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Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning deductive logic, is the process of reasoning from one or more statements to reach a logically certain conclusion. Deductive reasoning goes in the same direction as that of the conditionals, links premises with conclusions. If all premises are true, the terms are clear, the rules of deductive logic are followed the conclusion reached is true. Deductive reasoning contrasts with inductive reasoning in the following way. In inductive reasoning, the conclusion is reached by generalizing or extrapolating from specific cases to general rules, i.e. there is epistemic uncertainty. However, the inductive reasoning mentioned here is not the same as induction used in mathematical proofs – mathematical induction is a form of deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning differs from abductive reasoning by the direction of the reasoning relative to the conditionals. Deductive reasoning goes in the same direction as that of the conditionals, whereas abductive reasoning goes in the opposite direction to that of the conditionals.

An example of an argument using deductive reasoning: All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal; the first premise states that all objects classified as "men" have the attribute "mortal." The second premise states that "Socrates" is classified as a "man" – a member of the set "men." The conclusion states that "Socrates" must be "mortal" because he inherits this attribute from his classification as a "man." Modus ponens is the primary deductive rule of inference. It applies to arguments that have as first premise a conditional statement and as second premise the antecedent of the conditional statement, it obtains the consequent of the conditional statement as its conclusion. The argument form is listed below: P → Q P Q In this form of deductive reasoning, the consequent obtains as the conclusion from the premises of a conditional statement and its antecedent. However, the antecedent cannot be obtained as the conclusion from the premises of the conditional statement and the consequent.

Such an argument commits the logical fallacy of affirming the consequent. The following is an example of an argument using modus ponens: If an angle satisfies 90° < A < 180° A is an obtuse angle. A = 120°. A is an obtuse angle. Since the measurement of angle A is greater than 90° and less than 180°, we can deduce from the conditional statement that A is an obtuse angle. However, if we are given that A is an obtuse angle, we cannot deduce from the conditional statement that 90° < A < 180°. It might be true that other angles outside this range are obtuse. Modus tollens is a deductive rule of inference, it validates an argument that has as premises a conditional statement and the negation of the consequent and as conclusion the negation of the antecedent. In contrast to modus ponens, reasoning with modus tollens goes in the opposite direction to that of the conditional; the general expression for modus tollens is the following: P → Q. ¬ Q. ¬ P. The following is an example of an argument using modus tollens: If it is raining there are clouds in the sky.

There are no clouds in the sky. Thus, it is not raining. In proposition logic the law of syllogism takes two conditional statements and forms a conclusion by combining the hypothesis of one statement with the conclusion of another. Here is the general form: P → Q Q → R Therefore, P → R; the following is an example: If the animal is a Yorkie it's a dog. If the animal is a dog it's a mammal. Therefore, if the animal is a Yorkie it's a mammal. We deduced the final statement by combining the

Tomorrow Never Knows (Mr. Children song)

"Tomorrow Never Knows" is the sixth single released by Mr. Children on November 10, 1994; the single sold 2.766 million copies and is the eighth-highest-selling single in Japan in the Oricon history. "Tomorrow Never Knows" was Mr. Children's second No. 1 single on the Oricon Japanese charts and sold 2,766,290 copies during its run on the chart. The title track was used as the theme song to the Japanese drama Wakamono no Subete and was included in the Mr. Children live album 1/42 released on September 8, 1999, Mr. Children 1992–1995, released on July 11, 2001. "Tomorrow Never Knows" was included on Mr. Children's sixth album, released on March 5, 1997, as a remix. While the track was noted as a remix, the only thing remixed was drummer Hideya Suzuki re-recording his drumming. On the March 16, 2007 episode of the Japanese music TV show Music Station, Mr. Children mentioned the song was written while the group was on their Innocent World Tour; the b-side "Love Connection" was included in Mr. Children's fourth album, Atomic Heart, released on September 1, 1994.

"Tomorrow Never Knows" has won many awards including'Best Theme Song' at the 3rd Annual Television Drama Academy Awards, the'Grand Prix Single Award' at the 9th Annual Japan Gold Disc Awards, and'Best 5 Single Award' at the 9th Annual Japan Gold Disc Awards. "Tomorrow Never Knows" was voted in 2006 as fans' No. 1 all-time favorite song on Music Station and was listed as the third-highest-selling drama tie-in single in Japan. All tracks are written by Kazutoshi Sakurai. Kazutoshi Sakurai – vocals, guitar Kenichi Tahara – guitar Keisuke Nakagawabass Hideya Suzuki – drums Producer – Kobayashi Takeshi Arrangement - Mr. Children and Takeshi Kobayashi Great Ocean Road

James Beebe

James Beebe, presided over the Unity Parish at North Stratford, now Trumbull, between 1747 and 1785. He was an Army Preacher in a patriot. Beebe was born in Connecticut in 1717, the son of one of the town founders, he studied theology at Yale University in Connecticut. Beebe married Ruth Curtiss, the daughter of Ephraim and Elizabeth Curtiss, in 1749 and they raised five daughters and two sons. Besides his pastoral duties, Mr. Beebe managed a large farm, was part owner of the local grist and sawmills and he owned slaves. One slave in particular was the wife of free slave Nero Hawley. Since Beebe owned Peg, he owned all of her children too, who were subsequently emancipated by their father after Beebe's death. Beebe died in office on September 1785, in his 68th year, his wife Ruth died on July 29, 1818 at the age of 94. Beebe's gravestone at the Unity Burial Ground reads: This Monument was erected by the Church & Society of North Stratford out of respect to the memory of Rev. James Beebe A. M. who departed this life Sept. 8, 1785, in the 68th year of his age.

He was ordained to the work of the ministry over said Church & Society May 6, 1747. And continued therein a faithful pastor 38 years. In the fall of 1746, the Fairfield East Association of Ministers contacted the Church at the Unity Parish in Trumbull and advised them that Reverend Beebe was ready to become the minister at their parish. Beebe was ordained and installed at Unity Parish in May 1747. Beebe had his work cut out for him though, as the church had become scattered in 1744 by the conversion to Episcopacy by the last pastor, Reverend Richardson Miner. Under Beebe's leadership, 167 parishioners were added to the Unity Church rolls. Reverend Beebe's ministry in Trumbull lasted for 38 years until he died in office on September 8, 1785, in his 68th year. Beebe served as an Army Chaplain in the 3rd Regiment raised in the Colony of Connecticut in March 1760 during the French & Indian War. Beebe was a Patriot, served in the local militia for eight months in 1776 during the American Revolution.

His eldest son James, was a Captain in the Continental Army and wintered with George Washington at the Valley Forge winter encampment. Beebe was a staunch supporter of the Revolution. One night he organized a public meeting at his house to talk about the Revolution. While he was addressing the people, gunfire was heard and fires were seen in the distance as if the British were coming. Beebe suspected. So, he sent a small party by a back road to check it out and to cut off the retreat of this scouting party, they captured the culprits, who turned out to be young men from the town who had burned some cornstalks and were playing a joke on the people at the meeting to test their patriotism. Reverend Beebe organized A Great Jubilee Day on Monday May 26, 1783 in North Stratford, now Trumbull, commemorating the end of fighting in the American Revolutionary War; this celebration included feasting, speeches and two companies of the North Stratford militia performing maneuvers with cannon discharges and was one of the first documented celebrations following the War for Independence and continued as Decoration Day and today as Memorial Day with prayer services and a parade.

In May 1783 to commemorate the end of fighting in the American Revolution. The celebration included feasting, speeches and two companies of North Stratford militia performing maneuvers with cannon discharges and was one of the first documented celebrations following the war

Painted Cave, California

Painted Cave is an unincorporated community of Santa Barbara County located in the Santa Ynez Mountains and is so named due to its proximity to Painted Cave State Historic Park. It is served by Camino Cielo Road and California State Route 154, which link the community both to the nearby Santa Ynez Valley and Santa Barbara, California; the community is made up of 100 homesteads, plus many outlying settlements. Painted Cave is the highest and largest of the inholdings within the Santa Ynez Mountains, commands an impressive view- on clear days, all seven of the Channel Islands can be seen; the community is composed of irregular lots, does not, except in the center of the community, conform to any sort of grid. Painted Cave sits atop a rough plateau, includes the large Laurel Springs Ranch; the local terrain is hilly, numerous homes along Rim and Lookout roads approach or overhang sheer cliffs. Painted Cave arose through gradual construction in the hills above Santa Barbara, with a mixture of rustic cabins and grand retreats, such as Knapp's Castle.

The central impetus for development was the linkage of the access road to the Painted Cave SHP with Camino Cielo Road. Though there have been many close calls and evacuations, Painted Cave has, as yet, escaped destruction by wildfire, although the 1964 Coyote Fire came closest, sparing the community only due to a fortuitous wind shift, after destroying eight homes; the 1990 Painted Cave Fire moved downslope and did not directly threaten the community, though it did burn outliers. The Gap Fire and Jesusita Fire of 2009 burned close to the area, but the comparative encirclement of Painted Cave by roads makes it a comparatively easy place to defend. Painted Cave, by this virtue, is used as a command center and helitack staging area for Santa Barbara wildfires. Painted Cave is represented in local administration, with the Wildlands Resident's Association handling the overall preparedness and coordination of the region, as well as liaising with Santa Barbara County and CAL FIRE. Several local organizations, such as the Painted Cave Volunteer Fire Department and the Painted Cave Mutual Water Company, manage day-to-day affairs.

The Volunteer Fire Department operates so-called "brush trucks" for rapid response along the ridge line, as well as a larger pumper. The Mutual Water Company pumps water from the nearby Maria Ygnacio Creek to a tank system supplying the community; the Painted Cave Volunteer Fire Department was formed in 1965 as a local volunteer fire department. The department operates three “Type 3” four-wheel-drive brush trucks capable of off-road wildland fire response, a specialized fire retardant gel truck, a Mercedes Sprinter recovery vehicle, a tractor-trailer, both Chevrolet Suburban and Tahoe command vehicles. In the California State Assembly, Painted Cave is in the 37th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Monique Limón. In the United States House of Representatives, Painted Cave is in California's 24th congressional district, represented by Democrat Salud Carbajal; the local ZIP code is 93105 and the area lies within the 805 area code


Pagudpud the Municipality of Pagudpud, is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Norte, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 23,770 people, it is the northernmost settlement on Luzon Island and a popular tourist destination because of its resorts and beaches. In addition to tourism, people make their living through farming and subsistence retailing. Many windmills erected in Barangay Caparispisan. Pagudpud was made a municipality on 5 July 1954 through the leadership of Constante Benemerito, it was Rafael "Totoy" Benemerito, son of Constante, who spearheaded the establishment of the first municipal hall, municipal health center, public plaza, public market. It had been a part of the neighboring town of Bangui. Pagudpud lies 74 kilometres north of Laoag City, the provincial capital, 561 kilometres north of Manila. Maira-ira Beach is the northernmost tip of Luzon Island, located at 18°39′4.44″N 120°50′46.68″E on the Luzon Strait. The town's topography includes mountains, hills and flat coastal land.

Pagudpud is politically divided in 16 barangays: Urban Rural In the 2015 census, the population of Pagudpud was 23,770 people, with a density of 120 inhabitants per square kilometre or 310 inhabitants per square mile. Roman Catholicism is the major religion in Pagudpud. Yet, there's increasing numbers of members of other Christian Denominations such as Jehovah's Witnesses and Iglesia ni Cristo. Islam, brought by Muslim immigrants, is practiced in Pagudpud; as of the term 2013-2016, these are the officials of Pagudpud: Mayor: Rafael Ralph Benemerito II Vice Mayor: Matilde Sales Councilors: Ferdinand R. Garvida Efren B. Cimatu Emilen G. Sales Rajan L. Benemerito Reynald Garvida Joseph Caliw Caliw Dane Sales Wilfredo Ubasa Blue, Red and White, reflection of the colors of the Philippines 1954, the year Pagudpud was founded Coconut Tree and Ricefield, represents as farming as one of the economic resources of the town, with coconut and vegetables as its major products Waterfall, represents Mabogobog falls, the source of a Mini Hydro Power Plant.

Mountain and Logs, represents the forestry resources of the town Fish and Shrimps, represents its marine resoureces Shell with Pearl, symbolizes the tourism potential of the town, famous for its white beaches North Star, stands for the location of the town of Pagudpud, in the northern tip of the Province. By land, Pagudpud is a 90-minute bus ride from Laoag City. Several bus lines serve the Manila-Laoag route, namely Partas, Florida and Maria de Leon among others; some bus lines serve the Pan-Philippine highway, the Asian Highway ends here for Taiwan the 27th Nation, dropping by in Pagudpud, namely Chona Patrick, GMW, St. Joseph and the Pan-Philippine highway route buses of Maria de Leon and Florida. Patapat Viaduct Municipality of Pagudpud Article about Pagudpud and Saud Beach with plenty of Photographs Philippine Standard Geographic Code Philippine Census Information Local Governance Performance Management System

Leonid Reiman

Leonid Dodojonovich Reiman is a Russian businessman and government official, former Minister of Communications and Information Technologies of the Russian Federation. Leonid Reiman has been numerously rated most influential person in Russian telecom business with personal wealth over $1 bln. according to Finance magazine. Leonid Reiman was born on 12 July 1957 in Leningrad, his father, Dodojon Tadjiyev, is Tajik and his mother, Ekaterina Reiman, is an Estonian German. In 1979, Leonid Reiman graduated from the M. A. Bonch-Bruevich Leningrad Institute of Communications Technology. 1979-1983, engineer and section chief at the Leningrad city international telephone station. 1983-1985, Leonid Reiman did a tour of compulsory military service. 1985-1999, Reiman occupied leading positions in the Leningrad City Telephone Network / in 1993 renamed to St. Petersburg City Telephone Network. In 1992 Reiman entered the Board of Directors of Peterstar, first non-state owned cell phone operator in Saint Petersburg founded in 1992.

In 1994 he joined the Board of Directors of the JSC Telecominvest. As of June 1999, he was a member of the Boards of directors of the JSC Delta Telecom, JSC Neva Line, JSC Peterstar, Stankinbank, JSC St. Petersburg City Telephone Network, editorial JSC St. Petersburg Directories, JSC Interregional Transit Telecom, JSC North-West GSM, the Chairman of the Board of Directors of the JSC St. Petersburg International and TransTelecom and a member of the supervisory board of the JSC St. Petersburg Intercity International Telephone. From July 1999, state secretary, first deputy chairman of the State Committee for Telecommunications. From August 1999, Gostelecom chairman. November 1999 - April 2004, Minister of Information and Communications of the Russian Federation. Since 26 June 2000, up to 2010 Leonid Reiman is the Chairman of the Board of Directors of Open JSC Svyazinvest. March - May 2004, First Deputy Minister of Transport and Communications of the Russian Federation. Leonid Reiman was appointed Minister of Communications and Information Technologies of the Russian Federation on 20 May 2004, where he served until 12 May 2008.

May 2008 - August 2010 – Adviser to the President of the Russian Federation, Secretary for Presidential Council of Information Society Development March 2011 - President of the supervisory board of Mandriva Founder of RIO-Center, now Institute of Contemporary Development, Russian liberal think tank chaired by President Dmitry Medvedev. On 25 July 2000, Leonid Reiman issued the order No 130 "Concerning the introduction of technical means ensuring investigative activity in phone, wireless communication and radio paging networks" stating that the FSB was no longer required to provide telecommunications and Internet companies documentation on targets of interest prior to accessing information. In 2004 the British businessman Anthony Georgiou claimed in a court affidavit lodged in a British Virgin Islands court that in 1992 Reiman had received a bribe of about a million US dollars from him. During Bermuda government supported audit of IPOC International Growth Fund Ltd KPMG's investigation in 2005, the top official has been named in a number of legal actions as Leonid Reiman, Russia’s telecommunications minister.

Mr Reiman has denied the claims. Order of Merit for the Fatherland. World Telecommunication Policy Forum 2001, 07.03.01 Official biography V. Pribylovsky; the origin of Putin's oligarchy A dossier by V. Pribylovsky