Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from around 1927 to 1953 by Joseph Stalin. Stalinist policies and ideas as developed in the Soviet Union included rapid industrialization, the theory of socialism in one country, a totalitarian state, collectivization of agriculture, a cult of personality and subordination of the interests of foreign communist parties to those of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, deemed by Stalinism to be the leading vanguard party of communist revolution at the time. Stalinism promoted the escalation of class conflict, utilizing state violence to forcibly purge society of the bourgeoisie, whom Stalinist doctrine regarded as threats to the pursuit of the communist revolution; this policy resulted in persecution of such people. "Enemies" included not only bourgeois people, but working-class people with counter-revolutionary sympathies. Stalinist industrialization was designed to accelerate the development towards communism, stressing the need for such rapid industrialization on the grounds that the Soviet Union was economically backward in comparison with other countries and asserting that socialist society needed industry in order to face the challenges posed by internal and external enemies of communism.
Rapid industrialization was accompanied by mass collectivization of agriculture and by rapid urbanization. Rapid urbanization converted many small villages into industrial cities. To accelerate the development of industrialization, Stalin imported materials, ideas and workers from Western Europe and from the United States and pragmatically set up joint-venture contracts with major American private enterprises, such as the Ford Motor Company, which under state supervision assisted in developing the basis of the industry of the Soviet economy from the late 1920s to the 1930s. After the American private enterprises had completed their tasks, Soviet state enterprises took over; the term came into prominence during the mid-1930s when Lazar Kaganovich, a Soviet politician and associate of Stalin declared: "Let's replace Long Live Leninism with Long Live Stalinism!". Stalin met this usage with hesitancy, dismissing it as excessively praiseful and contributing to a cult of personality. Stalinism is used to describe the period during which Stalin was acting leader of the Soviet Union while serving as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party from 1922 to his death on 5th of March 1953.
While some historians view Stalinism as a reflection of the ideologies of Leninism and Marxism, some argue that it stands separate from the socialist ideals it stemmed from. After a political struggle that culminated in the defeat of the Bukharinists, Stalinism was free to shape policy without opposition, ushering forth an era of harsh authoritarianism that soldiered toward rapid industrialization regardless of the cost. From 1917 to 1924, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky and Stalin appeared united, but they had discernible ideological differences. In his dispute with Trotsky, Stalin de-emphasized the role of workers in advanced capitalist countries. Stalin polemicized against Trotsky on the role of peasants as in China whereas Trotsky's position was in favor of urban insurrection over peasant-based guerrilla warfare. Whilst all other October Revolution 1917 Bolshevik leaders regarded their revolution more or less just as the beginning, they saw Russia as the leapboard on the road towards the World Wide Revolution, Stalin introduced the idea of Socialism in One Country by the autumn of 1924.
This did not just stand in sharp contrast to Trotsky's "Permanent Revolution", but in contrast to all earlier Socialistic theses. But by time and through circumstances, the revolution did not spread outside Russia, as Lenin had assumed it soon would. Not within the other former territories of the Russian Empire such as Poland, Lithuania and Estonia had the revolution been a success. On the contrary, all these countries had returned to capitalist bourgeois rule, but still, by the autumn of 1924, Stalin's idea of socialism in Soviet Russia alone was next to blasphemy in the ears of the other Politburo members- Zinoviev and Kamenev to the intellectual left, Rykov and Tomsky to the pragmatic right and the powerful Trotsky, who belonged to no side but his own. None of them had thought of Stalin's concept as a potential addition to Communist ideology. Hence, Stalin's "Socialism in One Country" doctrine couldn't be imposed until he had become close to being the autocratic ruler of the U. S. S. R.. While traditional communist thought holds that the state will "wither away" as the implementation of socialism reduces class distinction, Stalin argued that the proletarian state must become stronger before it can wither away.
In Stalin's view, counter-revolutionary elements will try to derail the transition to full communism, the state must be powerful enough to defeat them. For this reason, Communist regimes influenced by Stalin have been described as totalitarian. Sheng Shicai collaborated with the Soviets, allowing Stalinist rule to be extended to the Xinjiang province in the 1930s. In 1937, Sheng conducted a purge similar to the Great Purge. Stalin blamed the kulaks as the inciters of reactionary violence against the people during the implementation of agricultural collectivisation. In response, the state under Stalin's leadership initiated a violent
Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov was a Soviet lawyer and head of the KGB, member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Working in the Soviet justice system as a prosecutor's assistant, Kryuchkov graduated from the Diplomatic Academy of the Soviet Foreign Ministry and became a diplomat. During his years in the foreign service, he met Yuri Andropov. From 1974 until 1988, Kryuchkov headed the foreign intelligence branch of the KGB, the First Chief Directorate. During these years the Directorate was involved in funding and supporting various communist and anti-colonial movements across the world, some of which came to power in their countries and established pro-Soviet governments. At the same time, during Kryuchkov's tenure, the Directorate became plagued with defectors, had major responsibility for encouraging the Soviet government to invade Afghanistan and its ability to influence Western European communist parties diminished further. From 1988 until 1991, Kryuchkov served as the 7th Chairman of the KGB.
He was the leader of its governing committee. Kryuchkov was born in February 1924 to a working-class family, his parents were strong supporters of Joseph Stalin. He became a full-time employee of the Communist Youth League. After earning a law degree, Kryuchkov embarked on a career in the Soviet justice system, working as an investigator for the prosecutor's office in his home city of Stalingrad. Kryuchkov joined the Soviet diplomatic service, stationed in Hungary until 1959, he worked for the Communist Party Central Committee for eight years, before joining the KGB in 1967 together with his patron Yuri Andropov. He was appointed head of the First Chief Directorate in the summer of 1971 and Deputy Chairman in 1978. In 1988, he became KGB Chairman. In 1989–1990, he was a member of the Politburo. A political hard-liner, Kryuchkov was among the members of the Soviet intelligence community who misinterpreted the 1983 NATO exercise Able Archer as a prelude to a nuclear attack. Many historians, such as Robert Cowley and John Lewis Gaddis, believe the Able Archer incident was the closest the world has come to nuclear war since the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.
According to Sergei Tretyakov, Kryuchkov secretly sent US$50 billion worth of funds of the Communist Party to an unknown location in the lead up to the collapse of the Soviet Union. During the August Coup of 1991, Kryuchkov was the initiator of creation of the State Committee on the State of Emergency which arrested President Mikhail Gorbachev. After the defeat of the Committee, Kryuchkov was imprisoned for his participation. However, in 1994, the State Duma freed him in an amnesty. Kryuchkov was replaced as chairman of the KGB by Leonid Shebarshin. Kryuchkov died at the age of 83 on 23 November 2007, his body was buried at the Troyekurovskoye Cemetery in Moscow. Bibliography Крючков Владимир Александрович, « Личное дело », Москва, Олимп, 1996, 872 стр
Chronology of Soviet secret police agencies
There was a succession of Soviet secret police agencies over time. The first secret police after the October Revolution, created by Vladimir Lenin's decree on December 20, 1917, was called "Cheka". Officers were referred to as "chekists", a name, still informally applied to people under the Federal Security Service of Russia, the KGB's successor in Russia after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. For most agencies listed here secret policing operations were only part of their function. Cheka Felix Dzerzhinsky Yakov Peters Felix Dzerzhinsky February 6, 1922: Cheka transforms into GPU, a department of the NKVD of the Russian SFSR. NKVD – "People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs" GPU – State Political Directorate Dzerzhinsky November 15, 1923: GPU leaves the NKVD and becomes all-union OGPU under direct control of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. OGPU – "Joint State Political Directorate" or "All-Union State Political Board" Dzerzhinsky Vyacheslav Menzhinsky July 10, 1934: NKVD of the Russian SFSR ceases to exist and transforms into the all-union NKVD of the USSR.
NKVD – "People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs" GUGB – "Main Directorate for State Security" Genrikh Yagoda Nikolai Yezhov Lavrentiy Beria February 3, 1941: The GUGB of the NKVD was separated out into the NKGB merged back in, on April 14, 1943 separated out again. NKGB – "People's Commissariat for State Security" Vsevolod Merkulov NKVD – "People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs" GUGB – "Main Directorate for State Security" Lavrentiy Beria NKGB – "People's Commissariat for State Security" Vsevolod Merkulov March 18, 1946: All People's Commissariats were renamed to Ministries. MGB – "Ministry of State Security" Viktor Abakumov Semyon Ignatyev The East German secret police, the Stasi, took their name from this iteration. KI – "Committee of Information" Peter Fedotov MGB Fedor Kuznetsov GRU Yakov Malik Foreign MinistryMay 30, 1947: Official decision with the expressed purpose of "upgrading coordination of different intelligence services and concentrating their efforts on major directions".
In the summer of 1948 the military personnel in KI were returned to the Soviet military to reconstitute foreign military intelligence service. KI sections dealing with the new East Bloc and Soviet émigrés were returned to the MGB in late 1948. In 1951 the KI returned to the MGB. March 5, 1953: MVD and MGB are merged into the MVD by Lavrentiy Beria. MVD – "Ministry of Internal Affairs" Lavrentiy Beria Sergei Kruglov March 13, 1954: Newly independent force became the KGB, as Beria was purged and the MVD divested itself again of the functions of secret policing. After renamings and tumults, the KGB remained stable until 1991. KGB – Committee for State Security Ivan Serov Alexander Shelepin Vladimir Semichastny Yuri Andropov Vitaly Fedorchuk Viktor Chebrikov Vladimir Kryuchkov Leonid Shebarshin Vadim Bakatin In 1991, after the State Emergency Committee failed to overthrow Gorbachev and Yeltsin took over, General Vadim Bakatin was given instructions to dissolve the KGB. In Russia today, KGB functions are performed by the Foreign Intelligence Service, the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, the Federal Protective Service.
The GRU continues to operate as well. Commanders of the border troops USSR and RF List of Chairmen of the KGB Poison laboratory of the Soviet secret services FAPSI – State communications, formed from the former 8th and 16th Directorates of KGB and merged into FSB Okhrana, secret police of Imperial Russia Special Corps of Gendarmes Third Section of His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancellery The Cold War International History Project has the full text of former KGB agent Alexander Vassiliev's Notebooks with evidence of Soviet espionage in the United States during the Cold War Communist Secret Police: Cheka http://spartacus-educational.com/RUScheka.htm
An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security and foreign policy objectives. Means of information gathering are both overt and covert and may include espionage, communication interception, cooperation with other institutions, evaluation of public sources; the assembly and propagation of this information is known as intelligence analysis or intelligence assessment. Intelligence agencies can provide the following services for their national governments. Give early warning of impending crises. There is a distinction between "security intelligence" and "foreign intelligence". Security intelligence pertains to domestic threats. Foreign intelligence involves information collection relating to the political, or economic activities of foreign states; some agencies have been involved in assassination, arms trafficking, coups d'état, the placement of misinformation as well as other covert operations, in order to support their own or their governments' interests.
List of intelligence agencies List of defunct intelligence agencies List of intelligence gathering disciplines Security agency Secret police Secret service Books Encyclopedia of Espionage and Security, hrg. von K. Lee Lerner und Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, 3 Bände, Detroit: Gale, 2004 Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones and Dollar: A History of American Secret Intelligence, Yale University Press, 2002 Richard C. S. Trahair, Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage and Secret Operations, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004 Amy B. Zegart, Flawed by Design: The Evolution of the CIA, JCS, NSC, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Press, 1999 Цибулькін В. В. Рожен Л. М. Вєдєнєєв Д. В. та ін. Нариси з історії розвідки суб'єктів державотворення на теренах України / Заг. ред. П. Д. Морозов. — К.: «Преса України», 2011. — 536 с. іл. Journals The Journal of Intelligence HistoryReports Ruiz, Victor H. 2010. "A Knowledge Taxonomy for Army Intelligence Training: An Assessment of the Military Intelligence Basic Officer Leaders Course Using Lundvall's Knowledge Taxonomy".
Applied Research Projects. Texas State University Paper 331. Txstate.edu Outsourcing Intelligence Proposal for a Privacy Protection Guideline on Secret Personal Data Gathering and Transborder Flows of Such Data in the Fight against Terrorism and Serious Crime by Marcel Stuessi The Literature of Intelligence: A Bibliography of Materials, with Essays and Comments International Intelligence History Association
Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov was a Soviet politician and the fourth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Following the 18-year rule of Leonid Brezhnev, Andropov served in the post from November 1982 until his death in February 1984. Earlier in his career, Andropov served as the Soviet ambassador to Hungary from 1954 to 1957, during which time he was involved in the suppression of the 1956 Hungarian Uprising. Under the leadership of Leonid Brezhnev, he was named Chairman of the KGB on May 10, 1967. In this position, he oversaw a massive crackdown on dissent, carried out via mass arrests and the wholesale application of involuntary psychiatric commitments of people deemed "socially undesirable"; as Brezhnev's health declined during the latter years of his leadership, Andropov formed a troika alongside Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko and Defense Minister Dmitry Ustinov that came to dominate Soviet policymaking. Upon Brezhnev's death on November 12, 1982, Yuri Andropov succeeded him as General Secretary and leader of the Soviet Union.
During his tenure, Andropov sought to eliminate corruption and inefficiency within the Soviet system by investigating longtime officials for violations of party discipline and criminalizing truancy in the workplace. However, upon suffering total renal failure in February 1983, Andropov's health began to deteriorate rapidly. On February 9, 1984, he died after leading the country for only 15 months. There has been much contention over his family background. According to the official biography, Andropov was born in stanitsa Nagutskaya on 15 June 1914, his father Vladimir Konstantinovich Andropov was a railway worker of Don Cossack descent who died from typhus in 1919. His mother Yevgenia Karlovna Fleckenstein was a school teacher who died in 1931, she was born in the Ryazan Governorate into a family of town dwellers and was abandoned on the doorstep of a Finnish citizen, a Jewish watchmaker Karl Franzevich Fleckenstein who lived in Moscow. Researches has shown that many details about Andropov's biography were falsified during his lifetime which has contributed to the confusion connected to his family history.
His earliest documented name was Grigory Vladimirovich Andropov-Fyodorov. While his original birth certificate disappeared, it was established that Andropov was in fact born in Moscow where his mother had been working in a women's gymnasium since 1913 throughout 1914 and until 1917. To make things more complicated, he named different dates of her death at various occasions: 1927, 1929, 1930 and 1931; the story of her adoption was highly a mystification. In 1937 Andropov went through a check when applied for the Communist Party membership, it turned out that "the sister of his native maternal grandmother", living with him and who supported the legend of his Ryazan peasant origins was in fact his nurse, serving at Fleckensteins long before he was born, it was reported that his mother belonged to merchantry. In fact Karl Fleckenstein was a rich jewel merchant, owner of a jewellery store, so was his wife who took over her husband's business after his accidental death in 1915; the whole family could've turned into lishentsy stripped of basic rights if she hadn't abandoned the store after another pogrom in 1917, invented herself a proletarian background and left Moscow for the Stavropol Governorate along with Andropov's mother.
He gave different versions of his father's fate: in one case he divorced his mother soon after his birth, in another — died of illness. The "father" he referred to — Vladimir Andropov — was in fact his stepfather who lived and worked at Nagutskaya and died from typhus in 1919; the Fyodorov surname belonged to his second stepfather Viktor Fyodorov, a machinist assistant turned a school teacher. His real father remains unknown. During the 1937 check it was reported that his father served as an officer in the Imperial Russian Army. Andropov was interviewed four times, yet he was so convincing that he managed to have dropped all charges, he joined the Communist Party in 1939. Andropov was educated at the Rybinsk Water Transport Technical College and graduated in 1936; as a teenager he worked as a loader, a telegraph clerk, a sailor for the Volga steamship line. At 16, Yuri Andropov a member of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League, was a worker in the town of Mozdok in the North Ossetian ASSR.
He became full-time Secretary of the YCL organization of the Water Transport Technical School in Rybinsk in the Yaroslavl Region and was soon promoted to the post of organizer of the YCL Central Committee at the Volodarsky Shipyards in Rybinsk. In 1938, he was elected First Secretary of the Yaroslavl Regional Committee of the YCL, was First Secretary of the Central Committee of Komsomol in the Soviet Karelo-Finnish Republic from 1940 to 1944. According to the official biography, during World War II Andropov took part in partisan guerrilla activities in Finland, although modern researchers didn't manage to find any traces of his supposed partisan squad. From 1944 onwards, he left Komsomol for Communist Party work. Between 1946 and 1951, he studied at the university of Petrozavo
The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, elements of Enlightenment thinking culminated in the American and Haitian revolutions; this was an age of violent slave trading, global human trafficking. The reactions against monarchical and aristocratic power helped fuel the revolutionary responses against it throughout the century. In continental Europe, philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. For some, this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789, though compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power and formed broad coalitions for the counter-revolution; the Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. As a consequence the empire did not share in Europe's military improvements during the Seven Years' War, causing its military to fall behind and suffer defeats against Russia in the second half of the century.
18th century music included the classical period. The 18th century marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state; the once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Its semi-democratic government system was not robust enough to rival the neighboring monarchies of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the Austrian Empire which divided the Commonwealth territories between themselves, changing the landscape of Central European politics for the next hundred years. European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued. Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the French and Indian War in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution and Indian wars. Napoleon Bonaparte, formed the Franco-Indian alliance with Indian ruler Tipu Sultan and his father emperor Hyder Ali and learnt more about Quran and Islam from them.
Tipu Sultan embarked on an ambitious economic development program that established Mysore Empire as a major economic power, with some of the world's highest real wages and living standards in the late 18th century. Under his reign, Mysore overtook the wealthy Bengal Subah as India's dominant economic power, with productive agriculture and textile manufacturing. Mysore's average income was five times higher than subsistence level at the time. Along his father, he used their French-trained army in alliance and won important victories against the British Empire in the Second Anglo-Mysore War and negotiated the Treaty of Mangalore in 1784; the defeat of the British resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the improved steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society and the environment. Western historians have defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work.
For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 1715–1789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution, with an emphasis on directly interconnected events. To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th century may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 or later. 1700–1721: Great Northern War between the Russian and Swedish Empires. 1701: Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I. 1701–1714: The War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving most of continental Europe. 1702–1715: Camisard Rebellion in France. 1703: Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great. 1703–1711: The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy. 1704: End of Japan's Genroku period. 1704: First Javanese War of Succession. 1706–1713: The War of the Spanish Succession: French troops defeated at the battles of Ramillies and Turin. 1707: The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments, thus establishing the Kingdom of Great Britain.
1708: The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies and English Company Trading to the East Indies merge to form the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies. 1708–1709: Famine kills one-third of East Prussia's population. 1709: The Great Frost of 1709 marks the coldest winter in 500 years. 1710: The world's first copyright legislation, Britain's Statute of Anne, takes effect. 1710–1711: Ottoman Empire fights Russia in the Russo-Turkish War. 1711–1715: Tuscarora War between British and German settlers and the Tuscarora people of North Carolina. 1715: The first Jacobite rising breaks out. 1716: Establishment of the Sikh Confederacy along the present-day India-Pakistan border. 1718: The city of New Orleans is founded by the French in North America. 1718–1730: Tulip period of the Ottoman Empire. 1719: Second Javanese War of Succession. 1720: The South Sea Bubble. 1720–1721: The Great Plague of Marseille. 1721: The Treaty of Nystad is signed, ending the Great Northern War.
1722–1723: Russo-Persian War. 1722–1725: Controversy over William Wood's halfpence leads to the Drapier's Letters and
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately