Sergey Ivanovich Kislyak is a Russian senior diplomat and politician. Since September 2017, he has represented Mordovia in the Federation Council, the upper chamber of the Russian legislature, he served as the Ambassador of Russia to the United States from 2008 to 2017. From 2003 to 2008, he was the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, from 1998 to 2003, he served as the Ambassador of Russia to Belgium and Russia's Head of Mission to NATO. Dubbed "the diplomat's diplomat" by CNN, Kislyak was Russia's top presence in the U. S. during his nine-year tenure in Washington, D. C. a period of increasing political tension between the two countries. Kislyak became a key figure in the investigation of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, receiving significant media coverage while denying that Russia was behind the hacking of the Democratic National Committee. However, Kislyak's meetings with advisers to President-elect Donald Trump became a subject of investigation by U. S. intelligence officials.
In May 2017, Trump held a meeting with Kislyak and Sergei Lavrov and disclosed classified information about ISIS, an incident, leaked to the press and became a scandal. After nearly a decade in the U. S. Kislyak returned to Moscow in July 2017 and was formally released from his duties in August, succeeded by Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Anatoly Antonov. Kislyak was born to Ukrainian parents. Kislyak graduated from the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute in 1973 and the USSR Academy of Foreign Trade in 1977, he is fluent in French. Kislyak joined the diplomatic service in 1977. From 1981 to 1985, Kislyak was the Second Secretary at the Permanent Mission of the Soviet Union to the United Nations in New York City. From 1985 to 1989, Kislyak was the First Secretary, Counsellor at the Embassy of the Soviet Union in Washington, D. C. From 1989 to 1991, Kislyak was the Deputy Director of the Department of International Organisations at the Soviet Foreign Ministry. From 1991 to 1993, Kislyak was the Deputy Director of the Department of International Scientific and Technical Cooperation at the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
From 1993 to 1995, Kislyak was the Director of the Department of International Scientific and Technical Cooperation. From 1995 to 1998, Kislyak was the Director of the Department of Security Affairs and Disarmament at the Russian Foreign Ministry. In 1998, Kislyak was the Ambassador of Russia to Belgium with a residence in Brussels, he served as the Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to NATO. From 2003 to 2008, Kislyak served as a Deputy Ministry of Foreign Affairs, he was Russia's negotiator on the six-party Iran denuclearization talks prior to his appointment as ambassador to the United States. Kislyak became the Ambassador of Russia to the United States on 26 July 2008, when he was appointed by Russian President Dmitry Medvedev. For many years, Kislyak held a low profile in the press but was a popular figure in Washington, D. C. diplomatic circles, known for his lavish parties at the Russian compound at Pioneer Point, Maryland. Kislyak has been called an experienced and polished diplomat, friendly but aggressive in promoting Russian interests.
The New York Times called Kislyak "the most prominent, if politically radioactive, ambassador in Washington." According to a Times profile in March 2017, "He has interacted with American officials for decades and been a fixture on the Washington scene for the past nine years and cordial with an easy smile and fluent if accented English, yet a pugnacity in advocating Russia's assertive policies." According to a profile in Politico, people who know Kislyak describe the ambsassador "as intelligent but an unyielding advocate for the Kremlin line."As the veteran ambassador to the United States, Kislyak became the subject of intense scrutiny and media coverage in 2017 in the wake of allegations that Russia interfered in the 2016 U. S. presidential election, that he held meetings with top advisers to president-elect Donald Trump. In February 2017, Michael T. Flynn was forced to resign as National Security Adviser when it emerged he lied about meetings with Kislyak. John Beyrle, the U. S. ambassador to Russia from 2008–2012, said that Kislyak is "a professional diplomat, not a politician.
I'm sure. I'm sure he's not enjoying his time in the limelight." On 10 May 2017, U. S. President Donald Trump invited Sergei Lavrov to meet with him in the Oval Office; this meeting received significant coverage as it was closed to U. S. press, but the Russians brought in a photographer from state agency TASS, released photos of Trump and Lavrov laughing together. On 15 May, it was revealed that during this meeting, Trump disclosed classified information about ISIL's bomb-making capabilities without taking the appropriate protocols, leaked to the press. In the fall of 2016, replacements for Kislyak were being considered as it was planned for him to end his lengthy tenure in D. C.. In May 2017, General Anatoly Antonov, the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs was approved to succeed him as ambassador to the United States. Antonov, called a "bull terrier" because of his reputation as a hardliner, is expected to take a more aggressive approach to negotiations with the United States. Kislyak returned to Moscow at the end of July 2017.
On 21 August 2017, Putin formally released Kislyak from his duties as ambassador by decree of the President of Russia. Kislyak has emerged as a central figure in the scandal involving Russian interference in the 2016 U. S. presidential election through h
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012. From 2008 to 2012, Medvedev served as the third President of Russia. Regarded as more liberal than his predecessor and successor as president, Vladimir Putin, Medvedev's top agenda as president was a wide-ranging modernisation programme, aiming at modernising Russia's economy and society, lessening the country's reliance on oil and gas. During Medvedev's tenure, the New START nuclear arms reduction treaty was signed by Russia and the United States, Russia emerged victorious in the Russo-Georgian War, recovered from the Great Recession. Medvedev initiated a substantial law enforcement reform and launched an anti-corruption campaign, despite having been accused of corruption himself. Dmitry Medvedev was born in the Soviet Union, his father, Anatoly Afanasyevich Medvedev, was a chemical engineer teaching at the Leningrad State Institute of Technology. Dmitry's mother, Yulia Veniaminovna Medvedeva, studied languages at Voronezh University and taught Russian at Herzen State Pedagogical University.
She would work as a tour guide at Pavlovsk Palace. The Medvedevs lived in a 40 m² apartment at 6 Bela Kun Street in the Kupchino Municipal Okrug of Leningrad. Dmitry was his parents' only child; the Medvedevs were regarded as Soviet intelligentsia family of the time. His maternal grandparents were Ukrainians, whose surname was Kovalev Koval. Medvedev traces his family roots to the Belgorod region; as a child, Medvedev was bookish and studious, described by his first grade teacher Vera Smirnova as a "dreadful why-asker". After school, he would spend some time playing with his friends before hurrying home to work on his assignments. In the third grade, Medvedev studied the ten-volume Small Soviet Encyclopedia belonging to his father. In the second and third grades, he showed interest in dinosaurs and memorized primary Earth's geologic development periods, from the Archean up to the Cenozoic. In the fourth and fifth grades, he demonstrated interest in chemistry, conducting elementary experiments, he was involved to some degree with sport.
In grade seven, adolescent curiosity blossomed through Svetlana Linnik, his future wife, studying at the same school in a parallel class. The relationship affected Medvedev's school performance. Medvedev calls the school's final exams in 1982 a "tough period when I had to mobilize my abilities to the utmost for the first time in my life." In the autumn of 1982, 17-year-old Medvedev enrolled at Leningrad State University to study law. Although he considered studying linguistics Medvedev said he never regretted his choice, finding his chosen subject fascinating, stating that he was lucky "to have chosen a field that genuinely interested him and that it was really'his thing". Fellow students described Medvedev as a correct and diplomatic person who in debates presented his arguments without offending. During his student years, Medvedev was a fan of the English rock bands Black Sabbath, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, fond of sports and participated in athletic competitions in rowing and weight-lifting.
He graduated from the Law Department of Leningrad State University in 1987. After graduating, Medvedev considered joining the prosecutor's office to become an investigator however, he took an opportunity to pursue graduate studies as the civil law chair, deciding to accept three budget-funded post-graduate students to work at the chair itself. In 1990, Medvedev defended his dissertation titled, "Problems of Realisation of Civil Juridical Personality of State Enterprise" and received his Candidate of Sciences degree in private law. Anatoly Sobchak, a major democratic politician of the 1980s and 1990s was one of Medvedev's professors at the university. In 1988, Medvedev joined Sobchak's team of democrats and served as the de facto head of Sobchak's successful campaign for a seat in the new Soviet parliament, the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR. After Sobchak's election campaign Medvedev continued his academic career in the position of docent at his alma mater, now renamed Saint Petersburg State University.
He taught civil and Roman law until 1999. According to one student, Medvedev was a popular teacher. During his tenure Medvedev co-wrote a popular three-volume civil law textbook which over the years has sold a million copies. Medvedev worked at a small law consultancy firm which he had founded with his friends Anton Ivanov and Ilya Yeliseyev, to supplement his academic salary. In 1990, Anatoly Sobchak returned from Moscow to become Chairman of the Leningrad City Council. Sobchak hired Medvedev who had headed his election campaign. One of Sobchak's former students, Vladimir Putin, came on board as an adviser; the next summer Sobchak was elected Mayor of the city, Medvedev became a consultant to City Hall's Committee for Foreign Affairs. It was headed by Putin. In November 1993 Medvedev became the legal affairs director of Ilim Pulp Enterprise, a St. Petersburg-based timber company. Medvedev aided the company in developing a strategy. Medvedev received 20% of the company's stock. In the next seven years Ilim Pulp Enterprise became Russia's largest lumber company with an annual revenue of around $500 million.
Medvedev sold his shares in ILP in 1999. He took his first
European Convention on Human Rights
The European Convention on Human Rights is an international convention to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe. Drafted in 1950 by the newly formed Council of Europe, the convention entered into force on 3 September 1953. All Council of Europe member states are party to the Convention and new members are expected to ratify the convention at the earliest opportunity; the Convention established the European Court of Human Rights. Any person who feels his or her rights have been violated under the Convention by a state party can take a case to the Court. Judgments finding violations are binding on the States concerned and they are obliged to execute them; the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe monitors the execution of judgements to ensure payment of the amounts awarded by the Court to the applicants in compensation for the damage they have sustained. The compensations imposed under ECHR can be large; the Convention has several protocols. The European Convention on Human Rights has played an important role in the development and awareness of Human Rights in Europe.
The development of a regional system of human rights protection operating across Europe can be seen as a direct response to twin concerns. First, in the aftermath of the Second World War, the convention, drawing on the inspiration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights can be seen as part of a wider response of the Allied Powers in delivering a human rights agenda through which it was believed that the most serious human rights violations which had occurred during the Second World War could be avoided in the future. Second, the Convention was a response to the growth of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe and designed to protect the member states of the Council of Europe from communist subversion. This, in part, explains the constant references to values and principles that are "necessary in a democratic society" throughout the Convention, despite the fact that such principles are not in any way defined within the convention itself. From 7 to 10 May 1948 with the attendance of politicians, civil society representatives, business leaders, trade unionist and religious leader was organised gathering-The "Congress of Europe" in Hague.
At the end of Congress the declaration and following pledge was issued which demonstrated the initial seeds of modern European institutes, including ECHR. The second and third Articles of Pledge stated: We desire a Charter of Human Rights guaranteeing liberty of thought and expression as well as right to form a political opposition. We desire a Court of Justice with adequate sanctions for the implementation of this Charter; the Convention was drafted by the Council of Europe after the Second World War in response to a call issued by Europeans from all walks of life who had gathered at the Hague Congress. Over 100 parliamentarians from the twelve member states of the Council of Europe gathered in Strasbourg in the summer of 1949 for the first meeting of the Council's Consultative Assembly to draft a "charter of human rights" and to establish a court to enforce it. British MP and lawyer Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe, the Chair of the Assembly's Committee on Legal and Administrative Questions, was one of its leading members and guided the drafting of the Convention.
As a prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials, he had seen first-hand how international justice could be applied. With his help, the French former minister and Resistance fighter Pierre-Henri Teitgen submitted a report to the Assembly proposing a list of rights to be protected, selecting a number from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights just agreed to in New York, defining how the enforcing judicial mechanism might operate. After extensive debates, the Assembly sent its final proposal to the Council's Committee of Ministers, which convened a group of experts to draft the Convention itself; the Convention was designed to incorporate a traditional civil liberties approach to securing "effective political democracy", from the strongest traditions in the United Kingdom and other member states of the fledgling Council of Europe, as said by Guido Raimondi, President of European Court of Human Rights: The European system of protection of human rights with its Court would be inconceivable untied from democracy.
In fact we have a bond, not only regional or geographic: a State cannot be party to the European Convention on Human Rights if it is not a member of the Council of Europe. So a non-democratic State could not participate in the ECHR system: the protection of democracy goes hand in hand with the protection of rights; the Convention was opened for signature on 4 November 1950 in Rome. It was ratified and entered into force on 3 September 1953, it is overseen and enforced by the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, the Council of Europe. Until procedural reforms in the late 1990s, the Convention was overseen by a European Commission on Human Rights; the Convention is drafted in broad terms, in a similar manner to the English Bill of Rights, the U. S. Bill of Rights, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man or the first part of the German Basic law. Statements of principle are, from a legal point of view, not determinative and require extensive interpretation by courts to bring out meaning in particular factual situations.
As amended by Protocol 11, the Convention consists
President of Russia
The President of Russia the President of the Russian Federation, is the head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. In 1991, the office was known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power. In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister of Russia, who becomes Acting President of Russia; the Chairman of the Federation Council is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.
The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances; the president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term; the law prohibits anyone from being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. In May 2012, Vladimir Putin became the fourth president. A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation, at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia for at least 10 years; the Constitution of Russia limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms.
Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term. The election of the President is regulated by the Presidential Election Law and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights; the Federation Council calls the presidential elections. If it does not call a presidential election, due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election; the Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections; the minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law. Terms were extended from four during Dmitry Medvedev's administration.
The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation. If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes; the last presidential election was in 2018, the next is expected in 2024. Inauguration of the President of Russia is conducted six years after the previous inauguration. If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people. Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death and removal from office.
In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office. After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president; these devices are used on special occasions. The first insignia, issued is the chain of office with an emblem; the central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms; the other eight consist of a rosette bearing the motto "Benefit and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions.
The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the stan
In the United States, an executive order is a directive issued by the President of the United States that manages operations of the federal government and has the force of law. The legal or constitutional basis for executive orders has multiple sources. Article Two of the United States Constitution gives the president broad executive and enforcement authority to use their discretion to determine how to enforce the law or to otherwise manage the resources and staff of the executive branch; the ability to make such orders is based on express or implied Acts of Congress that delegate to the President some degree of discretionary power. Like both legislative statutes and regulations promulgated by government agencies, executive orders are subject to judicial review and may be overturned if the orders lack support by statute or the Constitution. Major policy initiatives require approval by the legislative branch, but executive orders have significant influence over the internal affairs of government, deciding how and to what degree legislation will be enforced, dealing with emergencies, waging wars, in general fine-tuning policy choices in the implementation of broad statutes.
As the head of state and head of government of the United States, as well as Commander-in-Chief of the United States Armed Forces, only the President of the United States can issue an executive order. Presidential executive orders, once issued, remain in force until they are cancelled, adjudicated unlawful, or expire on their own terms. At any time, the President may revoke, modify, or make exceptions from any executive order, regardless if the order was made by the current president or a predecessor. A new president reviews enforced executive orders in the first few weeks in office; the United States Constitution does not have a provision that explicitly permits the use of executive orders. The term executive power in Article II, Section 1, Clause 1 of the Constitution is not clear; the term is mentioned as direction to "take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed" and is part of Article II, Section 3. The consequence of failing to comply could be removal from office; the U. S. Supreme Court has held that all executive orders from the President of the United States must be supported by the Constitution, whether from a clause granting specific power, or by Congress delegating such to the executive branch.
Such orders must be rooted in Article II of the US Constitution or enacted by the congress in statutes. Attempts to block such orders have been successful at times when such orders exceeded the authority of the president or could be better handled through legislation; the Office of the Federal Register is responsible for assigning the executive order a sequential number after receipt of the signed original from the White House and printing the text of the executive order in the daily Federal Register and in Title 3 of the Code of Federal Regulations. With the exception of William Henry Harrison, all presidents, beginning with George Washington in 1789, have issued orders that in general terms can be described as executive orders, they took no set form. Such orders varied as to form and substance; the first executive order was issued by George Washington on June 8, 1789, addressed to the heads of the federal departments, instructing them "to impress me with a full and distinct general idea of the affairs of the United States" in their fields.
According to the political scientist Brian R. Dirck, the most famous executive order was by President Abraham Lincoln when he issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. Dirck states: The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order, itself a rather unusual thing in those days. Executive orders are presidential directives issued to agents of the executive department by its boss; until the early 1900s, executive orders went unannounced and undocumented and seen only by the agencies to which they were directed. That changed when the Department of State instituted a numbering scheme in 1907, starting retroactively with United States Executive Order 1 issued on October 20, 1862, by President Abraham Lincoln; the documents that came to be known as "executive orders" gained their name from this order issued by Lincoln, captioned "Executive Order Establishing a Provisional Court in Louisiana". This court functioned during the military occupation of Louisiana during the American Civil War, Lincoln used Executive Order 1 to appoint Charles A. Peabody as judge, to designate the salaries of the court's officers.
President Truman's Executive Order 10340 in Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 US 579 placed all steel mills in the country under federal control; this was found invalid because it attempted to make law, rather than clarify or act to further a law put forth by the Congress or the Constitution. Presidents since this decision have been careful to cite which specific laws they are acting under when issuing new executive orders; when presidents believe their authority for issuing an executive order stems from within the powers outlined in the Constitution, the order will proclaim "under the authority vested in me by the Constitution" instead. Wars have been fought upon executive order, including the 1999 Kosovo War during Bill Clinton's second term in office. However, all such wars have had authorizing resolutions from Congress; the extent to which the president may exercise military power independently of Congress and the scope of the War Powers Resolution remain unresolved constitutional issues, although all presidents since its passage have complied with the terms of the resolution while maintaining that they are not constitutionally required to d
A ukase, or ukaz, in Imperial Russia, was a proclamation of the tsar, government, or a religious leader that had the force of law. "Edict" and "decree" are adequate translations using the terminology and concepts of Roman law. From the Russian term, the word ukase has entered the English language with the meaning of "any proclamation or decree. Prior to the 1917 October Revolution, the term applied in Russia to an edict or ordinance, legislative or administrative, having the force of law. A ukase proceeded either from the emperor or from the senate, which had the power of issuing such ordinances for the purpose of carrying out existing decrees. All such decrees were promulgated by the senate. A difference was drawn between the ukase signed by the emperor’s hand and his verbal ukase, or order, made upon a report submitted to him. After the Revolution, a government proclamation of wide meaning was called a "decree". Both terms are translated as "decree". According to the Russian Federation's 1993 constitution, an ukaz is a Presidential decree.
The English term "Executive Order" is used by the official website as an equivalent of the Russian ukaz. As normative legal acts, such ukazes have a status of by-law in the hierarchy of legal acts. Presidential decrees may not alter the regulations of existing legal sources - Russia's international agreements, the Constitution of Russia, Federal Constitutional Laws, Federal Laws and laws of Russian regions - and may be superseded by any of these laws. For example, thanks to Article 15 of the Constitution of Russia, the European Convention on Human Rights, as an international document, has higher status than any Russian law or presidential executive order. Rule by decree OED staff. "ukase, n.". Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1921; the dictionary definition of ukase at Wiktionary
A by-law is a rule or law established by an organization or community to regulate itself, as allowed or provided for by some higher authority. The higher authority a legislature or some other government body, establishes the degree of control that the by-laws may exercise. By-laws may be established by entities such as a business corporation, a neighborhood association, or depending on the jurisdiction, a municipality. In the United Kingdom and some Commonwealth countries, the local laws established by municipalities are referred to as bye-laws because their scope is regulated by the central governments of those nations. Accordingly, a bylaw enforcement officer is the Canadian equivalent of the American Code Enforcement Officer or Municipal Regulations Enforcement Officer. In the United States, the federal government and most state governments have no direct ability to regulate the single provisions of municipal law; as a result, terms such as code, ordinance, or regulation, if not law are more common.
The Merriam-Webster Dictionary indicates that the origin of the word by-law is from the English word bilawe from Old Norse *bȳlǫg, from Old Norse bȳr town + lag-, lǫg law. The earliest use of the term, which originates from the Viking town law in the Danelaw, wherein by is the Old Norse word for a larger settlement as in Whitby and Derby. However, it is possible that this usage was forgotten and the word was "reinvented" in modern times through the use of the adverbial prefix by- giving the meaning of subsidiary law or side-law. In either case, it is incorrect to claim that the origin of the word is the prepositional phrase "by law." Municipal by-laws are public regulatory laws. The main difference between a by-law and a law passed by a national/federal or regional/state body is that a by-law is made by a non-sovereign body, which derives its authority from another governing body, can only be made on a limited range of matters. A local council or municipal government derives its power to pass laws through a law of the national or regional government which specifies what things the town or city may regulate through by-laws.
It is therefore a form of delegated legislation. Within its jurisdiction and specific to those areas mandated by the higher body, a municipal by-law is no different than any other law of the land, can be enforced with penalties, challenged in court and must comply with other laws of the land, such as the country's constitution. Municipal by-laws are enforcable through the public justice system, offenders can be charged with a criminal offence for breach of a by-law. Common by-laws include vehicle parking and stopping regulations, animal control and construction, noise and business regulation, management of public recreation areas. Under Article 94 of the Constitution of Japan, regional governments have limited autonomy and legislative powers to create by-laws. In practice, such powers are exercised in accordance with the Local Autonomy Law. By-laws therefore constitute part of the legal system subordinate to the Japanese constitution. In terms of its mandatory powers and effective, it is considered the lowest of all legislation possible.
Such powers are used to govern the following: Location of the seat of government of the prefecture Frequency of routine meetings Number of prefectural vice-governors and vice village leaders Number of staff attached to administrative bodies governed Placement of regional autonomous areas Regulation of certain municipal monies Placement and removal of public facilities Appointment of subordinate offices by the prefectural governor In the United Kingdom, by-laws are laws of local or limited application made by local councils or other bodies, using powers granted by an Act of Parliament, so are a form of delegated legislation. In Australian Law there are five types of by-law, they are established by statute: State government authorities create By-laws as a type of "statutory rule" under an empowering Act, are made by the State governor. Local government by-laws are the most prevalent type of by-law in Australia, control things from Parking and Alcohol in parks to fire regulations and zoning controls.
In New South Wales these by-laws are called ordinances and Zoning Controls are called Environmental Planning Instruments created under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act. Numerous specific institutions, including universities, are empowered to make by-laws by their establishing legislation. By-laws of a company or society are created as a contract among members, must be formally adopted and/or amended. Strata Title was developed in Australia and by-laws of body corporate are empowered by state legislation; these are the main type of by-law most people come into contact with on a regular basis as they control what people in Strata title housing can do in their own homes. The most well known of these is the "no pets in flats" rule. Corporate and organizational by-laws regulate only the organization to which they apply and are concerned with the operation of the organization, setting out the form, manner or procedure in which a company or organisation should be run. Corporate by-laws are drafted by a corporation's founders or directors under the authority of its Charter or Articles of Incorporation.
By-laws vary from organization to organization, but cover topics such as the purpose of the organization, who are its members, how directors are elected, how meetings are conducted, what officers the organization will have and a description of their duties. A common mnemonic device for remembering t