Virginia as the dominant political and social force in the South and it fought federal tariffs in the 1830s and demanded that its rights to practice slavery be recognized in newly established territories. With the 1860 election of Republicans under Abraham Lincoln, who vowed to prevent slaverys expansion, in December 1860, the state seceded from the Union, in February 1861, it joined the new Confederate States of America. In April 1861, the American Civil War began when Confederate forces attacked the American fort at Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, the Civil War proved devastating to the whites, but freed the blacks from slavery. From 1865 to 1877, South Carolina underwent Reconstruction, Congress shut down the civilian government in 1867, put the Army in charge, gave Freedmen the vote and prevented ex-Confederates from holding office. A Republican legislature supported by Freedmen, northern Carpetbaggers and white Southern Scalawags created and funded a school system.
The constitution they passed was kept nearly unaltered for 27 years, by 1877, the white conservatives, called Redeemers had regained political power. In the 1880s, Jim Crow laws were passed that were especially severe in the state, to create public segregation, after 1890, almost all blacks lost their vote, not to regain it until 1965. The Civil War ruined the economy, and continued dependence on agriculture made South Carolina one of the two or three poorest states for the next century, educational levels were low as public schools were underfunded, especially for African Americans. Most people lived on farms and grew cotton. The more affluent landowners subdivided their land into farms operated by tenant farmers or sharecroppers, gradually more industry moved into the Piedmont area, with textile factories that processed the states raw cotton into yarn and cloth for sale on the international market. Wave after wave of revivals made most people quite religious, most people, white, in the first half of the 20th century, many blacks left the state to go to northern cities during the Great Migration
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Other major cities include Austin, the second most populous state capital in the U. S. Texas is nicknamed the Lone Star State to signify its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the states struggle for independence from Mexico. The Lone Star can be found on the Texan state flag, the origin of Texass name is from the word Tejas, which means friends in the Caddo language. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10 percent of Texas land area is desert. Most of the centers are located in areas of former prairies, forests. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the term six flags over Texas refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas, Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic.
In 1845, Texas joined the United States as the 28th state, the states annexation set off a chain of events that caused the Mexican–American War in 1846. A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, after the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. One Texan industry that thrived after the Civil War was cattle, due to its long history as a center of the industry, Texas is associated with the image of the cowboy. The states economic fortunes changed in the early 20th century, when oil discoveries initiated a boom in the state. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy, as of 2010 it shares the top of the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with California at 57. With a growing base of industry, the leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, aerospace. Texas has led the nation in export revenue since 2002 and has the second-highest gross state product.
The name Texas, based on the Caddo word tejas meaning friends or allies, was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves, during Spanish colonial rule, the area was officially known as the Nuevo Reino de Filipinas, La Provincia de Texas. Texas is the second largest U. S. state, behind Alaska, though 10 percent larger than France and almost twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Chile, Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers, the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south
United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government, Articles Four and Six entrench concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments and of the states in relationship to the federal government. Article Seven establishes the procedure used by the thirteen States to ratify it. In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty, the majority of the seventeen amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others address issues related to federal authority or modify government processes and procedures, Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document. All four pages of the original U. S, according to the United States Senate, The Constitutions first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens.
From September 5,1774 to March 1,1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the government of the United States. The process of selecting the delegates for the First and Second Continental Congresses underscores the revolutionary role of the people of the colonies in establishing a governing body. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States and it was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid-1776 through late-1777, and ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781. Under the Articles of Confederation, the governments power was quite limited. The Confederation Congress could make decisions, but lacked enforcement powers, implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures. The Continental Congress could print money but the currency was worthless, Congress could borrow money, but couldnt pay it back. No state paid all their U. S. taxes, some paid nothing, some few paid an amount equal to interest on the national debt owed to their citizens, but no more.
No interest was paid on debt owed foreign governments, by 1786, the United States would default on outstanding debts as their dates came due. Internationally, the Articles of Confederation did little to enhance the United States ability to defend its sovereignty, most of the troops in the 625-man United States Army were deployed facing – but not threatening – British forts on American soil. They had not been paid, some were deserting and others threatening mutiny, spain closed New Orleans to American commerce, U. S. officials protested, but to no effect. Barbary pirates began seizing American ships of commerce, the Treasury had no funds to pay their ransom, if any military crisis required action, the Congress had no credit or taxing power to finance a response. Domestically, the Articles of Confederation was failing to bring unity to the sentiments and interests of the various states
South Carolina /ˌsaʊθ kærəˈlaɪnə/ is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. The state is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the south and west by Georgia across the Savannah River, South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution, doing so on May 23,1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote to secede from the Union on December 20,1860, after the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25,1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and the 23rd most populous U. S. state and its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3. 13%. The capital and largest city is Columbia with a 2013 population of 133,358, South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, under whose reign the English colony was first formed, with Carolus being Latin for Charles. There is evidence of activity in the area about 12000 years ago. Along the Savannah River were the Apalachee and the Yamasee, further west were the Cherokee, and along the Catawba River, the Catawba.
These tribes were village-dwellers, relying on agriculture as their food source. The Cherokee lived in wattle and daub houses made with wood and clay, about a dozen separate small tribes summered on the coast harvesting oysters and fish, and cultivating corn and beans. Travelling inland as much as 50 miles mostly by canoe, they wintered on the plain, hunting deer and gathering nuts. The names of these survive in place names like Edisto Island, Kiawah Island. The Spanish were the first Europeans in the area, in 1521, founding San Miguel de Gualdape, established with 500 settlers, it was abandoned within a year by 150 survivors. In 1562 French settlers established a settlement at what is now the Charlesfort-Santa Elena archaeological site on Parris Island, three years the Spanish built a fort on the same site, but withdrew following hostilities with the English navy. In 1629, King Charles I of England established the Province of Carolina an area covering what is now South and North Carolina, Georgia, in the 1670s, English planters from the Barbados established themselves near what is now Charleston.
Settlers built rice plantations in the South Carolina Lowcountry, east of the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, settlers came from all over Europe. Plantation labor was done by African slaves who formed the majority of the population by 1720, another cash crop was the Indigo plant, a plant source of blue dye, developed by Eliza Lucas. Meanwhile, in Upstate South Carolina, west of the Fall Line, was settled by farmers and traders. Colonists overthrew the rule, seeing more direct representation
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies, named after King George II of Great Britain, Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2,1788. It declared its secession from the Union on January 19,1861 and it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15,1870. Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States, from 2007 to 2008,14 of Georgias counties ranked among the nations 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South, Atlanta is the states capital, its most populous city and has been named a global city. Georgia is bordered to the south by Florida, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina, to the west by Alabama, the states northern part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. Georgias highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level, Georgia is the largest state entirely east of the Mississippi River in land area.
Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures, the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12,1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II. The Trustees implemented a plan for the colonys settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan. In 1742 the colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins Ear, in 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a colony, with a governor appointed by the king. The Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence, the State of Georgias first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24,1778, in 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains, which led to the Georgia Gold Rush and an established federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued its operation until 1861.
The subsequent influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgias tribes. Despite the Supreme Courts ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that ruled U. S. states were not permitted to redraw the Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched troops to gather the Cherokee