Psychic TV or PTV, is an English experimental video art and music group, formed by performance artist Genesis P-Orridge and video director Peter Christopherson after the break-up of Throbbing Gristle. Psychic TV is signed to Some Bizzare Label working along with Alex Fergusson, the band began publishing a monthly series of 23 live albums in 1986, but stopped without explanation after only 17. The tenth, a picture disk most commonly referred to as Album 10, the band subsequently earned an entry in the Guinness Book of World Records for most records released in one year. Thee Temple ov Psychick Youth, was formed as an organisation at the time as the band. T. O. P. Y. was intended to be an order and the philosophical wing of Psychic TV. Psychic TV released early albums of acid house music in as fake compilations, such as Jack The Tab, after breaking up in 1999, Psychic TV reformed as PTV3 with a new line-up in 2003. Since Genesis P-Orridge primarily wrote the lyrics instead of the music and this accounts for the changing musical nature of PTV.
Thus the history of Psychic TV can be broken up into the periods of the main songwriter that was working them at the time. Psychic TV was formed with the membership of Genesis P-Orridge. Peter Christopherson got involved in 1982 and claimed that the TV component of the name was intended to focus on the elements of the outfit. P-Orridge once claimed that Psychic TV is a group who does music unlike a music group which makes music videos. Similarities can be seen in the artwork for Alternative TV and early Psychic TV releases, john Balance – foreshadowing the pairs work as Coil. Marc Almond contributed his vocals and this led to an intended series of 23 live show recordings being released, which dominated most of Psychic TVs output until 1988. In the event only 17 were released, towards the end of this period Fergusson/P-Orridge completed their third proper studio album Allegory and Self, Thee Starlit Mire. It was at point that P-Orridge became interested in acid house. Alex Fergusson left and was replaced with techno artist Fred Giannelli, the idea behind this was to release compilations of these imaginary artists, creating a sense that a healthy acid house scene existed in the UK.
From 88–90 PTV was very stable as a unit and did more gigs. A long tour of the USA and UK in 1988, Europe in 1989, in 1990, Psychic TV released the song I. C
A counterculture is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores. A countercultural movement expresses the ethos and aspirations of a population during a well-defined era. When oppositional forces reach critical mass, countercultures can trigger dramatic cultural changes, John Milton Yinger originated the term contraculture in his 1960 article in American Sociological Review. Some scholars have attributed the counterculture to Theodore Roszak, author of The Making of a Counter Culture and it became prominent in the news media amid the social revolution that swept the Americas, Western Europe, Japan and New Zealand during the 1960s. Scholars differ in the characteristics and specificity they attribute to counterculture, mainstream culture is of course difficult to define, and in some ways becomes identified and understood through contrast with counterculture. Counterculture might oppose mass culture, or middle-class culture and values, Counterculture is sometimes conceptualized in terms of generational conflict and rejection of older or adult values.
Counterculture may or may not be explicitly political and it typically involves criticism or rejection of currently powerful institutions, with accompanying hope for a better life or a new society. It does not look favorably on party politics or authoritarianism, typically, a fringe culture expands and grows into a counterculture by defining its own values in opposition to mainstream norms. Countercultures tend to peak, go into decline, leaving an impact on mainstream cultural values. Their life cycles include phases of rejection, partial acceptance, during the late 1960s, hippies became the largest and most visible countercultural group in the United States. The cultural shadows left by the Romantics, Beats, the counterculture of the 1960s and early 1970s generated its own unique brand of notable literature, including comics and cartoons, and sometimes referred to as the underground press. In the United States, this includes the work of Robert Crumb and Gilbert Shelton, another such hippie/anarchist bookshop was Mushroom Books, tucked away in the Lace Market area of Nottingham.
Some genres tend to challenge societies with their content that is meant to question the norms within cultures. More often than not, sources of these controversies can be found in art such as Marcel Duchamp whose piece Fountain was meant to be an attack on the most basic conventions of art in 1917. Instead of being a topic to fear, they have initiated subtle trends that other artists, in order to achieve such liberation, consciousness raising and direct action were employed. At the outset of the 20th century, homosexual acts were punishable offenses in these countries, the prevailing public attitude was that homosexuality was a moral failing that should be punished, as exemplified by Oscar Wildes 1895 trial and imprisonment for gross indecency. But even then, there were dissenting views, according to Charles Kaisers The Gay Metropolis, there were already semi-public gay-themed gatherings by the mid-1930s in the United States. There were bars and bathhouses that catered to gay clientele, but homosexuality was typically subsumed into bohemian culture, and was not a significant movement in itself
Genesis Breyer P-Orridge is an English singer-songwriter, poet, performance artist, and occultist. Born in Manchester, P-Orridge developed an early interest in art, after dropping out of studies at the University of Hull, they moved into a counter-cultural commune in London and adopted Genesis P-Orridge as a nom-de-guerre. On returning to Hull, P-Orridge founded COUM Transmissions with Cosey Fanni Tutti, cOUMs 1976 Prostitution show at Londons Institute of Contemporary Arts was particularly vilified by tabloids, gaining them the moniker of the wreckers of civilization. P-Orridges band, Throbbing Gristle, grew out of COUM, and were active from 1975 to 1981 as pioneers in the music genre. In 1981, P-Orridge co-founded Psychic TV, a band that from 1988 onward came under the increasing influence of acid house. In 1981, P-Orridge co-founded Thee Temple ov Psychick Youth, an occult order influenced by chaos magic. P-Orridge was often seen as the leader, but rejected that position. Amid the Satanic ritual abuse hysteria, a 1992 Channel 4 documentary accused P-Orridge of sexually abusing children, P-Orridge was subsequently cleared and Channel 4 retracted their allegation.
P-Orridge left the United Kingdom as a result of the incident, P-Orridge continued with this project of body modification after Lady Jayes 2007 death. Although involved in reunions of both Throbbing Gristle and Psychic TV in the 2000s, P-Orridge retired from music to focus on other mediums in 2009. P-Orridge is credited on over 200 releases, a controversial figure with an anti-establishment stance, P-Orridge has been heavily criticised by the British press and politicians. P-Orridge has been cited as an icon within the art scene, accrued a cult following. Genesis P-Orridge was born Neil Andrew Megson on 22 February 1950 in Victoria Park and their father was Ronald Megson, a travelling salesman who had worked in repertory theatre and who played the drums in local jazz and dance bands. Their mother, was from Salford and had first met Ronald after he had returned to England after being injured with the British Army at the Battle of Dunkirk in 1940. As a child, P-Orridge had a relationship with their parents.
The family moved from Essex to Cheshire, North West England, passing the 11-plus exam, P-Orridge won a scholarship to attend Stockport Grammar School, doing so between 1961 and 1964. Unpopular with other students, P-Orridge was bullied at the school, finding comfort in the art department at lunch-time and they befriended Ian Spydeee Evetts, Barry Little Baz Hermon and Paul Wolfson, three fellow students who shared their interest in art and poetry. P-Orridge became interested in occultism, and has asserted that its grandmother was a medium
The settings are usually post-industrial dystopias but tend to feature extraordinary cultural ferment and the use of technology in ways never anticipated by its original inventors. Much of the genres atmosphere echoes film noir, and written works in the often use techniques from detective fiction. Primary exponents of the field include William Gibson, Neal Stephenson, Bruce Sterling, Bruce Bethke, Pat Cadigan, Rudy Rucker, John Shirley. Blade Runner can be seen as a example of the cyberpunk style. Video games, board games, and tabletop role-playing games, such as Cyberpunk 2020 and Shadowrun, often feature storylines that are influenced by cyberpunk writing. Beginning in the early 1990s, some trends in fashion and music were labeled as cyberpunk, Cyberpunk writers tend to use elements from hardboiled detective fiction, film noir, and postmodernist prose to describe an often nihilistic underground side of an electronic society. The genres vision of a future is often called the antithesis of the generally utopian visions of the future popular in the 1940s and 1950s.
Gibson defined cyberpunks antipathy towards utopian SF in his 1981 short story The Gernsback Continuum, in some cyberpunk writing, much of the action takes place online, in cyberspace, blurring the line between actual and virtual reality. A typical trope in such work is a connection between the human brain and computer systems. Cyberpunk settings are dystopias with corruption and internet connectivity, multinational corporations have for the most part replaced governments as centers of political and even military power. The economic and technological state of Japan, in the 80s influenced Cyberpunk literature at the time, of Japans influence on the genre, William Gibson said, Modern Japan simply was cyberpunk. Cyberpunk is often set in urbanized, artificial landscapes, and city lights, receding was used by Gibson as one of the genres first metaphors for cyberspace and virtual reality. The cityscapes of Hong Kong and Shanghai have had influences in the urban backgrounds and settings in many cyberpunk works such as Blade Runner.
Ridley Scott envisioned the landscape of cyberpunk Los Angeles in Blade Runner to be Hong Kong on a bad day. The streetscapes of Ghost in the Shell were based on Hong Kong, mamoru Oshii felt that Hong Kongs strange and chaotic streets where old and new exist in confusing relationships, fit the theme of the film well. Hong Kongs Kowloon Walled City is particularly notable for its disorganized hyper-urbanization, one of the cyberpunk genres prototype characters is Case, from Gibsons Neuromancer. Case is a cowboy, a brilliant hacker who has betrayed his organized criminal partners. These anti-heroes—criminals, visionaries and misfits—call to mind the private eye of detective fiction and this emphasis on the misfits and the malcontents is the punk component of cyberpunk
Cinema of Germany
The Cinema of Germany refers to the film industry based in Germany and can be traced back to the late 19th century. German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film during the period from 1918-1933, Germany witnessed major changes to its identity during the 20th and 21st century. Those changes determined the periodisation of national cinema into a succession of distinct eras, the history of cinema in Germany can be traced back to the years shortly after the mediums birth. On November 1,1895 Max Skladanowsky and his brother Emil demonstrated their self-invented film projector the Bioscop at the Wintergarten music hall in Berlin, a 15-minute series of eight short films, it was the first screening of films to a paying audience in Europe. In its earliest days, the cinematograph was perceived as an attraction for upper class audiences, trivial short films were being shown as fairground attractions aimed at the working class and lower-middle class. The booths in which films were shown were known in Germany somewhat disparagingly as Kintopps.
Visually striking sets and makeup were key to the style of the expressionist films that were produced shortly after World War I, cinemas themselves began to be established landmarks in the years immediately before World War I. Before this, German filmmakers would tour with their works, travelling from fairground to fairground, the earliest ongoing cinemas were set up in cafes and pubs by owners who saw a way of attracting more customers. The storefront cinema was called a Kientopp, and this is where films were viewed for the most part before World War I, the first standalone, dedicated cinema in Germany was opened in Mannheim in 1906, and by 1910, there were over 1000 cinemas operating in Germany. Henny Porten and Asta Nielsen were the first major stars in Germany. Prior to 1914, many films were imported. In the era of the silent film there were no boundaries and Danish. The outbreak of World War I and the subsequent boycott of, for example, by 1916, there already existed some 2000 fixed venues for movie performances and initially film screenings were supplemented or even replaced by variety turns.
Under the aegis of the military, so-called Vaterland films were produced, audiences however did not care to swallow the patriotic medicine without the accompanying sugar of the light-entertainment films which, Ufa promoted. The German film industry became the largest in Europe. Many countries banned the import of German films and audiences themselves were resisting anything that was “German”, in addition, the economic situation was unstable and the devaluation of the currency made it difficult for the smaller production companies to function. Film industry financing was a business and expensive productions occasionally led to bankruptcy. Apart from UFA, about 230 film companies were active in Berlin alone and this industry was attracting producers and directors from all over Europe
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
The Electronic Revolution
The Electronic Revolution is an essay collection by William S. Burroughs that was first published in 1970 by Expanded Media Editions in West Germany. A second edition, published in 1971 in Cambridge, the book is available in its entirety in editions of The Job, a book of interviews conducted by Daniel Odier that elaborate on the topics contained therein. The book is divided into two parts, part one, entitled The Feedback from Watergate to the Garden of Eden invokes Alfred Korzybski’s views characterising man as the time binding machine due to his ability to write. Burroughs sees the significance of a word as a distinguishing feature of human beings which enables them to transform. Part two, Electronic Revolution concerns the power of alphabetic non-pictorial languages to control people and it draws attention to the subversive influence of the word virus on humans and dangerous possibilities of using human voice as a weapon. Recording words on tape recorders and employing the Cut-up technique can lead to the false news broadcasts or garbled political speeches causing confusion.
The basic idea of language as a virus has been used and quoted from several of Burroughs interviews. Here is a passage from the text, The referred German Doktor Kurt Unruh von Steinplatz is another of Burroughs inventions, the book influenced numerous musicians in the industrial music scene of the 1970s. He described it as a handbook of how to use tape recorders in a crowd … to promote a sense of unease or unrest by playback of riot noises cut in with random recordings of the crowd itself
Industrial music is a genre of experimental/electronic music that draws on transgressive or provocative sounds and themes. In general, the style is harsh and challenging, allMusic defines industrial as the most abrasive and aggressive fusion of rock and electronic music, initially a blend of avant-garde electronics experiments and punk provocation. The first industrial artists experimented with noise and aesthetically controversial topics and visually, such as fascism, serial killers and their production was not limited to music, but included mail art, performance art, installation pieces and other art forms. Prominent industrial musicians include Throbbing Gristle, Monte Cazazza, SPK, Boyd Rice, Cabaret Voltaire, Musicians cite writers such as William S. Burroughs, and philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche as influences. These artists expanded the genre by pushing it into noisier and more electronic directions, over time, its influence spread into and blended with styles including ambient and rock, all of which now fall under the post-industrial music label.
Electro-industrial music is a subgenre that developed in the 1980s. These three distinct genres are often referred to as simply industrial, Industrial music drew from a broad range of predecessors. Industrial music was created originally by using mechanical and electric machinery, monroe argues for Suicide as an influential contemporary of the industrial musicians. Groups cited as inspirational by the founders of industrial music include The Velvet Underground, Joy Division, genesis P-Orridge of Throbbing Gristle had a cassette library including recordings by the Master Musicians of Jajouka, Charles Manson, and William S. Burroughs. P-Orridge credited 1960s rock such as The Doors, Pearls Before Swine, The Fugs, Captain Beefheart, chris Carter enjoyed and found inspiration in Pink Floyd and Tangerine Dream. Boyd Rice was influenced by the music of 60s girl groups, Cabaret Voltaire cited Roxy Music as their initial forerunners, as well as Kraftwerks Trans-Europe Express. Cabaret Voltaire recorded pieces reminiscent of musique concrète and composers such as Morton Subotnick, Nurse with Wound cited a long list of obscure free improvisation and Krautrock as recommended listening.
23 Skidoo borrowed from Fela Kuti and Miles Daviss On the Corner, many industrial groups, including Einstürzende Neubauten, took inspiration from world music. Many of the industrial musicians preferred to cite artists or thinkers, rather than musicians. Simon Reynolds declares that Being a Throbbing Gristle fan was like enrolling in a university course of cultural extremism, John Cage was an initial inspiration for Throbbing Gristle. SPK appreciated Jean Dubuffet, Marcel Duchamp, Jean Baudrillard, Michel Foucault, Walter Benjamin, Marshall McLuhan, Friedrich Nietzsche, Cabaret Voltaire took conceptual cues from Burroughs, J. G. Ballard, and Tristan Tzara. Whitehouse and Nurse with Wound dedicated some of their work to the Marquis de Sade, another influence on the industrial aesthetic was Lou Reeds Metal Machine Music. Pitchfork Music cites this album as inspiring, in part, much of the contemporary avant-garde music scene—noise, the album consists entirely of guitar feedback, anticipating industrials use of non-musical sounds
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990. During this Cold War era, NATO-aligned West Germany and Warsaw Pact-aligned East Germany were divided by the Inner German border, after 1961 West Berlin was physically separated from East Berlin as well as from East Germany by the Berlin Wall. This situation ended when East Germany was dissolved and its five states joined the ten states of the Federal Republic of Germany along with the reunified city-state of Berlin. With the reunification of West and East Germany, the Federal Republic of Germany, enlarged now to sixteen states and this period is referred to as the Bonn Republic by historians, alluding to the interwar Weimar Republic and the post-reunification Berlin Republic. The Federal Republic of Germany was established from eleven states formed in the three Allied Zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France, US and British forces remained in the country throughout the Cold War.
Its population grew from roughly 51 million in 1950 to more than 63 million in 1990, the city of Bonn was its de facto capital city. The fourth Allied occupation zone was held by the Soviet Union, as a result, West Germany had a territory about half the size of the interbellum democratic Weimar Republic. At the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided among the Western and Eastern blocs, Germany was de facto divided into two countries and two special territories, the Saarland and divided Berlin. The Federal Republic of Germany claimed a mandate for all of Germany. It took the line that the GDR was an illegally constituted puppet state, though the GDR did hold regular elections, these were not free and fair. For all practical purposes the GDR was a Soviet puppet state, from the West German perspective the GDR was therefore illegitimate. Three southwestern states of West Germany merged to form Baden-Württemberg in 1952, in addition to the resulting ten states, West Berlin was considered an unofficial de facto 11th state.
It recognised the GDR as a de facto government within a single German nation that in turn was represented de jure by the West German state alone. From 1973 onward, East Germany recognised the existence of two German countries de jure, and the West as both de facto and de jure foreign country, the Federal Republic and the GDR agreed that neither of them could speak in the name of the other. The first chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who remained in office until 1963, had worked for an alignment with NATO rather than neutrality. He not only secured a membership in NATO but was a proponent of agreements that developed into the present-day European Union, when the G6 was established in 1975, there was no question whether the Federal Republic of Germany would be a member as well. With the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989, symbolised by the opening of the Berlin Wall, East Germany voted to dissolve itself and accede to the Federal Republic in 1990. Its five post-war states were reconstituted along with the reunited Berlin and they formally joined the Federal Republic on 3 October 1990, raising the number of states from 10 to 16, ending the division of Germany
William S. Burroughs
William Seward Burroughs II was an American writer. Burroughs was a figure of the Beat Generation and a major postmodernist author whose influence is considered to have affected a range of popular culture as well as literature. Burroughs wrote eighteen novels and novellas, six collections of short stories, five books have been published of his interviews and correspondences. He collaborated on projects and recordings with numerous performers and musicians and he was briefly known by the pen name William Lee. He was born into a family in St. Louis, grandson of the inventor and founder of the Burroughs Corporation, William Seward Burroughs I. Burroughs began writing essays and journals in early adolescence, but did not begin publicizing his writing until his thirties and he left home in 1932 to attend Harvard University, studied English, and anthropology as a postgraduate, and attended medical school in Vienna. With Brion Gysin, he popularized the literary cut-up technique in works such as The Nova Trilogy.
In 1983, Burroughs was elected to the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, J. G. Burroughs had one child, William S. Burroughs, Jr. with his second wife Joan Vollmer. William Burroughs died at his home in Lawrence, after suffering an attack in 1997. Burroughs was born in 1914, the younger of two born to Mortimer Perry Burroughs and Laura Hammon Lee. His was a prominent family of English ancestry in St. Louis and his grandfather, William Seward Burroughs I, founded the Burroughs Adding Machine company, which evolved into the Burroughs Corporation. Burroughss mother was the daughter of a minister whose family claimed to be related to Robert E. Lee and his maternal uncle, Ivy Lee, was an advertising pioneer employed as a publicist for the Rockefellers. His father ran an antique and gift shop, Cobblestone Gardens, first in St. Louis, in Palm Beach, as a boy, Burroughs lived on Pershing Ave. in St. Louiss Central West End. He attended John Burroughs School in St. Louis where his first published essay and he attended the Los Alamos Ranch School in New Mexico, which was stressful for him.
The school was a school for the wealthy, where the spindly sons of the rich could be transformed into manly specimens. Burroughs kept journals documenting an erotic attachment to another boy, according to his own account, he destroyed these later, ashamed of their content. He became a well-known homosexual writer after the publication of Naked Lunch in 1959, some say that he was expelled from Los Alamos after taking chloral hydrate in Santa Fe with a fellow student. Yet, according to his own account, he left voluntarily, Burroughs finished high school at Taylor School in Clayton, and in 1932, left home to pursue an arts degree at Harvard University, where he was affiliated with Adams House