Colossus is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. He is the alter ego of Piotr "Peter" Nikolayevich Rasputin. Created by writer Len Wein and artist Dave Cockrum, he first appeared in Giant-Size X-Men #1. A Russian mutant, he is a member of the X-Men. Colossus is able to transform himself into metallic form, making him the physically strongest of the team; when his powers are not engaged, he is still a physically imposing figure of 6 ft 7 in. He is portrayed as quiet and virtuous, he has had a consistent presence in X-Men-related comic books since his debut. A talented artist, he only reluctantly agrees to use his powers in combat, feeling it is his responsibility to use his abilities for the betterment of human- and mutant-kind. Wizard ranked Colossus at 184 on the "Top 200 Comic Book Characters of All Time". In 2006, IGN placed Colossus in the 10th spot of their list of "The Top 25 X-Men". In 2013, ComicsAlliance ranked Colossus as #22 on their list of the "50 Sexiest Male Characters in Comics".
In film, actor Daniel Cudmore portrays Colossus in X2, X-Men: The Last Stand and X-Men: Days of Future Past, Stefan Kapičić provides the voice of a CGI character in Deadpool and Deadpool 2. Editor Roy Thomas, in charge of reviving the X-Men for Giant-Size X-Men #1, told the creative team to go home and create some characters for the new team. Dave Cockrum recalled: I just went home and Colossus was one of the first ones that came to mind. We needed a strong guy for the team, so I drew up a strong guy; the character's armor just kind of fell into place. He was accepted pretty much as-is, except that I had given him bare legs because it seemed only logical that if we're going to show him armored up, the legs should be bare like the arms, but Len Wein didn't like male characters with bare legs. So we decided that his costume would be blue when he wasn't armored up, that we'd see his legs when he was armored up, due to the unstable molecules of his costume. A mainstay of the X-Men comic book series until the 1990s, Colossus went on to appear in the first series of Excalibur.
While a member of the team, he had his own self-titled one-shot that depicted him and his teammate Meggan battling Arcade at his new Murderworld facility. After returning to the X-Men alongside Excalibur teammates Shadowcat and Nightcrawler, Colossus stayed with the title until his death, he was resurrected and was a regular in the third series of Astonishing X-Men written by Joss Whedon. He is the feature of Colossus: Bloodlines, in which he journeys back to Russia. Colossus has since returned as a regular in the X-Men series, appearing in various titles such as X-Men: Manifest Destiny, X-Men: Secret Invasion, X-Men, Astonishing X-Men. Colossus appears in Cable and X-Force, a new series by writer Dennis Hopeless and artist Salvador Larroca which debuted in December 2012, he appears in Extraordinary X-Men, drawn by Humberto Ramos. He is part of a team, led by Storm, includes his sister Magik, Iceman, a teenaged version of Jean Grey, Nightcrawler, a re-purposed Sentinel named Cerebra, Old Man Logan.
Piotr "Peter" Rasputin was born on a Soviet collective farm called the Ust-Ordynsky Collective near Lake Baikal in Siberia. He lived there with his mother Alexandra, father Nikolai, sister Illyana, his older brother, had been a Soviet cosmonaut and had died in a rocket accident. The 2006 comic mini-series Colossus: Bloodline established that the family was descended from Grigori Rasputin. Peter's superhuman powers manifested during his adolescence while saving his sister from a runaway tractor, he was contacted by Professor Charles Xavier, founder of the X-Men. Peter Rasputin was part of the second generation of X-Men, formed by Charles Xavier to save the original X-Men from the living island Krakoa, he agreed to leave the farm community. Xavier gave him the name Colossus. After the battle was won, Colossus remained in the U. S. with the new X-Men. Colossus is portrayed as peaceful, reluctant to hurt or kill, putting himself in danger to protect others. In some of his earliest missions, he battled the Shi'ar Imperial Guard, visited the Savage Land, where he met Nereel.
Peter's family always remained in his thoughts and he wrote letters home. Shortly after joining the X-Men, a woman known as Miss Locke kidnapped many of the team's loved ones to force the X-Men to help her free her employer, from captivity by one of Doctor Doom's robots. Among her captives was Colossus' younger sister Illyana, whom Locke had kidnapped from the Siberian collective farm and transported to the United States. Arcade brainwashed Colossus into becoming "The Proletarian", who battled the other X-Men until they countered the brainwashing; the X-Men freed Illyana from captivity, she went to live with her brother Peter at Xavier's mansion. She was held captive in a dimension known as Limbo, where she spent years while only mere moments elapsed on Earth, became the adolescent sorceress Magik; as a result, an alternate-timeline version of Colossus dies in Limbo. When the X-Men fought the evil mutant Proteus, Colossus attempted to kill Proteus, an act he found morally questionable though he did it to save Moira MacTaggart's life.
During his early career with the X-Men, Peter started what was arguably his most significant relationship with fellow X-Man Kitty Pryde. Although they were only a couple for a short while, the relationship provided the foundation of a deep and lasting friendship. Colossus was almost killed in a battle with Mystique's Brotherhood of Mutants, but was saved by Rog
Spanish comics are the comics of Spain. Comics in Spain are called historietas or cómics, with tebeos denoting the magazines containing the medium. Tebeo is a phonetic adaptation of TBO, a long-running Spanish comic book magazine, sounds like "te veo". Two publishing houses — Editorial Bruguera and Editorial Valenciana — dominated the Spanish comics market for most of its history. Spanish artists have traditionally worked in other markets reaching great success, either in the American, the British or the Franco-Belgian one, it has been stated that the 13th century Cantigas de Santa María could be considered as the first Spanish "comic", although comics made their official debut around 1857 at the Spanish colonies. Among the first comic magazines in peninsular Spain were El Mundo Cómico. After them, TBO was specially influential in popularizing the medium. One of the magazine's recurring features was Los grandes inventos del TBO which depicted humorous Rube Goldberg-like machines. Other important early humorous comic magazines were Lily.
After the Spanish Civil War the Franco regime imposed strict censorship in all media, comics were no exception. As part of this ban, superhero comics were forbidden by the Francoist regime. In 1944 the medieval hero El Guerrero del Antifaz was created by Manuel Gago and published by Editorial Valenciana. Another popular medieval hero, Capitán Trueno, was created in 1956 by Víctor Mora and Miguel Ambrosio Zaragoza. Despite Franco's controls, the 1940s and 1950s are considered a golden age of Spanish comics, many titles were at the height of their popularity. During this period, Editorial Bruguera created a recognizable style of humor comics with a mixture of comedy of manners and slapstick starring chronic losers. Among the popular characters of this era were Cifré's El repórter Tribulete, Escobar's Carpanta and Zipi y Zape, Vázquez's Las hermanas Gilda. Editorial Bruguera published adventure comics such as Capitán Trueno and Silver Roy. In 1958 Ibáñez's Mortadelo y Filemón was first published, a series that soon became the most popular comic media in Spain, together with some of his other creations.
Editorial Valenciana published adventures comics such as Roberto Alcázar y Pedrín, Miguel Quesada's La Pandilla de los Siete and El Guerrero del Antifaz. Editorial Valenciana's humor series were not with more absurd and harmless comedy. In the 1960s Spanish comics had to adapt to more restrictive censorship. Editorial Bruguera was the leader of juvenile comics during those years, with authors such as Fresnos, Joan March, Nicolás, Jaume Ribera, Jaume Rovira. In 1969 the magazine Gran Pulgarcito serialized the first long strip of Mortadelo y Filemón. Adults read horror comics such as Dossier Negro, Vampus or Rufus, or satirical comics such as El Papus. Humor comics of the 1970s became more absurdist, with characters such as Sir Tim O'Theo or Superlópez. One of the authors who adapted well to this more surreal style was Vázquez with his strip Anacleto, agente secreto. After the death of Franco in 1975, there was an increased interest in adult comics, with magazines such as Totem, El Jueves, 1984, El Víbora, works such as Paracuellos by Carlos Giménez.
However, successful humor comics continued to appear at children-oriented media, such as Goomer. In 1989 the annual comic book convention of Barcelona was inaugurated. Market saturation became evident in 1983 with the closure of the magazines of Ediciones Metropol. Things during this era were complicated by a crisis that increased the price of paper, as well as the rise of video games. Editorial Bruguera filed for bankruptcy on 7 June 1982. In 1986 it was acquired by Grupo Z and transformed into Ediciones B. In the 1990s most adult comic magazines ceased publishing. El Víbora closed in 2005; the most notable survivor of that era was El Jueves. Mortadelo and all Ediciones B comic magazines disappeared in 1996. Mortadelo y Filemón and Superlópez are still published directly in album format. Among the notable Spanish webcomics are ¡Eh, tío!, El joven Lovecraft, El Listo and ¡Universo!. Since 2007, a National Comic Award which revitalized the medium was established by the Spanish Ministry of Culture. List of Spanish comics Belgian comics Franco-Belgian comics Italian comics Alary, Viviane.
Historietas, comics y tebeos españoles. Presses Universitaires du Mirail: Hespérides Espagne, Université de Toulouse, Le Mirail. Antologia del Còmic Espanyol 1915/1965. Societat Andorrana de Ciències, Andorra la Vella. Altarriba, Antonio. La España del Tebeo: La historieta española de 1940 a 2000. Espasa Calpe, Madrid. Altarriba, Antonio y Remesar, Antoni. Comicsarias: Ensayo sobre una década de historieta española, Promociones y Publicaciones Universitarias. Cuadrado, Jesús. De la historieta y su uso: 1873-2000. Dopico, Pablo. El cómic underground español, 1970-1980. Ediciones Cátedra, Madrid. Guiral
Canadian comics refers to comics and cartooning by citizens of Canada or permanent residents of Canada regardless of residence. Canada has two official languages, distinct comics cultures have developed in English and French Canada; the English tends to follow American trends, the French Franco-Belgian ones, with little crossover between the two cultures. Canadian comics run the gamut of comics forms, including editorial cartooning, comic strips, comic books, graphic novels, webcomics, are published in newspapers, magazines and online, they have received attention in international comics communities and have received support from the federal and provincial governments, including grants from the Canada Council for the Arts. There are comics publishers throughout the country, as well as large small press, self-publishing, minicomics communities. In English Canada many cartoonists, from Hal Foster to Todd McFarlane, have sought to further their careers by moving to the United States. During World War II, trade restrictions led to the flourishing of a domestic comic book industry, whose black-and-white "Canadian Whites" contained original stories of heroes such as Nelvana of the Northern Lights as well as American scripts redrawn by Canadian artists.
The war's end saw domestic censorship lead to the death of this industry. The alternative and small press communities grew in the 1970s, by the end of the century Dave Sim's Cerebus and Chester Brown's comics, amongst others, gained international audiences and critical acclaim, Drawn and Quarterly became a leader in arts-comics publishing. In the 21st century, comics have gained wider audiences and higher levels of recognition in the form of graphic novels and webcomics. In French Canada indigenous comics are called BDQ or bande dessinée québécoise Cartoons with speech balloons in Quebec date to the late 1700s. BDQ have alternately flourished and languished throughout Quebec's history as the small domestic market has found it difficult to compete with foreign imports. Many cartoonists from Quebec have made their careers in the United States. Since the Springtime of BDQ in the 1970s native comics magazines, such as Croc and Safarir, comics albums have become more common, though they account for only 5% of total sales in the province.
Since the turn of the 21st century cartoonists such as Michel Rabagliati, Guy Delisle, the team of Dubuc and Delaf have seen international success in French-speaking Europe and in translation. Éditions Mille-Îles and La Pastèque are amongst the domestic publishers that have become common. Brigadier-General George Townshend's cartoons lampooning General James Wolfe in 1759 are recognized as the first examples of political cartooning in Canadian history. Cartoons did not have a regular forum in Canada until John Henry Walker's short-lived weekly Punch in Canada débuted in Montreal in 1849; the magazine featured cartoons by Walker. It paved the way for a number of similar short-lived publications, until the success of the more straight-laced Canadian Illustrated News, published by George-Édouard Desbarats beginning in 1869, soon after Canadian Confederation. In 1873, John Wilson Bengough founded Grip, a humour magazine in the style of Punch and the American Harper's Weekly, it featured a large number of cartoons Bengough's own.
The cartoons tended to be political, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald and Métis rebel leader Louis Riel were favourite targets; the Pacific Scandal in the early 1870s gave Bengough much fodder to raise his reputation as a political caricaturist. According to historian John Bell, while Bengough was the most significant pre-20th-century Canadian cartoonist, Henri Julien was the most accomplished. Published both at home and abroad, Julien's cartoons appeared in periodicals such as Harper's Weekly and Le Monde illustré. In 1888, he gained employment at the Montreal Star and became the first full-time newspaper cartoonist in Canada. Palmer Cox, a Canadian expatriate in the United States, at this time created The Brownies, a popular merchandised phenomenon whose first book collection sold over a million copies. Cox began a Brownies comic strip in 1898, one of the earliest English-language strips, had begun to use speech balloons by the time it ended in 1907. Canadian cartoonists found it hard to succeed in the field of comic strips without moving to the US, but in 1921, Jimmy Frise, one of Ernest Hemingway's drinking buddies during the journalist's days in Toronto, sold Life's Little Comedies to the Toronto Star's Star Weekly.
This strip was retitled Birdseye Center, became the longest-running strip in English Canadian history. In 1947, Frise brought the strip to the Montreal Standard. Nova Scotia-born artist J. R. Williams single-panel strip about rural and small-town life, Out Our Way, began in 1922 and was syndicated in 700 newspapers at its peak. Two new comic strips appeared on the same day in 1929 in American newspapers and fed the public's desire for escapist entertainment at the dawn of the Great Depression, they were the first non-humorous adventure strips, both were adaptations. One was Buck Rogers. Other adventure strips soon followed and paved the way for the genre diversity, seen in comic strips in the 1930s. In 1937, Foster began his own strip, Prince Valiant, which
Katherine Anne "Kitty" Pryde is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics in association with the X-Men. The character first appeared in Uncanny X-Men #129 and was co-created by writer-artist John Byrne and Chris Claremont. A mutant, Pryde possesses a "phasing" ability that allows her, as well as objects or people she is in contact with, to become intangible; this power disrupts any electrical field she passes through, lets her simulate levitation. The youngest person to join the X-Men, she was first portrayed as a "kid sister" to many older members of the X-Men, filling the role of literary foil to the more established characters. During this time she uses the codenames Sprite and Ariel, undergoing many costume changes for each codename until settling for her trademark black and gold costume. During the miniseries Kitty Pryde and Wolverine she is renamed Shadowcat, the alias she would be most associated with, transitions to the more mature depiction of her subsequent appearances.
She was one of the main cast of characters depicted in the original Excalibur title. After joining the Guardians of the Galaxy, she assumes her fiancé's superhero identity as the Star-Lord. In the X-Men film series, Kitty was portrayed by young actresses in cameos: Sumela Kay in X-Men and Katie Stuart in X2. Ellen Page portrayed the character in X-Men: X-Men: Days of Future Past, she is ranked #47 in IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes. Kitty Pryde was introduced into the X-Men title as the result of an editorial dictate that the book was supposed to depict a school for mutants. Uncanny X-Men artist John Byrne named Kitty Pryde after a classmate he met in art school, Alberta College of Art and Design in Calgary in 1973, he had told Pryde he liked her name and asked for permission to use it, promising to name his first original comics character after her. Byrne drew the character to resemble an adolescent Sigourney Weaver; the fictional Kitty Pryde first appeared in Uncanny X-Men #129, by writer Chris Claremont and artist Byrne, as a intelligent 13-year-old girl.
Claremont said several elements of the character's personality were derived from those of X-Men editor Louise Simonson's daughter, Julie. Claremont and Byrne made the new character a full-fledged X-Man in issue #139, where she was codenamed "Sprite", she was the main character in issues #141–142, the "Days of Future Past" storyline, where she is possessed by her older self, whose consciousness time travels to the past to prevent a mass extermination of mutants. The six-issue miniseries Kitty Pryde and Wolverine, written by Claremont, is a coming-of-age storyline in which she matures from a girl to a young woman, adopting the new name "Shadowcat". In the late'80s, she joined the British-based super team, where she remained for ten years before coming back to the X-Men. In the early 2000s, she disappeared from the spotlight after semi-retiring from superhero work, she was featured in the 2002 mini-series Mekanix and came back to the main X-Men books in 2004 under the pen of Joss Whedon in Astonishing X-Men.
She remained a part of the X-Men books until 2008 when she left again for 2 years. After coming back, she was featured in Jason Aaron's Wolverine and the X-Men and Brian Michael Bendis' All-New X-Men books. In early 2015, she joined the Guardians of the Galaxy. After the Secret Wars event, she adopted her new alias, Star-Lord. Shadowcat's popularity had a profound effect on the real-life Kitty Pryde: the latter became so overwhelmed by attention from Shadowcat fans, she abbreviated her name to K. D. Pryde to avoid association with her fictional counterpart, she has since stated she has mixed feelings about her fame, saying she values Byrne's comics for their entertainment and artistic value, but wishes more people would appreciate her as more than just Shadowcat's namesake. Katherine Anne "Kitty" Pryde was born in Illinois, to Carmen and Theresa Pryde, she is Jewish, her paternal grandfather, Samuel Prydeman, was held in a Nazi concentration camp during World War II. Kitty started signaling the emergence of her mutant powers.
She was approached by both the X-Men's Charles Xavier and the Hellfire Club's White Queen, Emma Frost, both of whom hoped to recruit her for their respective causes. Kitty was unnerved by Frost, observing that the White Queen looked at her as if she were "something good to eat." She got along better with Xavier and the three X-Men who escorted him becoming friends with Ororo Munroe. Ororo told Kitty who she was and about the X-Men, which made the teenager more enthusiastic about attending Xavier's school, their conversation was cut short when they were attacked by armored mercenaries in the employ of Frost and the Hellfire Club. The X-Men defeated their assailants, but were subdued by the White Queen's telepathic powers after. In the confusion, Kitty was separated from the X-Men, not captured along with them, she managed to contact Cyclops and Nightcrawler. With the help of Dazzler and Pryde, those X-Men rescued their teammates from the Hellfire Club; the White Queen appeared to perish in the battle, which meant she was no longer competing with Xavier for the approval of Kitty's parents.
Kitty's parents had not heard from her in more than a day, because during that time she was first being pursued by the Hellfire Club's men and working with the X-Men to save their friends. All they knew was Kitty had left with Xavier's "students" to get a soda, there had been reports that the soda shop had been blown up, Kitty had been missing since. Therefore, they were angry
Portuguese comics are comics created in Portugal or by Portuguese authors. Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro, Carlos Botelho, João Abel Manta are some of the most notable early Portuguese cartoonists; the first Portuguese comic book was Apontamentos de Raphael Bordallo Pinheiro Sobre a Picaresca Viagem do Imperador de Rasilb pela Europa, by Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro. Pinheiro created Zé Povinho, the cartoon character of a Portuguese everyman. Zé Povinho became first a symbol of the Portuguese working-class people, into the unofficial personification of Portugal. Between 1926 and 1929 Pinheiro drew comic strips for the children’s weekly ABCzinho, "and is the author of the entire front and back pages of each issue, in color". In 1928, Carlos Botelho started a comics page in the weekly publication Sempre Fixe, a collaboration that he maintained for over 22 years and, the stage for a caustic criticism of a vast range of issues, going from trivial matters of daily life in Lisbon to some of the most relevant events in international life, in a "style that mixed up chronicle, autobiography and satire," making it an early example of autobiographical comics.
On 8 December 1950, the date when Botelho ended that monumental cycle of work, his Ecos da Semana made a total of about 1,200 pages, "in a continuous discourse with no intervals or holidays". "Ecos da Semana are a double, triple, diary – of the author, between his 29 and 51 years of age, of a country, or of a world."João Abel Manta is of particular importance in the area of the cartoon, is considered to be "the most extraordinary case of Portuguese cartoon drawing of, only comparable Bordalo Pinheiro himself". Manta's activity as a cartoonist was from 1954 to 1991, being intense between 1969 and 1976. For about seven years his cartoons — dealing critically and ironically with Portuguese reality — were published in newspapers like the Diário de Lisboa, Diário de Notícias, O Jornal. Manta's cartoons marked the period before the 25th of April with their unique and meticulous graphic quality, he questioned the identity of a country in turmoil in drawings such as A Difficult Problem, where a group of outstanding figures from the past – from Karl Marx to Trotsky and Sartre – stare inquisitively at a small map of Portugal on a blackboard.
Manta "will be associated in a particular way to the best and worst that we lived through in Portugal during those years." The Adventures of Dog Mendonça & Pizzaboy A fórmula da felicidade Hans, o cavalo cansado Kuroneko Março Anormal The Positives TMG - The Mighty Gang Banzai O Gafanhoto O Mosquito Zé Povinho Tom Vitoin Chili Com Carne Edições Devir El Pep Goody Kingpin Books Levoir Planeta Polvo Comic Con Portugal — held in Porto Amadora BD — Festival Internacional de Banda Desenhada.
Comic book collecting
Comic book collecting is a hobby that treats comic books and related items as collectibles or artwork to be sought after and preserved. Though more recent than the collecting of postage stamps or books, it has a major following around the world today and is responsible for the increased interest in comics after the temporary slump experienced during the 1980s. Comics are collected for several possible reasons, including appreciation, financial profit, completion of the collection; the comic book came to light in the pop culture arena in the 1930s due to the popularity of superhero characters Superman and Captain Marvel. Since the 1960s, two publishers have dominated the American comic book industry: Marvel Comics, publisher of such comics as Spider-Man, X-Men, Fantastic Four, DC Comics, which publishes titles such as Superman and Wonder Woman. Other large non-manga publishers include Image Comics, IDW, Dark Horse Comics; as comic books regained their popularity in the 1960s during the boom of the Silver Age, fans organized comic book conventions, where they could meet to discuss their favorite comics with each other and with the creators themselves.
As of 2010, numerous conventions and festivals are held around the world, with Comic-Con International held annually in San Digo, being the largest and best-known convention in the United States. While some people collect comic books for personal interest in the medium or characters, others prefer to collect for profit. To assist both types of comic book collector, comic book price guides are available and provide estimates of comic book values as well as information on comic book creators and characters; the price guides assign values for comic books based on demand and the copy's condition. The longest running price guide is the annual Overstreet Price Guide, first published in 1970. Another current monthly price guide is Comics Buyer's Guide; the growth of the Internet in the late 1990s saw development of online databases to track creator, character appearances, storylines, as well as websites combining comic book price guides with personalized collection tracking to provide collection values in real-time.
The Grand Comics Database is a popular online resource for comic book creator and character information. Popular online price guide and collection tracking services include comicbookrealm.com, comicspriceguide.com, GPAnalysis. The increased popularity of online auctioning services like eBay or Heritage Auctions for buying and selling comic books has increased the visibility of actual comic book sale prices, leading to improved price guide accuracy for online price guides such as comicspriceguide.com and GPAnalysis. GPA only tracks sales of slabbed books, therefore is not an accurate indicator of overall comic sales. In response to collectors' interest in preserving their collections, products designed for the protection and storage of comic books became available, including special bags. Before the late 1960s no specialized comic stores existed and the notion of comics as collectible art was in its infancy. A few collector-based retail establishments existed, most notably Pop Hollinger's retail and mail order shop for new and used comics in Concordia, in full swing by 1940.
Claude Held had followed suit in Buffalo, New York, by 1946. The origins of comic book collecting as an organized hobby has its roots in early science fiction fandom and comic book letters pages. In the early 1960s, DC Comics began publishing the full addresses of the people writing in, which allowed comic fans to reach out to each other. In the US a few specialist shops had opened their doors by the 1960s, but were still a small market. In the UK, the only distribution channels available were ordinary news stands and mail order publications like Exchange and Mart or through zines run by the early panelologists themselves. Denver, Colorado-based retailer Chuck Rozanski played a large role in the growth of the comics speculation market in 1977 when he acquired the high-value "Mile High Collection" — 16,000 comic books dating from 1937 to 1955 — and began releasing select books into the marketplace. During the late 1970s–early 1980s major comic publishers like Marvel and DC Comics started to recognize the new movements and started publishing material, intended for sale in specialist shops only.
When Marvel tested the new comics specialty market with the title Dazzler in 1981, the comic sold over 400,000 copies, a respectable figure and one that astounded the company. Hereafter, comics publishers started tailoring ever-increasing percentages of marketing and production for the sale in specialist stores. While the bulk of the revenues still came from sales through regular channels, the ability to focus more on specific target groups as well as distributing comics not on a sale-or-return basis, but in limited runs according to sales predictions from the retailers themselves, over-printing and overhead costs could be drastically reduced. From the 1970s to the present day, comics publishers have been targeting more and more of their titles to collector audiences with features such as limited editions, the use of high quality paper, or the inclusion of novelty items. From 1985 through 1993, comic book speculation reached its highest peaks; this boom period began with the publication of titles like Batman: The Dark Knight Returns and Watchmen and "summer crossover epics" like Crisis on Infinite Earths and Secret Wars.
After Watchmen and Dark Knight Returns made their mark, mainstream attention returned to the comic book industry in 1989 with the success of the movie Batman and
Osamu Tezuka was a Japanese manga artist, cartoonist and film producer. Born in Osaka Prefecture, his prolific output, pioneering techniques, innovative redefinitions of genres earned him such titles as "the father of manga", "the godfather of manga" and "the god of manga". Additionally, he is considered the Japanese equivalent to Walt Disney, who served as a major inspiration during Tezuka's formative years. Though this phrase praises the quality of his early manga works for children and animations, it blurs the significant influence of his more literary, gekiga works. Tezuka began what was known as the manga revolution in Japan with his New Treasure Island published in 1947, his legendary output would spawn some of the most influential and well received manga series including the children mangas Astro Boy, Princess Knight and Kimba the White Lion, the adult oriented series Black Jack and Buddha, all of which won several awards. Tezuka died of stomach cancer in 1989, his death had an immediate impact on other cartoonists.
A museum was constructed in Takarazuka dedicated to his memory and life works, Tezuka received many posthumous awards. Several animations were in production at the time of his death along with the final chapters of Phoenix, which were never released. Tezuka was the eldest of three children in Osaka; the Tezuka family were well-educated. His mother's family had a long military history. Tezuka's nickname was gashagasha-atama. In life, he gave his mother credit for inspiring confidence and creativity through her stories, she took him to the Takarazuka Grand Theater, which headlined the Takarazuka Revue, an all-female musical theater troupe. Their romantic musicals aimed at a female audience, had a large influence of Tezuka's works, including his costume designs. Not only that, but the large, sparkling eyes had an influence on Tezuka's art style, he has said" for Takarazuka. When Tezuka was young, his father showed him Disney films, he became a Disney movie buff, seeing the films multiple times in a row, most famously seeing Bambi more than 80 times.
Tezuka started to draw comics around his second year of elementary school, drawing so much that his mother would have to erase pages in his notebook in order to keep up with his output. Tezuka was inspired by works by Suihō Tagawa and Unno Juza. Around his fifth year he found a bug named "Osamushi", it so resembled his name. He continued to develop his manga skills throughout his school career. During this period he created his first adept amateur works. During high school in 1944, Tezuka was drafted to work for a factory, supporting the Japanese war effort during World War II. In 1945, Tezuka began studying medicine. During this time, he began publishing his first professional works. Tezuka came to the realization that he could use manga as a means of helping to convince people to care for the world. After World War II, at age 17, he published his first piece of work: Diary of Ma-chan. Tezuka began talks with fellow manga artist Shichima Sakai, who had pitched Tezuka a manga based around the famous story Treasure Island.
Sakai promised Tezuka a publishing spot from Ikuei Shuppan. Tezuka finished the manga. Shin Takarajima was published and became an overnight success which began the golden age of manga, a craze comparable to American comic books at the time. In 1951, Tezuka joined a group known as Tokyo Children Manga Association consisting of other manga artists such as Baba Noboru, Ota Jiro, Furusawa Hideo, Fukui Eiichi, Irie Shigeru, Negishi Komichi. With the success of New Treasure Island, Tezuka traveled to Tokyo in search of a publisher for more of his work. After visiting Kobunsha Tezuka was turned down. However, publisher Shinseikaku agreed to purchase The Strange Voyage of Dr. Tiger and Domei Shuppansha would purchase The Mysterious Dr. Koronko. Whilst continuing his study in medical school Tezuka published his first masterpieces: a trilogy of science fiction epics called Lost World and Next World. Soon after Tezuka published his first major success Jungle Emperor Leo, it was serialized in Manga Shonen from 1950 to 1954.
In 1951 Tezuka graduated from the Osaka School of Medicine and published Ambassador Atom, the first appearance of the Astro Boy character. By 1952, Ambassador Atom proved to be only a mild success in Japan. Tezuka received several letters from many young boys. Expecting success with a series based around Atom, Tezuka's producer suggested that he be given human emotions. One day while working at a hospital Tezuka was punched in the face by a frustrated American G. I; this encounter gave Tezuka the idea to create Atom. On February 4, 1952, Tetsuwan Atom began serialization in Weekly Shonen Magazine; the character Atom and his adventures became an instant phenomenon in Japan. Due to the success of Tetsuwan Atom, in 1953 Tezuka published shōjo manga Ribon no Kishi, serialized in Shojo Club from 1953 to 1956. In 1954 Tezuka first published what he would consider his life's