Great Colonnade at Palmyra
The Great Colonnade at Palmyra was the main colonnaded avenue in the ancient city of Palmyra in the Syrian Desert. The colonnade was built in several stages during the second and third century CE and stretched for more than a kilometer, it linked the Temple of Bel, in the southeastern end of the city, to the West Gate and the Funerary Temple in the northwestern part. The colonnade was damaged during the Syrian Civil War when Palmyra was occupied by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant from May 2015 to March 2016. However, large parts of it are still intact; the colonnade consists of three sections that were built separately over the course of the second and third century CE. The western stretch of the colonnade is the oldest and started at the West Gate near the Funerary Temple; the eastern section stretched from the Monumental Arch in the center of the town to the entrance of the Temple of Bel. The middle section was built last to connect the two separate colonnades, it met the western stretch at the Great Tetrapylon, the eastern stretch at the Monumental Arch.
The western colonnade was the first section to be built. Inscriptions found on some columns confirm that works started before 158 CE; the straight avenue ran in northwest-southeast direction and stretched for 500 metres, the longest of the three sectors. The main avenue's width was 11.7 metres. The colonnade's western terminus, the West Gate, was built in the late second-century CE; the avenue connected in a right angle to the Transverse Colonnade which stretched to the Damascus Gate in the south. The eastern sector of the Great Colonnade started at the Monumental Arch and stretched in a northwest-southeast direction towards the propylaea of the Temple of Bel. Work on the colonnade started after the completion of the propylaea in 175 CE and continued through the beginning of the third-century CE; this section is the widest of the Great Colonnade with a uniform width of 22.7 metres for the main street and 6.7 metres for the sidewalks. A corner of the temenos of the Temple of Nebu was demolished to allow the colonnade an uninterrupted line of sight towards the Monumental Arch from the west and a wider access to the section leading to the Temple of Bel.
A nymphaeum was added to the eastern colonnade between the Bel and Nebu temples. The middle colonnade, stretching from east to west, was constructed to connect the two earlier colonnades. Work on the central avenue began from the Monumental Arch, where it met the eastern colonnade, sometime in the early third-century CE; the section stretched until the Great Tetrapylon where it met the western colonnade in an oval plaza. The central colonnade incorporated the portico of the baths; the central section of the Great Colonnade became the most important with several civic buildings clustered around it, including the caesareum, the theatre, the baths and the Temple of Nebu. The width of the main street varies from 14 metres at the its widest near the tetrapylon, to 10 metres when it reaches the Monumental Arch; the sidewalks vary in width between 6.3–7 metres for the northern sidewalk and 6.8–8.95 metres for the southern one. The colonnade's early columns in the western stretch, were built using the classical opus emplectum building technique.
The columns consisted of six to eight short sections. This technique was replaced, from the 220s, by what historian Marek Barański termed opus Palmyrenum; the newer technique, seen in the middle and eastern stretches of the colonnade, utilized three long segments instead of the short drums. The technique allowed for faster construction at the time; the Corinthian columns were fitted with decorated brackets. The brackets were used to hold bronze statues of important figures. Dedicatory inscriptions to Zenobia and Odaenathus dating to between 257 and 267 were discovered on columns set up in front of the theatre. Great Colonnade at Apamea Frances Terpak and Peter Louis Bonfitto. "Colonnade Street". The Legacy of Ancient Palmyra; the Getty Research Institute. Retrieved 10 February 2017
Eleutherius and Antia
Eleutherius (or Eleuterus or Eleftherios. Born in Rome, Eleutherius's father died when he was a young child and his mother, took him to Anicetus, the Bishop of Rome, who taught him in the divine scriptures. Eleutherius is venerated as a bishop of Illyricum. According to a source in Greek dating from before the 5th century, Antia was the widow of a consul named Eugenius, her son Eleutherius was ordained a deacon and priest and consecrated as bishop by a man named Anicetus. This tradition may have originated through confusion with Pope St. Eleutherius, who may have been a deacon of Pope Anicetus; the tradition states that Eleutherius was appointed bishop of Messina and Illyricum at the age of twenty and settled in Valona. He was imprisoned by a comes named Felix. According to this source and Antia were both condemned to death on December 15. According to tradition, Eleutherius was clubbed to death. A Latin translation of this Greek text, dating from around the 8th century, states that Anicetus, after consecrating Eleutherius, assigned him to the see of Apuliam Aecanam civitatem.
Eleutherius and Antia were taken to Rome and killed on April 18. The source states that the citizens of Aeca retrieved the bodies of the two martyrs from Rome and returned to their city with them. Baronius uses the descriptive Episcopi Illyrici in his Roman Martyrology, since he consulted the Greek source. Hippolyte Delehaye believed the association with Aeca was erroneous, centuries earlier, Florus had believed Apuliam Aecanam was an error for Apuliam Messenam, but the association with Messina may be erroneous; the confusion is increased when it is taken into account the fact that Eleutherius' name, which means "one, free," was translated into Latin as Liberator or Liberalis. Messina still claims Eleutherius and Antia as natives, stating that he was born in this Sicilian city on April 18, 121, that Eleutherius became a bishop of Illyricum, they were tortured with hot boiling oil and heated irons, thrown to the lions. Their bodies were according to tradition, buried in the Roman church of Santa Sabina, in the altar of San Lorenzo, moved to San Giovanni della Pigna, near the Pantheon, with the relics of Saint Genesius of Rome.
The association with San Giovanni della Pigna may be a result of confusion with Pope Eleuterus, whose relics were said to have been translated to San Giovanni della Pigna. Christians from Rieti may have carried their relics to their city, which still claims them. Despite this confusion, Eleutherius' cult is ancient and widespread, his name appears not only in ancient Greek calendars, but in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum; the church of Sant'Eleuterio was built outside of the city walls of Rieti around the 5th century. According to tradition, the church claimed the relics of Eleutherius and Antia, carried from Rome by Bishop Primus of Rieti. Around the 5th or 6th centuries, the Benedictine Stephen of Rieti founded a monastic community near the tomb of the two martyrs. Devotion to Eleutherius increased after a legend associated with Bishop Saint Probus of Rieti: that before his death a vision appeared of Saints Eleutherius and Juvenal to accompany the bishop into heaven; the church of Sant'Eleuterio acquired importance during the age of the Lombards, with its foundation confirmed with solemn honors by Liutprand.
It acquired greater splendor after 1000 AD, when Peter, a local abbot, restored the church and its monastery, which lay near a stream and the city cemetery. In 1122, Count Grimald granted Sant'Eleuterio, the monastery, its lands to the Cathedral of Santa Maria of Rieti. On August 13, 1198, Bishop Adolphus Secenari and Pope Innocent III translated the relics of the two saints to the cathedral, elevating the church to the status of a collegiate church with twelve canon priests and an abbot-rector. Numerous churches rose in Italy in honor of this saint. There was a church dedicated to him on the Via Labicana, he was venerated on April 18 at Nepi, at Poreč in Istria. At Chieti, Benevento and Sulmona, he was venerated on May 21. There were other churches dedicated to him at Mugnano del Ariano Irpino; the monastery of San Liberatore a Maiella is dedicated to him. Eleuterius and Anthia De hellige Eleuterius av Illyria og Anthia og deres 11 ledsagere ELEUTERIO e ANZIA San Liberatore SANTI ELEUTERIO E ANZIA LA MEMORIA DI ELEUTERIO E ANZIA Dicearco da Messina
In Roman city planning, a decumanus was an east-west-oriented road in a Roman city, castrum, or colonia. The main decumanus was the Decumanus Maximus, which connected the Porta Praetoria to the Porta Decumana; this name comes from the fact that the via decumana or decimana separated the Tenth Cohort from the Ninth in the legionary encampment, in the same way as the via quintana separated the Fifth Cohort from the Sixth. In the middle, or groma, the Decumanus Maximus crosses the perpendicular Cardo Maximus, the primary north-south road, the usual main street; the Forum is located close to this intersection of the Decumanus Maximus and the Cardo Maximus. In the ancient Roman city of Barcino, the Decumanus Maximus started at the Roman gate in front of the current Plaça Nova square, the only Roman gate extant. Within the city of Split in present-day Croatia is the UNESCO Roman monument, Diocletian's Palace; this city, built by the Emperor Diocletian, exhibits the characteristic Roman orthogonal street system with the Decumanus Maximus connecting the west Iron Gate to the east Silver Gate.
At the present-day city of Umm Qais, the Decumanus runs east-west for one kilometre with its ancient flagstones extant. Another fine example is the "Straight Street", Via Recta, in Damascus, 1,500 metres long, connecting the eastern and western gates. In Beirut's Central Business District, Rue Weygand, which runs east-west, still follows the ancient Roman Decumanus. In Florence, the Decumanus is preserved as the streets Via Strozzi, Via Speziali, Via del Corso in the city's old centre. Although these streets have different names they form a continuous line with a split between the Via Strozzi and Via Speziali by the Palazzo Strozzi. Roman times, these three streets formed the Decumanus of the name of the Roman colonia; the Via Roma and the Via Calimala are formed from the ancient Cardo, what was once the Forum in ancient Florence is now the Piazza della Repubblica. In Naples, there still exist three main decumani which are, from west to east: Superiore: consisting of Via Sapienza, Via Pisanelli, Via Anticaglia Maggiore: Via dei Tribunali Inferiore: Via Spaccanapoli, consisting of Via Benedetto Croce and Via San Biagio dei Librai
Diocletian's Palace is an ancient palace built for the Roman Emperor Diocletian at the turn of the fourth century AD, that today forms about half the old town of Split, Croatia. While it is referred to as a "palace" because of its intended use as the retirement residence of Diocletian, the term can be misleading as the structure is massive and more resembles a large fortress: about half of it was for Diocletian's personal use, the rest housed the military garrison; the complex was built on a peninsula four miles southwest from the capital of Dalmatia. The terrain around Salona slopes seaward and is typical karst, consisting of low limestone ridges running east to west with marl in the clefts between them. Today the remains of the palace are part of the historic core of Split, which, in 1979 were listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Sites. Located near Salona, the provincial administrative center of Dalmatia on the southern side of a short peninsula, Diocletian had ordered the construction of the fortified compound near his hometown of Spalatum in preparation for his retirement on 1 May 305 AD..
On the basis of Roman map data, known by the medieval cut, there was a Spalatum settlement in that bay, the remains and size of which have not yet been established. The beginning of the construction of Diocletian's palace has not been established, it is assumed to have begun around 295, after the introduction of the Tetrarchy. Yet ten years after that decision, when Diocletian abdicated in 305, the palace seems to have still been unfinished, there are indications that some works were taking place while the emperor was residing at the Palace. By whose architectural idea the palace was built and who its builders were, it is unknown; the complex was modeled on Roman forts of the 3rd century era, examples of which can be seen across the Limes, such as the bridgehead fort Divitia across the Rhine from Cologne. However, the engraved Greek names Zotikos and Filotas, as well as many Greek characters, indicate that a number of builders were from the eastern part of the empire, i.e. Diocletian brought with him masters from the East.
Still, it is likely that a large part of the workforce was of local origin. The basic materials came from close proximity; the white limestone comes from some of Seget near Trogir. The building as a whole did not have an immediate role in Roman construction in the past, its source comes from the basic position adjustment. At Carnuntum, people begged Diocletian to return to the throne in order to resolve the conflicts that had arisen through Constantine's rise to power and Maxentius' usurpation. Diocletian's reply: "If you could show the cabbage that I planted with my own hands to your emperor, he wouldn't dare suggest that I replace the peace and happiness of this place with the storms of a never-satisfied greed." A reference to the Emperor retiring to his palace to grow cabbages. Diocletian lived on for four more years, he saw his tetrarchic system fail. He heard of Maximian's third claim to the throne, his forced suicide, his damnatio memoriae. In his palace and portraits of his former companion emperor were torn down and destroyed.
Deep in despair and illness, Diocletian may have committed suicide. He died on 3 December 312. With the death of Diocletian, the life of the palace did not end, it remained an imperial possession of the Roman court, providing shelter to the expelled members of the Emperor's family. In 480, Emperor Julius Nepos was murdered by one of his own soldiers stabbed to death in his villa near Salona. Since Diocletian had a residence in the area, it might have been the same building, its second life came when Salona was destroyed in the invasions of the Avars and Slavs in the seventh century AD, though the exact year of the destruction still remains an open debate between archaeologists. Refugees from Salona settled inside the Palace when a part of the expelled population, now refugees, found shelter inside the palace's strong walls and with them a new, organized city life began. Since the palace has been continuously occupied, with residents making their homes and businesses within the palace basement and directly in its walls.
Such as St Martin's Church Today many restaurants and some homes can still be found within the walls. In the period of the free medieval commune, between the 12th and 14th centuries, there was a greater architectural development, when many medieval houses filled not only Roman buildings but a large part of the free space of streets and docks; the construction of the Romanesque bell tower of the Cathedral of Saint Domnius, incorporating the Mausoleum of Diocletian into its architecture, dates to that period. After the Middle Ages the palace was unknown in the rest of Europe until the Scottish neo-classical architect Robert Adam had the ruins surveyed and, with the aid of French artist and antiquary Charles-Louis Clérisseau and several draughtsmen, published Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia. Diocletian's palace was an inspiration for Adam's new style of Neoclassical architecture and the publication of measured drawings brought it into the design vocabulary of European architecture for the first time.
A few decades in 1782, the French painter Louis-François Cassas created drawings of the palace, published by Joseph Lavallée in 1802 in the chronicles of his voyages. Today, the palace
Flagstone is a generic flat stone, cutting regular rectangular or square in shape and used for paving slabs or walkways, flooring and roofing. It may be used for memorials, headstones and other construction; the name derives from Middle English flagge meaning turf from Old Norse flaga meaning slab or chip. Flagstone is a sedimentary rock, split into layers along bedding planes. Flagstone is a form of a sandstone composed of feldspar and quartz and is arenaceous in grain size; the material that binds flagstone is composed of silica, calcite, or iron oxide. The rock color comes from these cementing materials. Typical flagstone colors are red and buff, though exotic colors exist. Flagstone is quarried in places with bedded sedimentary rocks with fissile bedding planes. Around the thirteenth century, the ceilings and floors in European architecture became more ornate. Anglo-Saxons in particular used flagstones as flooring materials in the interior rooms of castles and other structures. Lindisfarne Castle in England and Muchalls Castle in Scotland are among many examples of buildings with surviving flagstone floors.
Flagstone shingles are a traditional roofing material, a type of roof shingle used in the Alps, where they are laid dry held in place with pegs or hooks. In the Aosta Valley, stone shingles are mandatory to cover buildings in historical areas. Stone wall Step-stone bridge Patio Pavement Stonemason
Via dei Tribunali, Naples
Via dei Tribunali is a street in the old historic center of Naples, Italy. It was the main decumanus or Decumanus Maggiore — that is, the main east-west street—of the ancient Greek and Roman city of Neapolis, paralleled to the south by the lower decumanus and to the north by the upper decumanus; the three decumani were intersected by numerous north-south cross-streets called cardini, together forming the grid of the ancient city. The modern follow the ancient grid of these ancient streets; the length of the modern Via dei Tribunali was determined by the urban expansion requirements of the Spanish starting in the early 16th century. The street runs from the church of San Pietro a Maiella and adjacent Naples Music Conservatory at the west end of the old city for about three-quarters of a mile, passing the central cross-road at via San Gregorio Armeno crossing via Duomo near the Cathedral of Naples and ending at what was, until quite the main Naples courthouse, from which the street draws its name.
The following are important or ancient buildings along the Street from East to West: Church of Santa Maria della Mercede e Sant'Alfonso Maria de' Liguori Sant'Antonio delle Monache a Port'Alba Conservatory of San Pietro a Majella Church of San Pietro a Majella Church of Croce di Lucca Pontano Chapel Church of Santa Maria Maggiore alla Pietrasanta Palazzo Spinelli di Laurino Palazzo Filippo d'Angiò Basilica Church of San Paolo Maggiore Basilica Church of San Lorenzo Maggiore Church of Santa Maria delle Anime del Purgatorio ad Arco Church of Girolamini Church of Santa Maria della Colonna Duomo di Napoli Guglia di San Gennaro Palazzo Caracciolo di Gioiosa Pio Monte della Misericordia Church of Santa Maria della Pace Church of Santa Maria del Rifugio Church of San Tommaso a Capuana Chapel of the Monte dei Poveri Castel Capuano Guglia di San Gaetano
This is an article about the town in Jordan. For the ancient king of Axum, see GDRT. Umm Qais or Qays is a town in northern Jordan principally known for its proximity to the ruins of the ancient Gadara a former bishopric and present Latin Catholic titular see, it lies in the Bani Kinanah Department and Irbid Governorate in the extreme northwest of the country, near Jordan's borders with Israel and Syria. It is perched on a hilltop 378 metres above sea level overlooking the Sea of Tiberias, the Golan Heights, the Yarmouk River gorge. Gadara was situated in a defensible position on a ridge accessible to the east but protected by steep falls on the other three sides, it was well-watered, with access to the Ain Qais spring and cisterns. A member of the Decapolis, Gadara was a center of Greek culture in the region, considered one of its most Hellenized and enjoying special political and religious status. By the third century BC the town was of some cultural importance; the Greek historian Polybius describes Gadara as being in 218 BC the "strongest of all places in the region".
It capitulated shortly afterwards when besieged by the Seleucid king Antiochus III of Syria. Under the Seleucids, it was known as Antiochia or Antiochia Semiramis and as Seleucia; the region passed in and out of the control of the Seleucid kings of Syria and the Ptolemies of Egypt. Gadara was damaged by Alexander Jannaeus. In the early first century BC Gadara gave birth to its most famous son, Meleager, he was one of the most admired Hellenistic Greek poets, not only for his own works but for his anthology of other poets, which formed the basis of the large collection known as the Greek Anthology. In 63 BC, when the Roman general Pompey placed the region under Roman control, he rebuilt Gadara and made it one of the semi-autonomous cities of the Roman Decapolis, a bulwark against Nabataean expansion, but in 30 BC Augustus placed it under the control of the Jewish king Herod. The historian Josephus relates that after King Herod's death in 4 BC Gadara was made part of the Roman province of Syria.
Gadara was the birthplace of the satirist Menippus, a slave who became a Cynic philosopher and satirized the follies of mankind in a mixture of prose and verse. His works were imitated by Varro and by Lucian. Josephus relates that in AD 66 at the beginning of the Jewish revolt against the Romans the country around Gadara was laid waste,: "So Vespasian marched to the city of Gadara, he came into slew all the youth, the Romans having no mercy on any age whatsoever. He set fire to the city and all the villas around it." The Gadarenes captured some of the boldest of the Jews, of whom several were put to death and others imprisoned. Some in the town surrendered to emperor Vespasian; the 2nd century AD Roman aqueduct to Gadara supplied drinking water through a qanat 170 km long. Its longest underground section, running for 94 km, is the longest known tunnel from ancient times. Gadara continued to be an important town within the Eastern Roman Empire, was long the seat of a Christian bishop. With the conquest of the Arabs, following the Battle of Yarmouk in 636 it came under Muslim rule.
Around 747 it was destroyed by an earthquake, was abandoned. The ancient walls may now be traced in their entire circuit of 3 km. One of the Roman roads ran eastward to Ḍer‛ah; the ruins include those of "baths, two theaters, a hippodrome, colonnaded streets and, under the Romans, aqueducts," a temple, a basilica and other buildings, telling of a once splendid city. A paved street, with double colonnade, ran from east to west; the ruts worn in the paved road by the wheels of ancient vehicles are still to be seen. A different town called "Gader" is referred to in Jerusalem Talmud and the Tosefta within a Sabbath day's walking distance from Hamath, a town situated within one biblical mile to the south of Tiberias. See Ancient Gadara was important enough to become a suffragan bishopric of the Metropolitan Archbishopric of Scythopolis, the capital of the Roman province of Palestina Secunda, but it faded with the city after the Muslim conquest; the diocese was nominally restored no than the 15th century as Titular bishopric of Gadaræ in Latin of Gadara in Curiate Italian, from 1925 renamed Gadara.
It is vacant, having had the following incumbents, all of the fitting episcopal rank: Johann Erler, Friars Minor Matthias Kanuti, Benedictine Order Domingo Pérez Rivera Jan Benisławski, Jesuits Anton Gottfried Claessen Joseph-Hyacinthe Sohier, Paris Foreign Missions Society Edward MacCabe Giuseppe Macchi Giuseppe Schirò Nicolae Iosif Camilli, Conventual Franciscans Venceslao Frind Martial-Pierre-Marie Jannin, M. E. P. Jean Cassaigne, M. E. P. Gadara was once called the "city of philosophers". Among others, Gadara was home to: Menippus of Gadara, the Cynic satirist Meleager of Gadara, the Cynic poet Philodemus of Gadara, the Epicurean philosopher and poet Theodorus