At the heart of his research was the legacy of the Classical World, and the transmission of classical representation, in the most varied areas of western culture through to the Renaissance. Warburg described himself as, Amburghese di cuore, ebreo di sangue and his ancestors had come to Germany from Italy in the 17th century and settled in the town of Warburg in Westphalia, taking on the town’s name as their family name. In the 18th century the Warburgs moved to Altona near Hamburg, two brothers Warburg founded the banking firm M. M. Warburg & Co in Hamburg, which today again has an office there. Aby Warburg was the first of seven born to Moritz Warburg, director of the Hamburg bank. Aby Warburg showed an early interest in literature and history and the second eldest son, Max Warburg went into the Hamburg bank, younger brothers Paul, Max Warburg established the Warburg family bank as a global player. Warburg grew up in a conservative Jewish home environment, early on he demonstrated an unstable and volatile temperament.
Warburg as a child reacted against the rituals which were punctiliously observed in his family. He did not want to be a rabbi, as his grandmother wished, against the resistance he met with from his relatives, he forced through his plans to study art history. He continued his studies in Munich and with Hubert Janitschek in Strasbourg, completing under him his dissertation on Botticelli’s paintings The Birth of Venus, from 1888 to 1889 he studied the sources of these pictures at the Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florence. He was now interested in applying the methods of science to the human sciences. The dissertation was completed in 1892 and printed in 1893, warburg’s study introduced into art history a new method, that of iconography or iconology, developed by Erwin Panofsky. After receiving his doctorate Warburg studied for two semesters at the Medical Faculty of the University of Berlin, where he attended lectures on psychology, during this period he undertook a further trip to Florence. Paul Warburg married Nina Loeb, daughter of Solomon Loeb in New York late in 1895 and his long American journey took him to Colorado in winter, to New Mexico and to Pasadena and Mount Lowe.
He met the San Francisco boheme Les Jeunes around Gelett Burgess and went back to the Pueblos in spring, to the Hopi, before going west, he had met veteran anthropologists James Mooney and Frank Hamilton Cushing at the Smithsonian Institution. Cushing had lived for years with the Zuni in New Mexico, first stop in the west was Mesa Verde to see the Anasazi cliff dwellings. Then he went from Pueblo town to Spanish town, to Cochiti and the Palace Hotel in Santa Fe, to Albuquerque and Acoma and San Ildefonso, in Cochiti Warburg spoke to a priest and his son and received a cosmological drawing with a snake at its center. Warburg was fascinated with their still secluded culture, their architecture, their masks, mennonite missionary Heinrich R. Voth shared his knowledge of Hopi religion. Voth and Warburg saw a Hemis Kachina dance complete with obscene clowning, thanks to Voth he could observe the preparations for this end-of-winter ceremony
A creation myth is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it. While in popular usage the term often refers to false or fanciful stories, formally. Cultures generally regard their creation myths as true, in the society in which it is told, a creation myth is usually regarded as conveying profound truths, metaphorically and sometimes in a historical or literal sense. They are commonly, although not always, considered cosmogonical myths – that is, Creation myths often share a number of features. They often are considered sacred accounts and can be found in all known religious traditions. They are all stories with a plot and characters who are either deities, human-like figures, or animals and they are often set in a dim and nonspecific past that historian of religion Mircea Eliade termed in illo tempore. Creation myths develop in oral traditions and therefore typically have multiple versions, found throughout human culture, Creation myth definitions from modern references, A symbolic narrative of the beginning of the world as understood in a particular tradition and community.
Creation myths are of importance for the valuation of the world, for the orientation of humans in the universe. Creation myths tell us how things began, all cultures have creation myths, they are our primary myths, the first stage in what might be called the psychic life of the species. As cultures, we identify ourselves through the collective dreams we call creation myths, … Creation myths explain in metaphorical terms our sense of who we are in the context of the world, and in so doing they reveal our real priorities, as well as our real prejudices. Our images of creation say a deal about who we are. A philosophical and theological elaboration of the myth of creation within a religious community. Religion professor Mircea Eliade defined the word myth in terms of creation, Myth narrates a history, it relates an event that took place in primordial Time. All creation myths are in one sense etiological because they attempt to explain how the world was formed, in the past historians of religion and other students of myth thought of them as forms of primitive or early-stage science or religion and analyzed them in a literal or logical sense.
However they are seen as symbolic narratives which must be understood in terms of their own cultural context. Charles Long writes, The beings referred to in the myth – gods, the myths should not be understood as attempts to work out a rational explanation of deity. While creation myths are not literal explications they do serve to define an orientation of humanity in the world in terms of a birth story. They are the basis of a worldview that reaffirms and guides how people relate to the world, to any assumed spiritual world
Province of Lecce
The Province of Lecce is a province in the Apulia region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Lecce which is known as the Florence of the South, the province itself is called the Heel of Italy. Totally included in the Salento peninsula, it is the second most populous province in Apulia and it has an area of 2,759 square kilometres and a total population of 814,495. There are 97 comunes in the province and it is surrounded by the provinces of Taranto and Brindsi in the northwest, Ionian Sea in the west, Adriatic Sea in the east. This location has established it as a popular tourist destination and it has been ruled by the Romans, Byzantine Greeks, Lombards and Normans. The important towns are Lecce, Nardò, the important agricultural products are wheat and corn. The province of Lecce has its origins in the ancient Giustizierato, since the eleventh century the Terra dOtranto included the territories of the provinces of Lecce and Brindisi. During this time the current region of Lecce was severely affected by poverty despite the production of olive oil, people from Lecce migrated to the Province of Bari where they worked in the wine industry in order to earn their living.
Up to 1663 the Province of Terra dOtranto included the territory of Matera and its capital was at first Otranto, but in the Norman period, Lecce was made the capital. After the unification of Italy, the name of Terra dOtranto was changed to Province of Lecce and its territory was divided into the four districts of Lecce, Gallipoli and Taranto. Its break-up began in 1923, when the district of Taranto was transformed into the new province of the Ionian, after the first world war the economic condition worsened and unemployment reached its height. These factors coupled with the negligence of the government prompted the farm workers to revolt against their farm owners. After being captured the farm owners were paraded in public places, during the medieval era, Muslim slaves were transported from the ports located in the province and the practice of keeping slaves was common. Lecce stone extracted from the province has been used in decorating several historical monuments and is used in interior decoration.
Natural Reserve of San Cataldo is located in the province, lakes Alimini Grande and Alimini Piccolo are located in the province. Italian and Griko language are spoken by the inhabitants, the Natural Park of Porto Selvaggio is known for its caves. Lecce has several ethnic and linguistic minority groups, a Griko community of around 40,000 lives in the Grecia Salentina region in the central area of the province, with an Arbëreshe community in Soleto. Stone in Historic Buildings and Performance, the National Integration of Italian Return Migration, 1870-1929
Apulia is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto in the south. Its southernmost portion, known as the Salento peninsula, forms a stiletto on the boot of Italy, the region comprises 19,345 square kilometers, and its population is about 4 million. It is bordered by the other Italian regions of Molise to the north, Campania to the west, across the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, it faces Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro, The Apulia region extends as far north as Monte Gargano. Puglias coastline is longer than any other mainland Italian region, in the north, the Gargano promontory extends out into the Adriatic, while in the south, the flat and dry Salento peninsula forms the heel of Italys boot. It is home to the Alta Murgia and Gargano National Parks, see also, History of Apulia Apulia is one of the richest archaeological regions in Italy. It was first colonized by Mycenaean Greeks, a number of castles were built in the area by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, including Castel del Monte, sometimes called the Crown of Apulia.
After 1282, when the island of Sicily was lost, Apulia was part of the Kingdom of Naples, as a result of the French–Spanish war of 1501–1504, Naples again came under the rule of Aragon and the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714. When Barbary pirates of North Africa sacked Vieste in 1554, they took an estimated 7,000 slaves, in 1861 the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy, with the new capital city at Turin. In the words of one historian, Turin was so far away that Otranto is today closer to seventeen foreign capitals than it is to Turin, the regions contribution to Italys gross value added was around 4. 6% in 2000, while its population was 7% of the total. The per capita GDP is low compared to the national average, in comparison with the country as a whole, the economy of Apulia is characterised by a greater emphasis on agriculture and services and a smaller part played by industry. In the last 20 years the base of the regions economy has changed radically. The majority of firms are financed by local capital.
In certain of these sectors – especially textiles, footwear, the region has a good network of roads but the railway network is somewhat inadequate, particularly in the south. Apulias 800 kilometers of coastline is studded with ports, which make this region an important terminal for transport and tourism to Greece, between 2007 and 2013 the economy of Apulia expanded more than that of the rest of southern Italy. Such growth, over decades, is a severe challenge to the hydrogeological system. Emigration from the depressed areas to northern Italy and the rest of Europe was very intense in the years between 1956 and 1971. Subsequently, the trend declined as economic conditions improved, to the point where there was net immigration in the years between 1982 and 1985, since 1986 the stagnation in employment has led to a new inversion of the trend, caused by a decrease in immigration. Since 1 June 2015, former judge and mayor of Bari Michele Emiliano of the Democratic Party has served as President, Apulia is divided into five administrative provinces and one metropolitan city, Cuisine plays an important role throughout Apulia
Cave of Altamira
The earliest paintings in the cave were executed around 35,600 years ago. Altamira was the first European cave for which prehistoric origin of the paintings was suggested and promoted by Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola and he published his research with the support of Juan Vilanova y Piera in 1880 to public acclaim. Altamira is located in the Franco-Cantabrian region and declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO as the element of the Cave of Altamira. The cave is approximately 1000 meters long and consists of a series of twisting passages, the main passage varies from two to six meters in height. The cave was formed through collapses following early Karst phenomena in the rock of Mount Vispieres. Archaeological excavations in the cave floor found rich deposits of artifacts from the Upper Solutrean, both periods belong to the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. In the millennia between these two occupations, the cave was inhabited only by wild animals. Around 13,000 years ago a rockfall sealed the entrance, preserving its contents until its eventual discovery.
Human occupation was limited to the mouth, although paintings were created throughout the length of the cave. The artists used charcoal and ochre or haematite to create the images, often diluting these pigments to produce variations in intensity and they exploited the natural contours of the cave walls to give their subjects a three-dimensional effect. The Polychrome Ceiling is the most impressive feature of the cave, depicting a herd of extinct steppe bison in different poses, dated to the Magdalenian occupation, these paintings include abstract shapes in addition to animal subjects. Solutrean paintings include images of horses and goats, as well as handprints that were created when artists placed their hands on the cave wall, numerous other caves in northern Spain contain Paleolithic art, but none is as complex or well-populated as Altamira. In 1879, amateur archaeologist Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola was led by his eight-year-old daughter María to discover the caves drawings, a fellow countryman maintained that the paintings had been produced by a contemporary artist, on Sautuolas orders.
Later Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola found out the artist could have used marrow fat as oil for the lamp, alcohol was not available at the time as far as we know. Still, remains unexplained how the paintings particularly in Altamira cave and that year, Emile Cartailhac emphatically admitted his mistake in the famous article, Mea culpa dun sceptique, published in the journal LAnthropologie. Sautuola, having died 14 years earlier, did not live to enjoy his rehabilitation, further excavation work on the cave was done by Hermilio Alcalde del Río between 1902–04, the German Hugo Obermaier between 1924–25 and finally by Joaquín González Echegaray in 1981. In 2008, researchers using uranium-thorium dating found that the paintings were completed over a period of up to 20,000 years rather than during a brief period. This means that these drawings could have made by Neanderthal authors instead of homo sapiens
Parietal art is the archaeological term for artwork done on cave walls or large blocks of stone. One of the most famous examples of art is the Grotte Chauvet in France. Also called cave art, it refers to paintings, etchings, carvings. The purpose of these remains of the Paleolithic and other periods of art is not known. However, some theories suggest that these paintings were not solely for decoration as many of them were located in parts of caves that were not easily accessed, over 300 caves have been discovered in Spain and France that house parietal art from prehistoric times. Spectacular decorated caves have found in Africa, India, Australia. Cave art was discovered in the 19th century, long before absolute dating was possible, some scholars at the time developed a typology that was overthrown when AMS radiocarbon dating became available. Initial interpretations of the art at Lascaux and in other related grottoes suggested that the paintings and engravings were decorative, further analysis at the tail-end of the 20th century suggested that the cave art had deep links to prehistoric rituals promoting fertility and successful hunting.
Chauvet Cave, Vallon-Pont-dArc, France — Discovered in 1994 and dating from 30,000 BCE, in the first, most pictures are red, while in the second, the animals are mostly black. The most spectacular images are the Horse Panel and the Panel of Lions, caves of Arcy-sur-Cure, Arcy-sur-Cure, France — Known of old for the cave itself, its parietal art has only been discovered in 1990. It is the second oldest after that of the Chauvet cave, Cosquer Cave, near Marseille, France — Discovered by the deep-sea diver Henri Cosquer in 1985, and dating from 25,000 BCE, the entrance to Cosquer cave is more than 100 feet below sea level. It contains hand stencils, charcoal drawings and about 100 polychrome paintings of horses, pech Merle Cave, Midi-Pyrénées, France — Discovered in 1922, and dating from 25,000 BCE, Pech-Merle is famous for its dappled horses painted in charcoal and ochre on limestone. For details and photos, please see, Pech-Merle Cave Paintings and its cave art consists of over 700 painted images including numerous abstract symbols and engravings.
The so-called polychrome chamber houses some 30 large animal pictures, mostly bison, vividly executed in red, for details and photos, please see, Altamira Cave Paintings. After its discovery, Lascaux quickly became a major tourist attraction, around 2000, the cave became filled with a fungus that many blamed on air conditioning, the use of high-powered lights, and too many visitors. The fungus had to be removed by hand, currently only a few scientific experts are allowed to work inside the cave. The most representative bacterium and fungus from the communities of a cave containing paleolithic paintings were isolated. Development was analyzed with and without supplemented nutrients, results showed that the assayed bacterium on natural substrate was able to develop best at in situ temperature and that the addition of organic nutrients and/or phosphate enhanced its growth
A leitmotif or leitmotiv /ˌlaɪtmoʊˈtiːf/ is a short, constantly recurring musical phrase associated with a particular person, place, or idea. It is closely related to the concepts of idée fixe or motto-theme. The spelling leitmotif is an anglicization of the German Leitmotiv, literally meaning leading motif, or perhaps more accurately, a musical motif has been defined as a short musical idea. It may be combined with other leitmotifs to suggest a new dramatic condition or development, although usually a short melody, it can be a chord progression or even a simple rhythm. Leitmotifs can help to bind a work together into a coherent whole, by association, the word has been used to mean any sort of recurring theme, in literature, or the life of a fictional character or a real person. It is sometimes used in discussion of other musical genres, such as instrumental pieces, cinema. The use of characteristic, recurring motives in orchestral music can be traced back to the seventeenth century. In French opera of the eighteenth century, reminiscence motif can be identified.
Their use, however, is not extensive or systematic, the first use of the word leitmotif in print was by the critic Friedrich Wilhelm Jähns in describing Webers work, although this was not until 1871. Motives figured occasionally in purely instrumental music of the romantic period, the related idea of the musical idée fixe was coined by Hector Berlioz in reference to his Symphonie fantastique. This purely instrumental, programmatic work features a recurring melody representing the object of the artists obsessive affection and depicting her presence in various real, in La forza del destino, the opening theme of the overture recurs whenever Leonora feels guilt or fear. In Il Trovatore, the theme of the first aria by Azucena is repeated whenever she invokes the horror of how her mother was burnt alive, Richard Wagner is the earliest composer most specifically associated with the concept of leitmotif. His cycle of four operas, Der Ring des Nibelungen, uses hundreds of leitmotifs, often related to characters, things.
While some of these occur in only one of the operas. Wagner had raised the issue of how music could best unite disparate elements of the plot of a drama in his essay Opera and Drama. Some controversy surrounded the use of the word in Wagners own circle, Wagner never authorised the use of the leitmotiv, using words such as Grundthema. His preferred name for the technique was Hauptmotiv, which he first used in 1877, the word gained currency with the overly literal interpretations of Wagners music by Hans von Wolzogen, who in 1876 published a Leitfaden to the Ring. In it he claimed to have isolated and named all of the motifs in the cycle
Deer are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the deer and the chital, and the Capreolinae, including the elk, the Western roe deer. Female reindeer, and male deer of all species, grow, in this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are in the same order, Artiodactyla. The musk deer of Asia and water chevrotain of tropical African and Asian forests are not usually regarded as true deer and form their own families and Tragulidae, respectively. Deer appear in art from Palaeolithic cave paintings onwards, and they have played a role in mythology and their economic importance includes the use of their meat as venison, their skins as soft, strong buckskin, and their antlers as handles for knives. Deer hunting has been a sport since at least the Middle Ages. Deer live in a variety of biomes, ranging from tundra to the tropical rainforest, while often associated with forests, many deer are ecotone species that live in transitional areas between forests and thickets and prairie and savanna.
The majority of deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, tropical seasonal/dry forest. Clearing open areas within forests to some extent may actually benefit deer populations by exposing the understory and allowing the types of grasses, additionally, access to adjacent croplands may benefit deer. However, adequate forest or brush cover must still be provided for populations to grow, fallow deer have been introduced to South Africa. There are species of deer that are highly specialized, and live almost exclusively in mountains, swamps. Some deer have a distribution in both North America and Eurasia. Examples include the caribou that live in Arctic tundra and taiga and moose that inhabit taiga, huemul deer of South Americas Andes fill the ecological niches of the ibex and wild goat, with the fawns behaving more like goat kids. Mountain slope habitats vary from moist coniferous/mixed forested habitats to dry forests with alpine meadows higher up. The foothills and river valleys between the mountain provide a mosaic of cropland and deciduous parklands.
The rare woodland caribou have the most restricted range living at altitudes in the subalpine meadows. Elk and mule deer both migrate between the alpine meadows and lower coniferous forests and tend to be most common in this region, elk inhabit river valley bottomlands, which they share with White-tailed deer. They live in the aspen parklands north of Calgary and Edmonton, the adjacent Great Plains grassland habitats are left to herds of elk, American bison, and pronghorn antelope
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera whose forelimbs form webbed wings, making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight. By contrast, other mammals said to fly, such as flying squirrels, gliding possums, Bats do not flap their entire forelimbs, as birds do, but instead flap their spread-out digits, which are very long and covered with a thin membrane or patagium. About 70% of bat species are insectivores, most of the rest are frugivores, or fruit eaters. A few species, such as the bat, feed from animals other than insects, with the vampire bats being hematophagous. Bats are present throughout most of the world, with the exception of cold regions. They perform the vital roles of pollinating flowers and dispersing fruit seeds. Bats are economically important, as they consume insect pests, reducing the need for pesticides, the smallest bat is the Kittis hog-nosed bat, measuring 29–34 mm in length,15 cm across the wings and 2–2.6 g in mass. It is arguably the smallest extant species of mammal, with the Etruscan shrew being the other contender.
The largest species of bat are a few species of Pteropus, the Mexican free-tailed bat is the fastest flying animal in horizontal flight. An older English name for bats is flittermouse, which matches their name in other Germanic languages, middle English had bakke, most likely cognate with Old Swedish natbakka, which may have undergone a shift from -k- to -t- influenced by Latin blatta, nocturnal insect. They were formerly grouped in the superorder Archonta, along with the treeshrews, genetic studies have now placed bats in the superorder Laurasiatheria, along with carnivorans, odd-toed ungulates, even-toed ungulates, and cetaceans. A recent study by Zhang et al. places Chiroptera as a taxon to the clade Perissodactyla. The phylogenetic relationships of the different groups of bats have been the subject of much debate and this hypothesis recognized differences between microbats and megabats and acknowledged that flight has only evolved once in mammals. Most molecular biological evidence supports the view that bats form a single or monophyletic group, in the 1980s, a hypothesis based on morphological evidence was offered that stated the Megachiroptera evolved flight separately from the Microchiroptera.
The so-called flying primate hypothesis proposes that, when adaptations to flight are removed, one example is that the brains of megabats show a number of advanced characteristics that link them to primates. Although recent genetic studies support the monophyly of bats, debate continues as to the meaning of available genetic. Genetic evidence indicates that megabats originated during the early Eocene and should be placed within the four lines of microbats. Consequently, two new suborders based on molecular data have been proposed and these two new suborders are strongly supported by statistical tests
Speleology and caving are often connected, as the physical skills required for in situ study are the same. In Romania, the term speology is used, this is derived from a Greek word for cave, rather than the Latin, spelaeum. Speleology is a field that combines the knowledge of chemistry, geology, physics and cartography to develop portraits of caves as complex. In 1895 Martel founded the Société de Spéléologie, the first organization devoted to science in the world. The creation of an accurate, detailed map is one of the most common technical activities undertaken within a cave, caves provide a home for many unique biota. Cave ecologies are diverse, and not sharply distinct from surface habitats. Generally however, the deeper the cave becomes, the more rarefied the ecology, cave environments fall into three general categories, Endogean the parts of caves that are in communication with surface soils through cracks and rock seams, groundwater seepage, and root protrusion. Parahypogean the threshold regions near cave mouths that extend to the last penetration of sunlight and these can be in regular contact with the surface via wind and underground rivers, or the migration of animals, or can be almost entirely isolated.
Deep hypogean environments can host autonomous ecologies whose primary source of energy is not sunlight, cave organisms fall into three basic classes, There are so-called accidental trogloxenes which are surface organisms that enter caves for no survival reason. Some may even be troglophobes, which survive in caves for any extended period. Examples include deer which fell through a sinkhole, frogs swept into a cave by a flash flood, the two factors that limit cave ecologies are generally energy and nutrients. To some degree moisture is available in actively forming Karst caves. Cut off from the sunlight and steady deposition of plant detritus, the majority of energy in cave environments comes from the surplus of the ecosystems outside. One major source of energy and nutrients in caves is dung from trogloxenes, because of their rarity and position in the ecosystem they are threatened by a large number of human activities. Dam construction, limestone quarrying, water pollution and logging are just some of the disasters that can devastate or destroy underground biological communities.
Speleologists work with archaeologists in studying underground ruins, tunnels and aqueducts, such as the various inlets and outlets of the Cloaca Maxima in Rome
A pictogram, called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto, and in computer usage an icon, is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object. Pictographs are often used in writing and graphic systems in which the characters are to a considerable extent pictorial in appearance, a pictogram may be used in subjects such as leisure and geography. Some pictograms, such as Hazards pictograms, are elements of formal languages, pictograph has a rather different meaning in the field of prehistoric art, including recent art by traditional societies. Here it means art painted on surfaces, as opposed to petroglyphs that are carved or incised. Such images may or may not be considered pictograms in the general sense, early written symbols were based on pictographs and ideograms. Ancient Sumerian and Chinese civilizations began to adapt such symbols to represent concepts, pictographs are still in use as the main medium of written communication in some non-literate cultures in Africa, the Americas, and Oceania.
Pictographs are often used as simple, representational symbols by most contemporary cultures, one example of many is the Rock art of the Chumash people, part of the Native American history of California. In 2011, UNESCOs World Heritage List added Petroglyph Complexes of the Mongolian Altai, because of their graphical nature and fairly realistic style, they are widely used to indicate public toilets, or places such as airports and train stations. Contemporary artist Xu Bing created Book from the Ground, a language made up of pictograms collected from around the world. A Book from the Ground chat program has been exhibited in museums, pictograms are used in many areas of modern life for commodity purposes, often as a formal language. In statistics, pictograms are chartsin which icons represent numbers to make it more interesting, a key is often included to indicate what each icon represents. All icons must be of the size, but a fraction of an icon can be used to show the respective fraction of that amount.
For example, the table, can be graphed as follows, Key, =10 letters As the values are rounded to the nearest 5 letters. This is why road signs and similar material are often applied as global standards expected to be understood by nearly all. A standard set of pictographs was defined in the international standard ISO7001, other common sets of pictographs are the laundry symbols used on clothing tags and the chemical hazard symbols as standardized by the GHS system. Pictograms have been popularized in use on the web and in software, better known as icons displayed on a computer screen in order to help user navigate a computer system or mobile device
Publius Vergilius Maro, usually called Virgil or Vergil /ˈvɜːrdʒᵻl/ in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He wrote three of the most famous poems in Latin literature, the Eclogues, the Georgics, a number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him. Virgil is traditionally ranked as one of Romes greatest poets and his Aeneid has been considered the national epic of ancient Rome from the time of its composition to the present day. Virgils work has had wide and deep influence on Western literature, most notably Dantes Divine Comedy, in which Virgil appears as Dantes guide through Hell, the tradition holds that Virgil was born in the village of Andes, near Mantua in Cisalpine Gaul. Analysis of his name has led to beliefs that he descended from earlier Roman colonists, modern speculation ultimately is not supported by narrative evidence either from his own writings or his biographers. Macrobius says that Virgils father was of a background, however.
He attended schools in Cremona, Mediolanum and Naples, after considering briefly a career in rhetoric and law, the young Virgil turned his talents to poetry. From Virgils admiring references to the neoteric writers Pollio and Cinna, it has been inferred that he was, for a time, according to Servius, schoolmates considered Virgil extremely shy and reserved, and he was nicknamed Parthenias or maiden because of his social aloofness. Virgil seems to have suffered bad health throughout his life, according to the Catalepton, he began to write poetry while in the Epicurean school of Siro the Epicurean at Naples. A group of works attributed to the youthful Virgil by the commentators survive collected under the title Appendix Vergiliana. One, the Catalepton, consists of fourteen poems, some of which may be Virgils, and another. The biographical tradition asserts that Virgil began the hexameter Eclogues in 42 BC and it is thought that the collection was published around 39–38 BC, the Eclogues are a group of ten poems roughly modeled on the bucolic hexameter poetry of the Hellenistic poet Theocritus.
The loss of his farm and the attempt through poetic petitions to regain his property have traditionally been seen as Virgils motives in the composition of the Eclogues. This is now thought to be an unsupported inference from interpretations of the Eclogues, the ten Eclogues present traditional pastoral themes with a fresh perspective. Eclogues 1 and 9 address the land confiscations and their effects on the Italian countryside,2 and 3 are pastoral and erotic, discussing both homosexual love and attraction toward people of any gender. Eclogue 4, addressed to Asinius Pollio, the so-called Messianic Eclogue uses the imagery of the age in connection with the birth of a child. Virgil came to many of the other leading literary figures of the time, including Horace, in whose poetry he is often mentioned, and Varius Rufus. At Maecenas insistence Virgil spent the years on the long didactic hexameter poem called the Georgics which he dedicated to Maecenas