Inyo County, California
Inyo County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,546; the county seat is Independence. Inyo County is on the east side of the Sierra Nevada and southeast of Yosemite National Park in Central California, it contains the Owens River Valley. With an area of 10,192 square miles, Inyo County is the second-largest county by area in California, after San Bernardino County. One-half of that area is within Death Valley National Park. However, with a population density of 1.8 people per square mile, it has the second-lowest population density in California, after Alpine County. Mount Whitney, the highest peak in the contiguous United States, is on Inyo County's western border; the Badwater Basin in Death Valley National Park, the lowest place in North America, is in eastern Inyo County. The difference between the two points is about 14,700 feet, they are not visible from each other, but both can be observed from the Panamint Range on the west side of Death Valley, above the Panamint Valley.
Thus, Inyo County has the greatest elevation difference among all of the counties and county-equivalents in the contiguous United States. Present day Inyo county has been the historic homeland for thousands of years of the Mono tribe, Coso people and Kawaiisu Native Americans, they spoke the Mono language with Mono traditional narratives. The descendants of these ancestors continue to live in their traditional homelands in the Owens River Valley and in Death Valley National Park. Inyo County was formed in 1866 out of the territory of the unorganized Coso County, created on April 4, 1864 from parts of Mono and Tulare Counties, it acquired more territory from Mono County in 1870 and Kern County and San Bernardino County in 1872. For many years it has been believed that the county derived its name from the Mono tribe of Native Americans name for the mountains in its former homeland; the name came to be thought of, mistakenly, as the name of the mountains to the east of the Owens Valley when the first whites there asked the local Paiutes what the name of the mountains to the east was.
The local Paiutes responded that, the land of Inyo. They meant by this that those lands belonged to the Shoshone tribe headed by a man whose name was Inyo. Inyo was the name of the headman of the Panamint band of Paiute-Shoshone people at the time of contact when the first whites, the Manly expedition of 1849, lost, into Death Valley on their expedition to the gold fields of western California; the Owens Valley whites misunderstood the local Paiute and thought that Inyo was the name of the mountains when it was the name of the chief, or headman, of the tribe that had those mountains as part of their homeland. "Indian George", a fixture of many of the stories of early Death Valley days, was Inyo's son. Indian George's Shoshone name was "Bah-Vanda-Sa-Va-Nu-Kee", which means "The Boy Who Ran Away", a name he was given when he became terrified of the whites and their wheeled wagons and huge buffalo, none of which the Shoshone had seen before when they came wandering down Furnace Creek Wash in December 1849.
In 1940, when Bah-vanda was around 100 years old, JC Boyles, a Panamint Shoshone who had become educated, came back to the Panamint Valley and interviewed Bah-Vanda at length about the early days of his life, including the events of 1849, it is in this interview that Bah-vanda refers to his father, Inyo. In order to provide water needs for the growing City of Los Angeles, water was diverted from the Owens River into the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913; the Owens River Valley cultures and environments changed substantially. From the 1910s to 1930s the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power purchased much of the valley for water rights and control. In 1941 the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power extended the Los Angeles Aqueduct system further upriver into the Mono Basin. Inyo County is host to a number of natural superlatives. Among them are: Mount Whitney, with an elevation of 14,505 feet, is the highest point in the contiguous United States, the 12th highest peak in the U. S. and the 24th highest peak in North America.
Badwater Basin, in Death Valley, the lowest point in North America Methuselah, an ancient Bristlecone pine tree and one of the oldest living trees on Earth Owens Valley, the deepest valley on the American continents Two mountain ranges exceeding 14,000 feet in elevation: The Sierra Nevada and the White Mountains Thirteen of California's fifteen peaks which exceed 14,000 feet in elevation. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 10,227 square miles, of which 10,181 square miles is land and 46 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county by the ninth-largest in the United States. Death Valley National Park Inyo National Forest Manzanar National Historic SiteThere are 22 official wilderness areas in Inyo County that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; this is the second-largest number of any county, exceeded only by San Bernardino County's 35 wilderness areas. Most of these are managed by the Bureau of Land
Shoshone is a census designated place in Inyo County, United States. The population was 31 at the 2010 census, down from 52 at the 2000 census; the town was founded in 1910. Although small, it is notable as a southern gateway to Death Valley National Park; the commercial district of the town, including a Post Office, gas station, restaurant and coffee house, is just north of the southern intersection of California State Routes 127 and 178. Shoshone has a single 2,380 foot airstrip across SR 127 from the commercial district, it gets about 58 flights per month. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 28.7 square miles, over 99% of it land. It is 14 miles east of Epaulet Peak, at an elevation of 1585 feet. Shoshone is at the junction of California State Route 127 and California State Route 178. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Shoshone has a cold desert climates, abbreviated "BWk" on climate maps. Shoshone was founded in 1910 by a Death Valley businessman.
The town remains owned by his descendants. A post office operated at Shoshone from 1915, closed for part of 1920. Shoshone was a stop on the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad which shut down in 1940; the 2010 United States Census reported that Shoshone had a population of 31. The population density was 1.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Shoshone was 28 White, 1 African American, 1 Native American, 0 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 0 from other races, 1 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0 persons; the Census reported that 31 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 17 households, out of which 2 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 4 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2 had a female householder with no husband present, 0 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 4 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 0 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 6 households were made up of individuals and 4 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 1.82. There were 6 families; the population was spread out with 3 people under the age of 18, 0 people aged 18 to 24, 13 people aged 25 to 44, 10 people aged 45 to 64, 5 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.0 males. There were 31 housing units at an average density of 1.1 per square mile, of which 17 were occupied, of which 5 were owner-occupied, 12 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 16.7%. 9 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 22 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 52 people, 26 households, 17 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 1.8 people per square mile. There were 34 housing units at an average density of 1.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 88.46% White, 5.77% Native American, 5.77% from two or more races. 7.69% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 26 households out of which 15.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.8% were non-families. 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.22. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 11.5% under the age of 18, 21.2% from 25 to 44, 28.8% from 45 to 64, 38.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 56 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $66,250, the median income for a family was $61,750. Males had a median income of $31,406 versus $41,500 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $27,051. There were no families and 4.8% of the population living below the poverty line, including no one under 18 and no one over 64.
In the California State Legislature, Shoshone is in the 8th Senate District, represented by Republican Andreas Borgeas, the 26th Assembly District, represented by Republican Devon Mathis. In the United States House of Representatives, Shoshone is in California's 8th congressional district, represented by Republican Paul Cook. Shoshone Village Website Landing at Shoshone Airport The Shoshone Museum, Shoshone, CA Amargosa Conservancy, Shoshone, CA Death Valley Lodging
Deep Springs College
Deep Springs College is a small liberal arts two-year college in Deep Springs, United States. With fewer than 30 students at any given time, the college is the smallest institution of higher education in the United States. After completing two years at Deep Springs, students may elect to receive an associate degree, though this happens in practice. Most continue their studies at other universities, out of which two-thirds go on to earn a graduate degree, over half earn a doctorate. Deep Springs College is in Deep Springs Valley in Inyo County, near the larger Owens Valley and about 25 miles over mountain passes from the nearest town, Nevada, 45 miles from the nearest town of significant size, California. From its founding in 1917 under the name Deep Springs and Preparatory, the college has been all-male, until its board voted in fall 2011 that the college would begin accepting female students in the summer of 2013. After resolving several legal challenges, the Deep Springs board of trustees voted once again in 2017 to admit women, starting with the class that will enter in the summer of 2018.
Deep Springs is founded on three principles called the "three pillars": academics and self-governance. In addition to studies, students work a minimum of 20 hours a week either on the ranch and farm attached to the college or in positions related to the college and community. Position titles have included cook, butcher, cowboy, "office cowboy", feedman. Deep Springs maintains an alfalfa hay farming operation. Deep Springs Ranch's brand is an inverted capital T, known according to traditional branding terminology as the "Swinging T". Students pay only for incidental expenses such as textbooks. Tuition and board are not charged, a point noted as critical by the college's founder, L. L. Nunn, in his correspondence with the early student bodies; the lack of tuition is referred to as a full scholarship. According to Nunn, the labor program was not intended as a substitute or exchange for the scholarship or tuition, but rather as a fundamental part of the educational experience. Self-governance is a critical part of the Deep Springs educational program.
Students hold decision-making authority in determinations about admissions and faculty hiring. Every student serves on one of four standing committees during their time as a student: Applications, Communications or Review and Reinvitations; the Communications Committee was created in the early 1990s and charged with shaping the policies that define the college's relations with the world at large. The college supports three administrators, eight or nine professors, a staff of five. Professors may not hold tenure. Three long-term professorships can be held for up to six years, four short-term slots are filled for one or two terms of seven or fourteen weeks each. Deep Springs was founded in 1917 by L. L. Nunn, an industrialist who made his fortune building alternating current power plants in the western United States. Nunn's first installation, a hydroelectric plant, was built in Telluride and has been restored, another Nunn project at the Olmsted Power Station in Provo, was in operation from 1904 until 2015, is on the National Register for Historic Places.
The plants required well-trained engineers capable of living under rough conditions. After failing to find suitable men from eastern schools willing to travel west, Nunn began schooling local men and found his passion for education, he sold his industrial assets and put the money into two educational institutions. Nunn first founded the Telluride Association, an educational trust based at Cornell University, in 1911. Seeing his vision there undermined by its setting, he founded Deep Springs in 1917 and helped run it until his death in 1925. To manage the college, Nunn established a board of trustees to ensure the college's long-term viability and preserve the traditions that make it educationally effective. One seat on the board was reserved for a student, however when the board expanded from 7 to 13 seats, a second seat was given to the students; the two student trustees, elected by the Student Body, have full voting rights. The college was founded as an all-male college. In the fall of 2011, the college's trustees voted to begin accepting female students in the summer of 2013.
In 2012 legal challenges were lodged against the trustees' action, disputing their authority to change the admissions policy, including an injunction preventing the college from accepting female students and delaying coeducation until the 2018–2019 academic year at the earliest. On April 13, 2017, the California Court of Appeal, 4th District, decided the case of Hitz v. Hoekstra ruling that the college may admit women. On June 29, 2017, the California Supreme Court declined to hear an appeal of the California Court of Appeal decision, an action that should permit the admission of women once the college is able to complete planning procedures put on hold. Two months the Deep Springs board of trustees voted once again to admit women, starting with the class that will enter in the summer of 2018. Deep Springs College is alone in Deep Springs Valley, a geological depression between the White and Inyo mountain ranges; the nearest sizable town is an hour by car over a mountain pass. Deep Springs's physical isolation plays a central role in the educational experience.
The entire Deep Springs community numbers fewer than 50 individuals. The flip-side of the isolation policy is the notion of self-sufficiency and due care latent
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Alabama Hills, California
Alabama Hills is an unincorporated community in the Alabama Hills, in Inyo County, California. It lies at an elevation of 4534 feet; the community was named after the CSS Alabama
Death Valley Junction, California
Death Valley Junction is a tiny Mojave Desert unincorporated community in Inyo County, California, at the intersection of SR 190 and SR 127, in the Amargosa Valley and just east of Death Valley National Park. The zip code is 92328, the elevation is 2,041 ft, the population fewer than 4; the default format for wired phone numbers in this community is 852-xxxx. Death Valley Junction is home to the Amargosa Opera House and Hotel, where resident Marta Becket staged dance and mime shows from the late 1960s until her last show in February 2012. Becket died in 2017; the hotel is still operating next to the opera house, but beyond these maintained areas, the town is in a state of disrepair. There is no gas station, only one restaurant, the Amargosa Cafe; the town is owned by the non-profit Amargosa Opera House Inc. which runs the Opera House and cafe The community's location, 27 miles east-southeast of Furnace Creek Inn, on the east side of Death Valley is south of Nevada's Amargosa Valley and near Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge.
East/South East, 27 miles, is Nevada. South on SR127 is the town of California; the closest straight-line distance to the Nevada state line is five miles northeast. Government documents show an effort by the Timbisha Shoshone tribal government to acquire about 7,200 acres in the area during 1999 to 2000; this includes areas for residences and the official federal sanction to use some government lands for traditional ceremonies. In 2017 the tribe constructed a cannabis grow facility on the land; the town was created in 1907 when the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad was constructed through the Amargosa Valley and a spur from their main line was built to the Lila C. borax mine in the hills to the west. The town was owned by Robert Tubb, who operated a saloon and brothel; the town first appears on the 1910 Furnace Creek Quandrangle USGS topographic map. In 1914, the Death Valley Railroad started operating between Ryan and Death Valley Junction, it carried borax until 1928. From 1923 to 1925 the Pacific Coast Borax Company constructed buildings in the town, hiring architect Alexander Hamilton McCulloch to design a Spanish Colonial Revival whistle stop centered at the hotel and office complex building, now known as the Amargosa Opera House and Hotel.
The town began to decline in the mid-20th century. However, in 1967 dancer and actress Marta Becket happened to visit due to an automobile repair, she became enamored with the theater, with help from benefactors, she leased purchased, the hotel and theater complex. The Death Valley post office opened in 1908 and transferred to Furnace Creek Ranch in 1961; the Amargosa post office opened in 1962, changed its name to Death Valley Junction in 1968. In 1980 the town was included in the National Register of Historic Places as the "Death Valley Junction Historic District." When the Death Valley Railroad was established in 1914, it used 3.19 miles of tracks belonging to the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad east-southeast of Death Valley Junction to Horton. Local wired telephones were manual telephone service until the 1980s. To reach a phone in Death Valley Junction when the area was under manual service required dialing the operator and asking for "Death Valley Junction, Toll Station". Placing an outbound call required lifting the receiver and waiting for an operator.
The operator who answered was in Los Angeles. Death Valley Junction is now in area codes 442 and 760. In the state legislature, Death Valley Junction is in the 18th Senate District, represented by Democrat Robert Hertzberg, the 26th Assembly District, represented by Republican Devon Mathis. Federally, Death Valley Junction is in California's 8th congressional district, represented by Republican Paul Cook. "Shotgun" Kitty Tubb - wife of the original owner of the town, Robert Tubb Marta Becket - retired actress, dancer and painter Harry Rosenberg - engineer, instrumental in creating useful alloys of titanium The town that Zane Grey helped build The Amargosa Opera House and Hotel Ghost Towns of Death Valley: Death Valley Junction