World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
United States territory
United States territory is any extent of region under the sovereign jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States, including all waters and all U. S. naval vessels. The United States asserts sovereign rights for exploring, exploiting and managing its territory; this extent of territory is all the area belonging to, under the dominion of, the United States federal government for administrative and other purposes. The United States total territory includes a subset of political divisions; the United States territory includes any geography under the control of the United States federal government. Various regions and divisions are under the supervision of the United States federal government; the United States territory includes defined geographical area and refers to an area of land, air, or sea under jurisdiction of United States federal governmental authority. The extent of territory is all the area belonging to, under the dominion of, the United States of America federal government for administrative and other purposes.
Under Article IV of the U. S. Constitution, territory belongs to the United States; this includes tracts of land or water not included within the limits of any State and not admitted as a State into the Union. The Constitution of the United States states: The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States. Congress possesses power to set territorial governments within the boundaries of the United States; the power of Congress over such territory is universal. Congressional legislation is subject to no control, unless in the case of its being and explicitly ceded to the territory by act of Congress; the U. S. Congress is granted the exclusive and universal power to set a United States territory's political divisions. All territory under the control of the federal government is considered part of the "United States" for purposes of law. From 1901–1905, the U. S. Supreme Court in a series of opinions known as the Insular Cases held that the Constitution extended ex proprio vigore to the territories.
However, the Court in these cases established the doctrine of territorial incorporation. Under the same, the Constitution only applied in incorporated territories such as Alaska and Hawaii, whereas it only applied in the new unincorporated territories of Puerto Rico and the Philippines. A Supreme Court ruling from 1945 stated that the term "United States" can have three different meanings, in different contexts: The term "United States" may be used in any one of several senses, it may be the name of a sovereign occupying the position analogous to that of other sovereigns in the family of nations. It may designate the territory over which the sovereignty of the United States extends, or it may be the collective name of the states which are united by and under the Constitution; the United States Department of the Interior is charged with managing federal affairs within U. S. territory. The Interior Department has a wide range of responsibilities; the United States Department of the Interior is not responsible for local government or for civil administration except in the cases of Indian reservations, through the Bureau of Indian Affairs, as well as those territories administered through the Office of Insular Affairs.
The exception is the "incorporated and unorganized" United States Territory of Palmyra Island, the legal remnant of the former United States Territory of Hawaii since 1959, in which the local government and civil administration were assigned by the Secretary of the Interior to the Fish and Wildlife Service in 2001. The contiguous United States and Alaska are divided into smaller administrative regions; these are called counties in 48 of the 50 states, they are called boroughs in Alaska and parishes in Louisiana. A county can include a number of towns, or just a portion of either type; these counties have varying degrees of legal significance. A township in the United States refers to a small geographic area; the term is used in two ways: a survey township is a geographic reference used to define property location for deeds and grants. Territories are subdivided into administered tracts—e.g. Geographic areas that are under the authority of a government; the District of Columbia and territories are under the direct authority of Congress, although each is allowed home rule.
The United States Government, rather than individual states or territories, conducts foreign relations under the U. S. Constitution. Federal enclaves, such as domestic military bases and national parks, are administered directly by the federal government. To varying degrees, the federal government exercises concurrent jurisdiction with the states where federal land is part of the territory granted to a state. At times, territories are organized with a separate legislature, under a territorial governor and officers, appointed by the President and approved by the Senate of the United States. A territory has been divided into organized territories and unorganized territories. An unorga
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
Asan is a village located on the western shore of the United States territory of Guam. The municipality of Asan-Maina combines Asan with a community in the hills to the east, it was a primary landing site for United States Marines during Guam's liberation from the Japanese during World War II. Asan Beach Park is part of the War in the Pacific National Historic Park. Asan and Maina are located in the Luchan District. Asan derives its name from the Chamorro word hassan meaning rare. One meaning of the word ma’ina refers to an infant who, between the time of birth and baptism, is taken by the mother to Mass before sunrise; this old ritual was considered analogous to and in imitation of the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple. On July 21, 1944 the Americans landed in Asan to recapture the island from occupying Japanese forces during the Battle of Guam; the 3rd Marine Division landed in Asan at 08:28, the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade landed near Agat to the south. Japanese artillery sank 20 Landing Vehicle Trackeds.
United States Marines fought Japanese forces fortified in the hills above the shore after establishing a beach head. During the following week, Americans pursued retreating Japanese forces northward and won the battle. From April to November 1975 the former Camp Asan was used as a refugee camp for South Vietnamese refugees during Operation New Life. On August 6, 1997, Korean Air Flight 801 crashed on Nimitz Hill in Asan. A memorial was constructed. Guam Public School System serves the island. Southern High School in Santa Rita serves the village; every year the island's largest Easter egg hunt is at the War in the Pacific National Park with over 10,000 eggs. The village hosts the yearly International Kite Flying Competitions with people from South Korea, China and the Northern Mariana Islands competing for the championship. Enrique S. Cruz Santiago A. Limtiaco Joaquin L. Jesus Santiago A. Limtiaco Joaquin S. Santos Jose S. Quitugua Daniel L. Guerrero Frank A. Acfalle Vicente L. San Nicolas Joana Margaret C.
Blas Frank "Frankie" A. Salas Villages of Guam
Merizo, is the southernmost village in the United States territory of Guam. Cocos Island is a part of the municipality; the village's population has decreased since the island's 2000 census. During the first Spanish missionary efforts on Guam, Merizo was the site of resistance encouraged by Choco, a Chinese resident of the village; the parish of Merizo was the second established by the Spanish on Guam. A large population of Chamorros from the Mariana Islands were relocated to the village during Spanish rule; the village covers an area of 6 square miles and is located on the shore below the volcanic hills of southern Guam. Places of interest for visitors include Southern Comfort Ranch and Merizo Pier where ferries can be taken to Cocos Island Resort. Several popular dive sites are located off Merizo's coast. Officials from the Guam Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Public Health and Social Services and the Coast Guard announced findings of major polychlorinated biphenyl contamination in the Cocos Lagoon on February 20, 2006 and warned people not to eat fish caught there.
The contamination is believed to have come from a United States Coast Guard station which operated on Cocos Island from 1944-1963. Guam Public School System serves the island. Merizo Martyrs Elementary School in Merizo and Inarajan Middle School in Inarajan serve Merizo. Southern High School in Santa Rita serves the village. Guam Public Library System operates the Merizo Library at 376 Cruz Avenue. Water sport crafts can be rented near Merizo Pier; the pier is a great fishing spot. Jose T. Tajalle Joaquin Q. Acfalle Ignacio S. Cruz Rita A. Tainatongo Ernest T. Chargualaf Villages of Guam Dive Sites of Guam Rogers, Robert F. Destiny's Landfall: A History of Guam: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0-8248-1678-1 Carter, Lee D. ISBN 1-878453-28-9 Sanchez, Pedro C. Guahan, Guam: The History of our Island: Sanchez Publishing House. Merizo Guam at Guam Portal http://www.guampdn.com/communities/maps/merizo.html
Typhoon Karen was the most powerful tropical cyclone to strike the island of Guam, has been regarded as one of the most destructive events in the island's history. It was first identified as a tropical disturbance on November 6, 1962, well to the southeast of Truk. Over the following two days, the system tracked northward and intensified. Karen became a tropical storm late on November 7, within two days it explosively intensified into a Category 5-equivalent super typhoon on the Saffir–Simpson scale. Turning westward, the typhoon maintained its intensity and struck Guam with winds of 280 km/h on November 11. Once clear of the island, it strengthened and reached its peak intensity on November 13 with winds of 295 km/h and a barometric pressure of 894 mb; the storm gradually turned northward as it weakened, brushing the Ryukyu Islands on November 15, before moving east-northeastward over the open waters of the Pacific. Karen continued to weaken and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on November 17 before losing its identity the following day between Alaska and Hawaii.
Karen devastated Guam with wind gusts estimated up to 280 km/h. Ninety-five percent of homes were destroyed, leaving at least 45,000 people homeless. Communication and utilities were crippled, forcing officials to set up water distribution centers to prevent disease. Total losses on the island amounted to $250 million. Despite the severity of the damage, only 11 people were killed. In the wake of the storm, a massive relief operation evacuated thousands to California and Wake Island. Thousands more were sheltered in public buildings, tent villages, for many months. More than $60 million in relief funds were sent to Guam over the following years to aid in rehabilitation. Though the storm was devastating, it spurred a revitalized economy. On November 6, 1962, a tropical disturbance was identified over the Pacific Ocean several hundred miles south-southeast of Truk, in the Federated States of Micronesia, by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tracking northwestward, the disturbance intensified and was classified as a tropical depression early on November 7.
That day, the system passed to the east of Truk and turned due north before attaining gale-force winds. Around 18:00 UTC, the JTWC issued their first advisory on Tropical Storm Karen, the 27th named storm of the 1962 season. Several hours a reconnaissance mission into the storm revealed a closed 35 km wide eye. Over the following 30 hours, Karen underwent a period of explosive intensification as its eye became small and defined. Between 00:00 UTC on November 8 and 03:40 UTC on November 9, Karen's barometric pressure plummeted from 990 mbar to 899 mb, a drop of 91 mb. At the end of this phase, Karen featured an 8 to 10 km wide eye and had estimated surface winds of 295 km/h, ranking it as a modern-day Category 5-equivalent super typhoon on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale. After attaining this initial peak intensity on November 9, Karen weakened somewhat as it curved west-northwestward. By 15:14 UTC, the storm began to undergo an eyewall replacement cycle as a larger secondary eyewall 64 km in diameter, started developing.
Although the storm's winds failed to drop Karen's central pressure rose to 919 mb during this phase. Accelerating Karen tracked west-northwestward towards Guam. By November 11, the system deepened once more. Between 12:10 and 12:35 UTC on November 11, the 14 km wide eye of Karen passed directly over southern Guam. At this time, the storm was estimated to have had winds of 280 km/h, which would have made it the most intense typhoon to strike the island since 1900. However, years of post-storm analyses have indicated that it may have been somewhat weaker when it passed over Guam. At the Weather Bureau station at the north end of Guam, a pressure of 942.4 mb was measured. Farther south at 939.7 mb was recorded. The lowest verified pressure was 931.9 mb at the Agana Naval Air Station. Closest to the eye was Naval Magazine where a pressure of 907.6 mb was never verified. Continuing west-northwestward, Karen attained its peak intensity on November 13, with a central pressure of 894 mb. Between November 13 and 14, Karen turned towards the north as it underwent another eyewall replacement cycle.
During this time, Karen weakened below Category 5 status as its winds dropped below 251 km/h. This marked the end of its near-record 4.25-day span as a storm of such intensity, second only to Typhoon Nancy of 1961 which maintained Category 5 status for 5.5 days. Over the following days, the typhoon's structure became disorganized, with its eye no longer well-defined by November 15. By this time, Karen began accelerating northeastward and east-northeastward over the open ocean; the combination of its rapid movement and entrainment of cold air into the circulation caused the system to transition into an extratropical cyclone on November 17. The remnants of Karen continued tracking east-northeast and were last noted by the JTWC on November 18 halfway between the southern Aleutian Islands and northern Hawaiian Islands. Following the identification of a tropical disturbance on November 6, a level four Typhoon Condition of Readiness, the lowest level of alert, was raised for Guam. By November 8, three days prior to Karen's arrival, this was raised to level three, prompting resident
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti