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Deepwater National Park

Deepwater is a coastal national park in Queensland, Australia, 375 km north of Brisbane. It protects coastal heaths in the Deepwater Creek catchment; the area is one of the few remaining pristine freshwater catchments on Queensland's east coast. Deepwater National Park covers 4,090 ha; the north of the park is dominated by a 70 m high sand dune, covered in vegetation. There are some scattered rocky outcrops of volcanic origin including a number of rocky headlands along the park's 9 km of beach frontage. Vegetation in the park is varied between the landward side of the high dune. To the east are typical beach plants, on the exposed higher areas the plants appear wind-sheared and to the west in more protected area taller vegetation has formed up to three canopy levels of forest and woodlands. Beaches in the park are used for nesting by leatherback turtles. Flatback and green turtles nest on the park's beaches; this location is the only mainland site where leatherbacks return to lay eggs. Rose-crowned fruit doves, fairy gerygones and grey fantails are found in the canopies to the west.

Along the beaches pied oystercatcher, bar-tailed godwits and crested terns are seen. Emus and brahminy kites can be found in the park. Queensland's largest cockroach Macro-panesthia sp. is found in the park. Camping facilities, pit toilets and picnic tables are located at Wreck Rock, 5.5 km north of the park's southern boundary. A second camp site is located further north at Middle Rock, however there are no facilities here. Picnic facilities for day visitors is provided at Flat Rock. No domestic animals or open fires are permitted in the park; the park is accessible from the south through Wartburg. Conventional vehicle access possible in the dry season only. Alternative access is possible from the north through Agnes Water. A 4WD vehicle is recommended for this route due to the slope. Protected areas of Queensland

David Carnegie, 4th Earl of Northesk

David Carnegie, 4th Earl of Northesk was a Scottish peer and politician. He was born the son of 3rd Earl of Northesk and Elizabeth Lindsay, he was invested as a Privy Councillor of Scotland in 1698 and held the office of Sheriff of Forfar in 1702. He held the office of Lord Commissioner of Treasury for Scotland from 1705 until 1708, he served as a representative peer between 1708 and 1715 and was Commissioner of Trade and Manufacturers in 1711. He married Lady Margaret Wemyss, daughter of James Wemyss, Lord Burntisland and Margaret Wemyss, 3rd Countess of Wemyss, on 29 January 1697 and had five children: Elizabeth Carnegie David Carnegie, 5th Earl of Northesk Margaret Carnegie Admiral George Carnegie, 6th Earl of Northesk Anne Carnegie

Bilingual vase painting

Bilingual vase painting is a special form of ancient Greek vase painting. The term, derived from linguistics, is a metaphorical one, it describes the transitional period when black-figure was being replaced in dominance by red-figure the last quarter of the 6th and the beginning of the 5th century BC. Their appearance may be due to the initial uncertainty of the market for the new red-figure style, although that style subsequently became dominant rather fast. Bilingual vase painting was entirely restricted to belly amphorae of type B and to eye-cups. In some cases, either side of an amphora bore a depiction of the same motif, one in black-figure, the other in red-figure. Eye-cups feature a black-figure image on the interior, red-figure motifs on the external surface. An exception to this is a kylix by the Andokides Painter in Palermo, on which the exterior is painted half in black-figure and half in red-figure. Apart from the Andokides Painter, bilingual works were produced by Psiax, as well as by Epiktetos and Oltos.

Both paintings on one vase are produced by the same artist. In some cases, this is controversial; this applies to the Andokides Painter, whose black-figure work is ascribed by some scholars to the Lysippides Painter, who, in turn, is sometimes seen as identical with the Andokides Painter. Irma Wehgartner: Bilingue Vasen, in Der Neue Pauly Vol. 2, Col. 677 Andocides painter 530 BC. Black figure side of "Bilingual" vase: Athena and Herakles. Lysippides painter 530 BC. Black figure side of "Bilingual" vase: Herakles & sacrificial bull


A gorget, from the French gorge meaning throat, was a band of linen wrapped around a woman's neck and head in the medieval period or the lower part of a simple chaperon hood. The term described a steel or leather collar to protect the throat, a set of pieces of plate armour, or a single piece of plate armour hanging from the neck and covering the throat and chest. From the 18th century, the gorget became ornamental, serving as a symbolic accessory on military uniforms, a use which has survived in some armies; the term may be used for other things such as items of jewellery worn around the throat region in several societies, for example wide thin gold collars found in prehistoric Ireland dating to the Bronze Age. In the High Middle Ages, when mail was the primary form of metal body armour used in Western Europe, the mail coif protected the neck and lower face; as more plate armour appeared to supplement mail during the 14th century, the bascinet helmet incorporated a mail curtain called the aventail which protected the lower face and shoulders.

A separate mail collar called a "pisan" or "standard" was sometimes worn under the aventail as additional protection. Towards the end of the 14th century, threats including the increased penetrating power of the lance when paired with a lance rest on the breastplate made more rigid forms of neck protection desirable. One solution was a standing collar plate separate from the helmet that could be worn over the aventail, with enough space between the collar and helmet that a man-at-arms could turn his head inside it. In the early 15th century, such collar plates were integrated into the helmet itself to form the great bascinet. Other forms of helmet such as the sallet which did not protect the lower face and throat with plate were paired with a separate bevor, the armet was fitted with a wrapper that included gorget lames protecting the throat; the mail standard was still worn under such bevors and wrappers, since the plates did not cover the back or sides of the neck. At the beginning of the 16th century, the gorget reached its full development as a component of plate armour.

Unlike previous gorget plates and bevors which sat over the cuirass and required a separate mail collar to protect the neck, the developed gorget was worn under the cuirass and was intended to cover a larger area of the neck, nape and upper chest, from which the edges of the backplate and breastplate had receded. The gorget served as an anchor point for the pauldrons, which either had holes in them to engage pins projecting from the gorget, or straps which could be buckled to the gorget; the neck was protected by a high collar of articulated lames, the entire gorget was divided into front and back pieces which were hinged at the side so that the gorget could be put on and taken off. Some helmets had additional neck lames which overlapped the gorget, while others formed a tight seal with the rim of the gorget to eliminate any gaps. By the 17th century there appeared a form of gorget with a low, unarticulated collar and larger front and back plates which covered more of the upper chest and back.

These were not worn with a breastplate as part of a full harness, but instead were worn over civilian clothing or a buff coat. Some gorgets of this period were "parade" pieces that were beautifully etched, engraved, embossed or enameled at great expense; the gorget grew smaller and more symbolic, becoming a single crescent shape worn on a chain which suspended the gorget lower on the chest, so that the gorget no longer protected the throat in normal wear. The Japanese form of the gorget, called a nodowa, was either fastened by itself around the neck or came as an integral part of the face defence or men yoroi, it consisted of several lames made of lacquered leather or iron, each of which either consisted of one piece or of scales laced together in horizontal rows. The lames were articulated vertically, overlapping bottom to top, by another set of silk laces; as early as 1688, regulations provided for the wearing of gorgets by Swedish army officers. For those of captain's rank the gorget was gilt with the king's monogram under a crown in blue enamel, while more junior officers wore silver-plated gorgets with the initials in gold.

During the 18th and early 19th centuries, crescent-shaped gorgets of silver or silver gilt were worn by officers in most European armies, as a badge of rank and an indication that they were on duty. These last survivals of armour were much smaller than their Medieval predecessors and were suspended by chains or ribbons. In the British service they carried the Royal coat of arms until 1796 and thereafter the Royal Cypher. Gorgets ceased to be worn by British army officers in 1830 and by their French counterparts 20 years later, they were still worn to a limited extent in the Imperial German Army until 1914, as a special distinction by officers of the Prussian Gardes du Corps and the 2nd Cuirassiers "Queen". Officers of the Spanish infantry continued to wear gorgets with the cypher of King Alfonso XIII in full dress, until the overthrow of the Monarchy in 1931. Mexican Federal army officers wore the gorget with the badge of their branch as part of their parade uniform until 1947; the gorget was revived as a uniform accessory in Nazi Germany, seeing widespread use within the German military and Nazi party organisations.

During World War II, it continued to be used by Feldgendarmerie, who wore metal gorgets as emblems of authority. German police gorgets of this period were flat metal crescents with ornamental designs that were suspended by a chain worn around the neck; the Prussian-influenced Chilean army uses the German style metal gorget in parades and in the

Tochinoshin Tsuyoshi

Tochinoshin Tsuyoshi is a professional sumo wrestler from Mtskheta, Georgia. He is a member of the Kasugano stable and made his professional debut in March 2006, he reached the top makuuchi division just two years in May 2008. After a long hiatus due to injury, he began his comeback from the rank of makushita 55 in March 2014, logging four championships in a row in lower divisions on his way back to the top division in November 2014, he has eleven special prizes, six for Fighting Spirit, three for Technique, two for Outstanding Performance, as well as two kinboshi or gold stars for defeating yokozuna. In January 2018 he took his first top-division yūshō. In May 2018, after finishing as runner-up with a 13–2 record and a total of 37 wins in his last three tournaments, he was promoted to ōzeki, he was demoted to sekiwake after posting losing records in the first two tournaments of 2019, but returned to ōzeki after winning ten matches at the May 2019 basho. As a teenager Gorgadze practised sambo.

He competed in amateur sumo at the World Junior Championships in 2004, held in Osaka, Japan and at the World Championships in 2005. He trained at the prestigious Nichidai sumo club at Nihon University and it was a member of that club who encouraged him to turn professional. In his early days in Japan he suffered from homesickness and had to deal with his grandmother being killed and his father injured in an accident. Having no knowledge of the Japanese language, he was helped by the wife of his stablemaster who contacted an interpreter from the Georgian embassy, as well as by fellow Georgian Gagamaru from the nearby Kise stable, by a junior member of his own stable, who taught him traditional Japanese greetings. At the beginning of 2006 he was recruited by the former sekiwake Tochinowaka of Kasugano stable; the stable had not had a foreigner since the Taiwanese wrestler Tochinohana retired in 1988, but agreed to take on Gorgadze just as his tourist visa was about to expire. After eleven straight kachi-koshi or winning scores he gained sekitori status in January 2008 upon promotion to the jūryō division and took the yūshō or championship in that division with a 12–3 record.

He took his first make-koshi or losing score in his top division debut in May 2008, but still won enough bouts to remain in the division. He reached maegashira 4 in November 2008, but facing the highest ranking men for the first time he could only record three wins against twelve losses. However, in July 2009 he produced a good score of 9–6 at maegashira 5, was promoted to the rank of maegashira 1 in the September tournament, he could manage only four wins there, finishing runner-up to Hakuhō at 12–3 and winning his first special prize, Fighting Spirit. However, his defeat to Hokutōriki on the final day cost him a chance of making his debut in the titled san'yaku ranks in January 2010. In the May 2010 tournament he defeated four ōzeki in a row from Days 2 to 5 and won his second Fighting Spirit prize, he was rewarded with promotion to komusubi for the first time in the July 2010 tournament. He returned to komusubi in November. In May 2011 he equalled his best top division performance, once again finishing runner-up to Hakuho on 12–3 and winning another Fighting Spirit prize.

This saw him return to the komusubi rank for the July 2011 tournament. His poor performance in November, scoring only 2–13, could be attributed to the fact that he was banned from training before the tournament by his stablemaster as punishment for breaking heya rules on curfew and wearing Western style clothes in public. Tochinoshin was one of three wrestlers at the stable who were beaten with a golf club during this incident, for which his stablemaster was given a warning by the Japan Sumo Association, he made komusubi for the fourth time in September 2012. Tochinoshin suffered an anterior cruciate ligament injury in the July 2013 tournament, resulting in him missing the next three tournaments and falling from the maegashira ranks to the unsalaried makushita division. In March 2014, fighting from makushita 55, he bounced back with a 7–0 perfect championship, he followed this in the next tournament in May with a consecutive 7–0 championship in at makushita 6, thereby guaranteeing his re-promotion to the salaried ranks of jūryō.

He continued his comeback in fine style by winning two consecutive jūryō championships, the first after a playoff win over Ichinojō and the second with a perfect 15–0 score. Returning to the top division in November 2014, he scored 11–4 and picked up his fourth Fighting Spirit Award. In 2015 he won six times in January but in March his eight victories included a win over the yokozuna Harumafuji, earning him his first kinboshi. Winning records in May and July at maegashira 1 saw him promoted to komusubi for the September tournament for the first time in three years. Having fought his way back to san'yaku from makushita 55, Tochinoshin is in first place for the lowest rank fallen before a successful return to the komusubi rank since World War II. In September 2015 he maintained his rank with a 10–5 record and received his fifth Fighting Spirit prize, he scored only 7–8 in the following November tournament but managed to stay at komusubi, although he fell to the maegashira ranks after a 6–9 in January.

In the May 2016 tournament he received his first Technique Prize, earned promotion to the third highest rank of sekiwake for the first time in the following July tournament. Losing records in July and September saw him dr

Ephraim Engleman

Ephraim Engleman was an American rheumatologist and a Clinical Professor of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco. He had a major national and international impact on rheumatology during more than six decades, wrote more than one hundred scientific and medical papers. Engleman received his B. S. from Stanford University in 1933 and his M. D. from Columbia University in 1937. He saw military service as a major during World War II, serving as chief of the U. S. Army’s Rheumatic Fever Center at Torney General Hospital. In 1942, he was one of two authors of the first English language medical article describing the triad of uveitis and arthritis and coined the eponym Reiter's syndrome after Dr. Hans Conrad Julius Reiter. In 1947, he joined the clinical faculty at UCSF and spent the remaining 68 years of his professional medical career there, with a national and international impact on the field of rheumatology. From 1962-1963, Engleman was president of the American Rheumatism Association, now the American College of Rheumatology.

In the latter position, he made several trips to mainland China and was influential in the creation of the Chinese Rheumatology Association. He served as Chairman of the World Health Organization’s task force on arthritis and on several committees of the Natural Institutes of Health. From 1975 to 1976, Engleman chaired the National Commission on Arthritis, a congressional mandated task force charged with recommending remedies for the inadequate status of arthritis research and patient care in the United States; the National Arthritis Plan, which summarized the commission’s recommendations, most of which were implemented, included the creation of what is now the National Institute of Arthritis and Skin Diseases, tripling of the ongoing federal budget for arthritis research. It called attention to the surprising number of medical schools with no curriculum in rheumatology – a situation that changed after the plan’s publication. In 1979, Engleman became Founding Director of the Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center for Arthritis at UCSF.

Its name has since changed. Engleman served as the Director of the Rosalind Russell/Ephraim P. Engleman Rheumatology Research Center at UCSF until his death in 2015; some of Engelman’s additional honors are recipient of the Medal of Honor at UCSF in 2002, “the most prestigious award given by UCSF”. In 2007, while still practicing rheumatology and after Reiter's Nazi past became more known, Engleman went on record as calling for a replacement of the eponymous term for the disease with the name "reactive arthritis."Engleman wrote a book of memoirs, My Century. Active until his death, he was the longest-tenured professor of UCSF as of December 30, 2013. In January 2013, he was believed to be the lone surviving member of Stanford University's Class of 1933. Engleman died at the age of 104 on September 2, 2015 while at work as director of the Rosalind Russell/Ephraim P. Engleman Rheumatology Research Center at UCSF, renamed in his honor the previous year. Engleman was survived by his two sons, daughter Jill Roost, six grandchildren and two great-grandchildren.

The Arthritis Book: A Guide for Patients and Their Families. Painter Hopkins Publishers, 1979. ISBN 0-525-05850-8. My Century. Matthew Krieger, 2013. ISBN 0-615-82607-5