In Jamaican music, a deejay is a reggae or dancehall musician who sings and "toasts" to an instrumental riddim. Deejays are not to be confused with DJs from other music genres like hip hop, where they select and play music. Dancehall/reggae DJs who select riddims to play are called selectors. Deejays whose style is nearer to singing are sometimes called singjays; the term deejay came about as a result of the act of some selectors of the 1960s and 1970s such as U-Roy or King Stitt toasting to the version side of popular records of the time. The version came about when the record company produced the 45 record with an instrumental version of the song on the flip side; this gave the deejays the chance to make up on-the-fly lyrics to the instrumental music. This occurrence gave rise to deejay toasting and the term has been used in that context since. Toasting, chatting, or deejaying is the act of talking or chanting in a monotone melody, over a rhythm or beat by a deejay. Traditionally, the method of toasting originated from the griots of Caribbean calypso and mento traditions.
The lyrics can either be pre-written. Toasting has been used in various African traditions, such as griots chanting over a drum beat, as well as in the United States and Jamaican music forms, such as ska, reggae and dub. Toasting is often used in soca and bouyon music; the African American oral tradition of toasting, a mix of talking and chanting, influenced the development of MCing in US hip hop music. The combination of singing and toasting is known as singjaying. In the late 1950s deejay toasting was developed by Count Matchuki, he conceived the idea from listening to disc jockeys on American radio stations. He would do African American jive over the music while playing R&B music. Deejays like Count Machuki working for producers would play the latest hits on traveling sound systems at parties and add their toasts or vocals to the music; these toasts consisted of comedy, boastful commentaries, half-sung rhymes, rhythmic chants, squeals and rhymed storytelling. Osbourne Ruddock was a Jamaican sound recording engineer who created vocal-less rhythm backing tracks that were used by DJs doing toasting by creating one-off vinyl discs of songs without the vocals and adding echo and sound effects.
Late 1960s toasting deejays included U-Roy and Dennis Alcapone, the latter known for mixing gangster talk with humor in his toasting. In the early 1970s, toasting deejays included I-Roy and Dillinger, the latter known for his humorous toasting style. In the early 1970s Big Youth became popular and had three successful albums, Screaming Target, Dreadlocks Dread and Natty Cultural Dread. In the late 1970s, Trinity became a popular toasting deejay; the 1980s saw the first deejay toasting duo, Michigan & Smiley, the development of toasting outside of Jamaica. In England, Pato Banton explored his Caribbean roots and political toasting while Ranking Roger of the Second Wave or Two-Tone ska revival band The Beat from the 1980s did Jamaican toasting over music that blended ska and some punk influences; the rhythmic rhyming of vocals of African American toasting influenced the development of toasting in Jamaica and development of the dancehall style. Jamaican deejay toasting influenced various types of dance music, such as jungle music and UK garage.
The Catholic Church in Liberia is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome. There are around 166,000 Catholics in Liberia—5.8% of the population. There are 3 dioceses including 1 archdiocese: Monrovia Cape Palmas Gbarnga At the beginning of the 20th century, the Americo-Liberian settlers were to be found on the seacoast and at the mouths of the two most important rivers. Of the native tribes the principal are the Veys, the Pessehs, the Barlines, the Bassas, the Kru, the Grebo, the Mandingos; the converts came chiefly from the Grebo. Methodist, Baptist and Episcopalian missions had been established in the country for many years with scant results at the beginning of the 19th century; as a number of the first American colonists were Catholics from Maryland and the adjoining states, they caught the attention of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples and the second Provincial Council of Baltimore in 1833 undertook to meet the difficulty of sending missionaries to serve the local faithful.
In accordance with the measures taken, Rev. Edward Barron, Vicar-General of Philadelphia, Rev. John Kelly of New York, Denis Pindar, a lay catechist from Baltimore, volunteered for the mission and sailed for Africa from Baltimore on 2 December 1841, they arrived there safe and Father Barron serve the first Mass at Cape Palmas on 10 February 1842. After a time, finding that he did not receive missionaries enough to accomplish anything practical, Father Barron returned to the United States, thence went to Rome where he was made on 22 January 1842, Vicar Apostolic of the Two Guineas, titular Bishop of Constantia. With seven priests of the Congregation of the Holy Ghost he returned to Liberia, arriving at Cape Palmas on 30 November 1843. Five of these priests died on the mission of fever, to which Denis Pindar, the lay catechist fell a victim, 1 January 1844. Bishop Barron and Father Kelly held out for two years, wasted by fever, they determined to return to the United States, feeling that it was impossible to withstand the climate any longer.
Bishop Barron died of yellow fever during an epidemic at Savannah, Georgia, 12 September 1854, Father Kelly died at Jersey City, New Jersey, 28 April 1866. The Fathers of the Holy Ghost, who took up the work, were forced by the climate to abandon it in a couple of years, the permanent mission lapsed until 25 February 1884; the Fathers of Montfort, under Fathers Blanchet and Lorber laid the foundation of another mission at Monrovia. The President of the Republic, Mr. Johnson, the people gave them a cordial welcome, because of its emphasis on providing a through education, but the sectarian ministers organized a cabal against them, endeavoured to thwart all their efforts to spread the Catholic faith, they made some progress in spite of this, in the following year, having received reinforcements from France, opened a school for boys and extended their operations into other places. Father Bourzeix learned the native language, in which he compiled a catechism and translated a number of hymns. Deaths among the missionaries and the health of the others shattered by fever forced these priests to abandon the Liberia mission.
After this it was visited by missionaries from Sierra Leone until 1906, when Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples handed its care over to the Society of African Missions from Lyon, three Irish priests, Fathers Stephen Kyne, Joseph Butler, Dennis O'Sullivan, with two French assistants, continued to work among the 2800 Catholics the vicariate was estimated to contain in 1910. Diplomatic relationships between the Vatican and Liberia were established in 1927, celebrated by a spectacular and massive march through the streets of Monrovia on the feast of Christ the King, which subsequently boosted registration in Catholic schools and a lasting foundation of Catholicism. Under the dictatorships of William Tubman up to Samuel Doe, the Catholic Church continued its work in education and with the poor, as well as using its voice to denounce abuses and corruption under the different dictatorial regimes; the Catholic Church was seen as more trustworthy than other churches because its peculiar mode of financing and hierarchy did not leave it at the government's mercy.
Its financing came "predominantly from giant German agencies which would cease contributing if previous grants were not scrupulously accounted for." Because of the fact that it did not include high-ranking government officials, because of the Catholic episcopal authority, the Church benefited from a great freedom of expression, which it used wisely to denounce the government when necessary, using "machinery for public comment on national issues" with the Lenten or Advent Pastoral Letters. Archbishop Michael Kpakala Francis in his first letter written in 1977, denounced corruption in these words: "It is not too late to stop this ugly trend of corruption in our country. We are proud to call ourselves Christian, but can we do so if corrupt practices are the normal things in our lives?" The Catholic Church used its voice to condemn the systematic recourse to violence for political ends in Liberia. For instance, after Samuel Doe's coup in 1980, the Catholic Bishops were quick in bringing out a statement on "The Liberian Situation", emphasizing the role of the Church in the country's political life, "without usurping the role of the State and without favouring any party."
The bishops reminded the State of its duty to protect and not breach the citizens' rights. The statement declared that: "Violence has no place in a just government. Violence destroys the fabric of society, foments hatred and brings about hostility where
The International Gay Rodeo Association, founded in 1985, is the sanctioning body for gay rodeos held throughout the United States and Canada. They are the largest group coordinating rodeo events welcoming lesbian, bisexual, transgender as well as heterosexual participants and spectators. IGRA is composed of many regional gay rodeo associations, sanctions a season of rodeo events which culminates in an annual World Gay Rodeo Finals. IGRA events are intended to allow all competitors, regardless of sexual and gender identity, to compete in rodeo sports without discrimination; the organization helps spread appreciation for Western culture and the sport of rodeo, while serving as a fundraising vehicle benefiting many charitable organizations. Competitors compete for the title of All Around Cowboy and Cowgirl at each rodeo; the winners of each event receive trophy buckles designed by the hosting association. At season's end the contestants with the highest points in each event receive invitations to the World Gay Rodeo Finals presented by IGRA.
The event was renamed in 2009 from the previous "International Gay Rodeo Finals" moniker it held from its onset in Hayward, California. The original intent of these rodeos was fundraising, while competitive and structured rodeos still serve the primary purpose of being fundraisers; the money raised at the rodeo is donated to the designated charities of each association. In total IGRA and all the associated associations have donated to furthering the individual causes of all charities that are benefactors of rodeo funds. In 2010, the IGRA archives dating from 1975 were deposited in the library collection of the Autry National Center in Griffith Park, Los Angeles, which houses the Museum of the American West; the documentary film Queens & Cowboys follows the story of out cowboy, Wade Earp and others who compete in the IGRA. Earp discusses how he does not compete in rodeos outside IGRA because, "There's still a lot of homophobia; as progressive as we think the world's gotten, there's so much we have to conquer."
On November 9, 2014, CNN aired an episode of This Is Life with Lisa Ling that covered the Zia Regional Rodeo in Santa Fe, New Mexico, including profiles of several cowboys and cowgirls that are active on the IGRA circuit. The first gay rodeo was held as a charity fundraising event at the Washoe County Fairgrounds in Reno, Nevada on October 2, 1976; the organizer, Phil Ragsdale, a member of the Imperial Court System, was the Court Emperor of Reno. In time, he came to be regarded as the "Father of Gay Rodeo." Ragsdale came up with the idea of a holding a rodeo to raise money for the local Thanksgiving Day food drive for senior citizens. Over 125 people took part in the first rodeo, the winners were crowned King of the Cowboys, Queen of the Cowgirls, Miss Dusty Spurs; the National Reno Gay Rodeo title was created in 1977, when he founded the Comstock Gay Rodeo Association. Following the Imperial courts lead Ragsdale added the "Mr. Ms. and Miss National Reno Gay Rodeo" titles to aid in the fund raising, to benefit the Muscular Dystrophy Association.
These titles still exist today but have been recognized as Mr. Ms. Miss. and MsTer International Gay Rodeo Association since the IGRA replaced the old National Reno format. By 1984, the ninth and final National Reno Gay Rodeo brought out over 10,000 people to the rodeo grounds; the demise of the National Reno Rodeos is credited by the IRS as a dispute between the Gay Rodeo and the Washoe County Fairgrounds and the Sands Hotel. The rodeo books were alleged to have been seized by the IRS. History has recorded 14 gay rodeos prior to the formation of the International Gay Rodeo Association; the IGRA became international in 1993 when the Alberta Rockies Gay Rodeo Association from Canada joined. In September 1985 with 10 years of rodeo history behind it, groups of men gathered in Denver, Colorado to formulate the history of Gay Rodeo; the five founding states of the International Gay Rodeo Association were Colorado, Texas and Arizona. These four associations seated the Oklahoma Gay Rodeo Association at its first convention held in the same year.
The new Association elected Wayne Jakino from Colorado as its first President. In 1987, IGRA's first International Finals Rodeo was held in California; the name was changed to the World Gay Rodeo Finals in 2009. A list of presidents and royalty elected at annual conventions since IGRA was founded in 1985: Note: In 1988, "A contract with a private ranch sixty miles east of Reno was made void when the local homophobic District Attorney filed an injunction two days before the rodeo in order to stop the event. Two days in court as well as a trip to the Nevada Supreme Court failed to overturn the injunction," according to the IGRA website; as a result, no finals were held that year. Like all traditional rodeos, IGRA rodeos sponsor an annual royalty competition to determine the twelve individuals who will comprise the IGRA Royalty Team; each fall the various associations send either their state winners or their first runners-up to compete for the Mr. Ms. Miss, MsTer International Gay Rodeo Association sashes.
A change to royalty competition rules in 2015 requires a contestant to compete in four of five categories. The five areas of competition are: Personal Interview - Mandatory Western wear modeling - Mandatory Public Presentation and On-Stage Question - Mandatory Horsemanship Skill - Required if not competing in Entertainment Public Entertainment - Required if not competing in Horsemanship Animal rights organization