John Chard Decoration
The John Chard Decoration, post-nominal letters JCD, was a military long service decoration, instituted by the Union of South Africa on 6 April 1952. It was awarded to members of the Citizen Force of the South African Defence Force for twenty years of efficient service and good conduct. Clasps could be awarded after forty years service respectively; the Union Defence Forces were established in 1912 and renamed the South African Defence Force in 1958. On 27 April 1994, it was integrated with six other independent forces into the South African National Defence Force; the John Chard Decoration, post-nominal letters JCD, was instituted by Queen Elizabeth II on 6 April 1952, during the Tercentenary Van Riebeeck Festival. The decoration was awarded to all ranks of the Citizen Force for twenty years efficient service, not continuous, it was one of only three awards for long service which entitled the recipient to the use of post-nominal letters, the others being the De Wet Decoration, awarded to Commando members, the defunct Efficiency Decoration.
In respect of officers, the John Chard Decoration replaced the Efficiency Decoration, awarded to officers of the Citizen Force between 1939 and 1952. The decoration was named after John Chard VC, the lieutenant in command of the supply depot at Rorke's Drift during the Anglo-Zulu War, when it was attacked by Zulus in January 1879. Upon being awarded the John Chard Decoration, recipients of the John Chard Medal were no longer allowed to wear the medal. A clasp could be awarded to holders of the John Chard Decoration after 30 years service. In 1977, a second clasp was instituted for award after 40 years service. From 1 July 1975, when the Good Service Medal, Silver was instituted as the middle award in a new series of three medals for long service for members of all three elements of the South African Defence Force, qualifying Citizen Force members, awarded the John Chard Medal, but who had not yet been awarded the John Chard Decoration, could elect to receive the Good Service Medal, Silver instead, but such members would thereafter be restricted to the series chosen.
The choice was therefore between, on the one hand, a further two medals which would, together with the John Chard Medal reward thirty years service and of which all three medals could be worn together, once awarded and, on the other hand, the existing Citizen Force series of a medal, a decoration which entitled the recipient to the post-nominal letters JCD and, after thirty and forty years clasps to the decoration, of which only the decoration could be worn once awarded. To resolve the issue, recipients of the John Chard Decoration and John Chard Medal were allowed, from 1986, to wear both the decoration and the medal. Members who elected to receive the John Chard series would, still be excluded from receiving the Good Service Medal, Gold after completing thirty years of qualifying service. With effect from 6 April 1952, when the John Chard Decoration and several other new decorations and medals were instituted, these new awards took precedence before all earlier British orders and medals awarded to South Africans, with the exception of the Victoria Cross, which still took precedence before all other awards.
The other older British awards continued to be worn in the order prescribed by the British Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood. The position of the John Chard Decoration in the official order of precedence was revised three times after 1975, to accommodate the inclusion or institution of new decorations and medals, first upon the integration into the South African National Defence Force on 27 April 1994, again in April 1996 when decorations and medals were belatedly instituted for the two former non-statutory forces, the Azanian People's Liberation Army and Umkhonto we Sizwe, upon the institution of a new set of awards on 27 April 2003. South African Defence Force until 26 April 1994 Official SADF order of precedence: Preceded by the Good Service Medal, Gold. Succeeded by the De Wet Decoration. Official national order of precedence: Preceded by the National Intelligence Service Medal for Faithful Service, 30 Years. Succeeded by the De Wet Decoration. South African National Defence Force from 27 April 1994 Official SANDF order of precedence: Preceded by the Long Service Medal, Gold of the Republic of Venda.
Succeeded by the De Wet Decoration of the Republic of South Africa. Official national order of precedence: Preceded by the Correctional Services Medal for Faithful Service, 30 Years of the KwaZulu Homeland. Succeeded by the De Wet Decoration of the Republic of South Africa. South African National Defence Force from April 1996 Official SANDF order of precedence: Preceded by the Service Medal in Gold of Umkhonto we Sizwe. Succeeded by the De Wet Decoration of the Republic of South Africa. Official national order of precedence: Preceded by the Service Medal in Gold of Umkhonto we Sizwe. Succeeded by the De Wet Decoration of the Republic of South Africa. South African National Defence Force from 27 April 2003 Official SANDF order of precedence: Preceded by the Medalje vir Troue Diens and Bar, 30 years of the Republic of South Africa. Succeeded by the De Wet Decoration of the Republic of South Africa. Official national order of precedence: Preceded by the Medalje vir Troue Diens and Bar, 30 years of the Republic of South Africa.
Succeeded by the De Wet Decoration of the Republic of South Africa. All South African military orders and medals were minted by the South African Mint, but with effect from c. 1980, the manufacturing of all new awards as well as the further production of older awards were put out to tender by private
The reef knot, or square knot, is an ancient and simple binding knot used to secure a rope or line around an object. It is sometimes referred to as a Hercules knot; the knot is formed by tying a left-handed overhand knot and a right-handed overhand knot, or vice versa. A common mnemonic for this procedure is "right over left. Two consecutive overhands of the same handedness will make a granny knot; the working ends of the reef knot must emerge both at the top or both at the bottom, otherwise a thief knot results. The reef knot or square knot consists of two half knots, one left and one right, one being tied on top of the other, either being tied first... The reef knot is unique in that it tightened with both ends, it is universally used for parcels and bundles. At sea it is always employed in stopping clothes for drying, but under no circumstances should it be tied as a bend, for if tied with two ends of unequal size, or if one end is stiffer or smoother than the other, the knot is bound to spill.
Except for its true purpose of binding it is a knot to be shunned. Although the reef knot is seen used for tying two ropes together, it is not recommended for this purpose because of the potential instability of the knot, over-use has resulted in many deaths; the reef knot is at least 4,000 years old. The name "reef knot" dates from at least 1794 and originates from its common use to reef sails, to tie part of the sail down to decrease its effective surface area in strong winds. To release the knot a sailor could collapse it with a pull of one hand, it is this behavior which makes the knot unsafe for connecting two ropes together. The name "square knot" is found in Dana's 1841 maritime compendium A Seaman's Friend, which gives "reef knot" as an alternative name; the name square knot is used for the unslipped version of reef knot. Reef knot itself is understood as the single slipped version, while the name shoelace knot is to indicate double slipped version. Sometimes the name bowtie may be used to indicate a double slipped version, but tying a bowtie is performed on flat material, involves a slip knot of one end holding a bight of the other end i.e. not a double slipped reef knot.
The name "Square knot" is used for different other knots such as the mathematical concept of square knot, or friendship knot. The reef knot is used to tie the two ends of a single line together such that they will secure something, for example a bundle of objects, unlikely to move much. In addition to being used by sailors for reefing and furling sails, it is one of the key knots of macrame textiles; the knot lies flat when has been used for tying bandages for millennia. As a binding knot it was known to the ancient Greeks as the Hercules knot and is still used extensively in medicine. In his Natural History, Pliny relates the belief that wounds heal more when bound with a Hercules knot, it has been used since ancient times to tie belts and sashes. A modern use in this manner includes tying the obi of a martial arts keikogi. With both ends tucked it becomes a good way to tie shoelaces, whilst the non-slipped version is useful for shoelaces that are excessively short, it is appropriate for tying plastic garbage or trash bags, as the knot forms a handle when tied in two twisted edges of the bag.
The reef knot figures prominently in Scouting worldwide. It is included in many scouting awards. In the Boy Scouts of America demonstrating the proper tying of the square knot is a requirement for all boys joining the program. In Pioneering, it is used as a binding knot to finish off specialized lashing and whipping knots. However, it is an insecure knot, unstable when jiggled, is not suitable for supporting weight. A surgeon's variation, used where a third hand is unavailable, is made with two or three twists of the ropes on bottom, sometimes on top, instead of just one; the reef knot's familiarity, ease of tying, visually appealing symmetry conceal its weakness. The International Guild of Knot Tyers warns that this knot should never be used to bend two ropes together. A proper bend knot, for instance a sheet bend or double fisherman's knot, should be used instead. Knotting authority Clifford Ashley claimed that misused reef knots have caused more deaths and injuries than all other knots combined.
Further, it is confused with the granny knot, a poor knot. An approximate physical analysis predicts that a reef knot will hold if 2 μ e μ π ≥ 1, where μ is the relevant coefficient of friction; this inequality holds if μ ≳ 0.24. Experiments show that the critical value of μ is somewhat lower. Shoelace knot Granny knot Thief knot Surgeon's knot List of binding knots List of knots Square knot Reefing Knot of Hercules Ancient symbolism of Hercules knot
Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Edward was related to royalty throughout Europe, he was heir apparent to the British throne and held the title of Prince of Wales for longer than any of his predecessors. He was heir presumptive to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha until before his marriage he renounced his right to the duchy, which devolved to his younger brother Alfred. During the long reign of his mother, he was excluded from political power, came to personify the fashionable, leisured elite, he travelled throughout Britain performing ceremonial public duties, represented Britain on visits abroad. His tours of North America in 1860 and the Indian subcontinent in 1875 were popular successes, but despite public approval his reputation as a playboy prince soured his relationship with his mother; as king, Edward played a role in the modernisation of the British Home Fleet and the reorganisation of the British Army after the Second Boer War.
He reinstituted traditional ceremonies as public displays and broadened the range of people with whom royalty socialised. He fostered good relations between Britain and other European countries France, for which he was popularly called "Peacemaker", but his relationship with his nephew, the German Emperor Wilhelm II, was poor; the Edwardian era, which covered Edward's reign and was named after him, coincided with the start of a new century and heralded significant changes in technology and society, including steam turbine propulsion and the rise of socialism. He died in 1910 in the midst of a constitutional crisis, resolved the following year by the Parliament Act 1911, which restricted the power of the unelected House of Lords. Edward was born at 10:48 in the morning on 9 November 1841 in Buckingham Palace, he was the eldest son and second child of Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was christened Albert Edward at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on 25 January 1842.
He was named Albert after his father and Edward after his maternal grandfather Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. He was known as Bertie to the royal family throughout his life; as the eldest son of the British sovereign, he was automatically Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay at birth. As a son of Prince Albert, he held the titles of Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Saxony, he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 8 December 1841, Earl of Dublin on 10 September 1849 or 17 January 1850, a Knight of the Garter on 9 November 1858, a Knight of the Thistle on 24 May 1867. In 1863, he renounced his succession rights to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in favour of his younger brother, Prince Alfred. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were determined that their eldest son should have an education that would prepare him to be a model constitutional monarch. At age seven, Edward embarked on a rigorous educational programme devised by Prince Albert, supervised by several tutors.
Unlike his elder sister Victoria, Edward did not excel in his studies. He to no avail. Although Edward was not a diligent student—his true talents were those of charm and tact—Benjamin Disraeli described him as informed, intelligent and of sweet manner. After the completion of his secondary-level studies, his tutor was replaced by a personal governor, Robert Bruce. After an educational trip to Rome, undertaken in the first few months of 1859, he spent the summer of that year studying at the University of Edinburgh under, among others, the chemist Lyon Playfair. In October, he matriculated as an undergraduate at Oxford. Now released from the educational strictures imposed by his parents, he enjoyed studying for the first time and performed satisfactorily in examinations. In 1861, he transferred to Trinity College, where he was tutored in history by Charles Kingsley, Regius Professor of Modern History. Kingsley's efforts brought forth the best academic performances of Edward's life, Edward looked forward to his lectures.
In 1860, Edward undertook the first tour of North America by a Prince of Wales. His genial good humour and confident bonhomie made the tour a great success, he inaugurated the Victoria Bridge, across the St Lawrence River, laid the cornerstone of Parliament Hill, Ottawa. He watched Charles Blondin traverse Niagara Falls by highwire, stayed for three days with President James Buchanan at the White House. Buchanan accompanied the Prince to Mount Vernon, to pay his respects at the tomb of George Washington. Vast crowds greeted him everywhere, he met Ralph Waldo Emerson and Oliver Wendell Holmes. Prayers for the royal family were said in Trinity Church, New York, for the first time since 1776; the four-month tour throughout Canada and the United States boosted Edward's confidence and self-esteem, had many diplomatic benefits for Great Britain. Edward had hoped to pursue a career in the British Army, but his mother vetoed an active military career, he had been gazetted colonel on 9 November 1858—to his disappointment, as he had wanted to earn his commission by examination.
In September 1861, Edward was sent to Germany to watch military manoeuvres, but in order to engineer a meeting between him and Princess Alexandra of Denmark, the eldest daughter of Prince Christian of Denmark and his wife Louise. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert had decided that Edward and Alexandra should marry, they met at Speyer on 24 September under the auspices of his elder sister, who ha
Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal
The Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal was the Long Service Medal of the reserve forces of the Royal Navy. The medal was presented for 15 or 12 years of service by Petty Officers and ratings of the Royal Naval Reserve, Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, Royal Naval Auxiliary Sick Berth Reserve, Royal Fleet Reserve, Royal Naval Wireless Auxiliary Reserve. Established in 1909, the medal was replaced by the Volunteer Reserves Service Medal; the medal is silver 36 millimetres in diameter. The obverse bears the effigy of the reigning sovereign of the period; the first two, Edward VII and George V are in the uniform of the Admiral of the Fleet. The monarchs' effigies are the coinage type profiles; the reverse depicts HMS Dreadnought with the motto DIUTURNE FIDELIS underneath. The ribbons of the forces varied by force. In 1957, the Royal Naval Reserve and Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve were merged as the Royal Naval Reserve, assumed a common ribbon
Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration
The Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration, post-nominal letters VD, was established in 1899 as recognition for long and meritorious service as a part-time commissioned officer in any of the organized military forces of the British Colonies and Protectorates. It superseded the Volunteer Officers' Decoration for India and the Colonies in all these territories, but not in the Indian Empire. In 1930, the decoration, along with the Volunteer Officers' Decoration and the Territorial Decoration, were superseded by the Efficiency Decoration in an effort to standardise recognition across the British Empire. In 1892, the Volunteer Officers' Decoration was instituted as an award for long and meritorious service by officers of the United Kingdom's Volunteer Force. In 1894, the grant of the decoration was extended by Royal Warrant to commissioned officers of volunteer forces throughout the British Empire, defined as being India, the Dominion of Canada, the Crown Colonies and the Crown Dependencies.
A separate new decoration was instituted, the Volunteer Officers' Decoration for India and the Colonies. The Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration was established by Queen Victoria's Royal Warrant on 18 May 1899; this decoration could be awarded to part-time commissioned officers in recognition of long and meritorious service in any of the organized military forces of the Dominion of Canada and the British Colonies and Protectorates, whether designated as militia or volunteers or otherwise. The decoration superseded the Volunteer Officers' Decoration for India and the Colonies in all these territories, but not in the Indian Empire, where the Indian Volunteer Forces Officers' Decoration would subsequently be instituted; the use of the post-nominal letters VD by recipients of this decoration was approved by Royal Warrant on 9 May 1925. The Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration could be awarded for twenty years of service as a part-time commissioned officer in any of the Colonial Auxiliary Forces.
Qualifying service could be had by serving in the forces of more than one Protectorate. Service in the Militia and Volunteer Forces of the United Kingdom was reckonable, so long as at least half of all qualifying service was rendered in the forces of the Colonies or Protectorates. Service on the West Coast of Africa counted as double time, while half the time served in the ranks prior to being commissioned was reckonable. Service on the permanent staff was not reckonable. In the order of wear prescribed by the British Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood, the Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration takes precedence after the Volunteer Long Service Medal for India and the Colonies and before the Colonial Auxiliary Forces Long Service Medal; the same ribbon was used for all three awards, except during the period from 1921 to 1927, when the decoration was suspended from a wider green ribbon. Preceded by the Volunteer Long Service Medal for India and the Colonies. Succeeded by the Colonial Auxiliary Forces Long Service Medal.
The decoration is an oval skeletal design and was struck in silver, with parts of the obverse in silver-gilt. The oval is 1 7⁄16 inches high and 1 1⁄4 inches wide and is suspended by a thin silver wire suspension bar, attached to a small ring at the top on the reverse. ObverseThe obverse is an oval silver band, inscribed "COLONIAL AUXILIARY FORCES" and with the Royal Cypher of the reigning monarch in skeletal form and in silver-gilt in the centre; the oval is surmounted by a silver-gilt Imperial Crown. Five versions of the decoration are known; the centre of the decoration's original version of 1899 has the Royal Cypher "VRI" of Queen Victoria, for "Victoria Regina Imperatrix". The King Edward VII version, with his Royal Cypher "ERI VII" for "Edwardvs Rex Imperator VII", was introduced after his succession to the throne in 1901; the first King George V version, with his Royal Cypher "GRI" for "Georgivs Rex Imperator" as illustrated at the top of the page, was introduced after his succession to the throne in 1910.
A second King George V version exists, with his Royal Cypher "GRI V" for "Georgivs Rex Imperator V", with the Roman numeral "V" below the cypher "GRI". On this and the third King George V version the crown has two cut-out sections at the top; the third King George V version, of which a miniature is illustrated, has the Roman numeral "V" to the right of the cypher "GRI". ReverseThe reverse is plain; the recipient's name was engraved at either the top on the back of the crown or around the circumference of the decoration. RibbonThe ribbon, as described in the regulations accompanying the original Royal Warrant of Queen Victoria, is the same as that of the Volunteer Long Service Medal, dark green and 1 1⁄4 inches wide, suspended from a silver bar-brooch decorated with an oak leaf pattern. In an amendment to the rules and ordinances pertaining to the decoration, published in the Royal Warrant of King George V on 9 June 1921, the ribbon was described as green and 1 1⁄2 inches wide; this wider ribbon and brooch was revoked by the Royal Warrant of King George V on 22 June 1927.
The Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration, along with the Volunteer Officers' Decoration and the Territorial Decoration, were superseded by the Efficiency Decoration on 23 September 1930, as one decoration to reward long and meritorious service of part-time officers of the Territorial Army in Great Britain and of the Auxiliary Military Forces of the Empire and the Protectorates, to recognize the Imperial character of such service
Meritorious Service Medal (New Zealand)
The New Zealand Meritorious Service Medal is a meritorious and long service award for members of the New Zealand Defence Force. Established on 28 April 1898 as the Meritorious Service Medal, only members of the New Zealand Army were eligible for award. In 1985, a Royal Warrant established the current criteria for the medal making all members of the Army and Air Force eligible for the award. Members of the defence forces above the rank of sergeant, who have at least 21 years of service, hold their service's Long Service and Good Conduct Medal are eligible for the medal; the New Zealand Meritorious Service Medal is to be replaced by the New Zealand Defence Meritorious Service Medal, though holders of the superseded medal are still entitled to continue wearing it. The medal is circular in shape; the obverse bears the effigy of the Sovereign of New Zealand, surrounded by the inscription ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA FID. DEF; the reverse bears the inscription For Meritorious Service surrounded by a laurel wreath, surmounted by a royal crown.
Above the crown is the inscription New Zealand. The medal is suspended by a ribbon, 32 mm in width, of crimson with a narrow centre stripe of green
The British Empire comprised the dominions, protectorates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2, 24% of the Earth's total land area; as a result, its political, legal and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories. During the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries and Spain pioneered European exploration of the globe, in the process established large overseas empires.
Envious of the great wealth these empires generated, England and the Netherlands began to establish colonies and trade networks of their own in the Americas and Asia. A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left England and following union between England and Scotland in 1707, Great Britain, the dominant colonial power in North America, it became the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent after the East India Company's conquest of Mughal Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The independence of the Thirteen Colonies in North America in 1783 after the American War of Independence caused Britain to lose some of its oldest and most populous colonies. British attention soon turned towards Asia and the Pacific. After the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Britain emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century. Unchallenged at sea, British dominance was described as Pax Britannica, a period of relative peace in Europe and the world during which the British Empire became the global hegemon and adopted the role of global policeman.
In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain. The British Empire expanded to include most of India, large parts of Africa and many other territories throughout the world. Alongside the formal control that Britain exerted over its own colonies, its dominance of much of world trade meant that it controlled the economies of many regions, such as Asia and Latin America. During the 19th century, Britain's population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, which caused significant social and economic stresses. To seek new markets and sources of raw materials, the British government under Benjamin Disraeli initiated a period of imperial expansion in Egypt, South Africa, elsewhere. Canada and New Zealand became self-governing dominions. By the start of the 20th century and the United States had begun to challenge Britain's economic lead. Subsequent military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied upon its empire.
The conflict placed enormous strain on the military and manpower resources of Britain. Although the British Empire achieved its largest territorial extent after World War I, Britain was no longer the world's pre-eminent industrial or military power. In the Second World War, Britain's colonies in East and Southeast Asia were occupied by Japan. Despite the final victory of Britain and its allies, the damage to British prestige helped to accelerate the decline of the empire. India, Britain's most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence as part of a larger decolonisation movement in which Britain granted independence to most territories of the empire; the Suez Crisis confirmed Britain's decline as a global power. The transfer of Hong Kong to China in 1997 marked for many the end of the British Empire. Fourteen overseas territories remain under British sovereignty. After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nations, a free association of independent states.
The United Kingdom is now one of 16 Commonwealth nations, a grouping known informally as the Commonwealth realms, that share a monarch Queen Elizabeth II. The foundations of the British Empire were laid when Scotland were separate kingdoms. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. Cabot sailed in 1497, five years after the European discovery of America, but he made landfall on the coast of Newfoundland, mistakenly believing that he had reached Asia, there was no attempt to found a colony. Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was heard of his ships again. No further attempts to establish English colonies in the Americas were made until well into the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, during the last decades of the 16th century. In the meantime, the 1533 Statute in Restraint of Appeals had declared "that this realm of England is an Empire".
The subsequent Protestant Reformation turned Catholic Spain into implacable enemies. In 1562, the English Crown encouraged the privateers John Hawkins and Francis Drake to engage in slave-raiding attacks against Spanish and Portuguese ships off the coast of West Africa with the aim of breaking into the Atlantic slave tr