Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Defence is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. The MOD states that its principal objectives are to defend the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and its interests and to strengthen international peace and stability. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the MOD does not foresee any short-term conventional military threat; the MOD manages day-to-day running of the armed forces, contingency planning and defence procurement. During the 1920s and 1930s, British civil servants and politicians, looking back at the performance of the state during the First World War, concluded that there was a need for greater co-ordination between the three services that made up the armed forces of the United Kingdom—the Royal Navy, the British Army and the Royal Air Force; the formation of a united ministry of defence was rejected by David Lloyd George's coalition government in 1921.
As rearmament became a concern during the 1930s, Stanley Baldwin created the position of Minister for Co-ordination of Defence. Lord Chatfield held the post until the fall of Neville Chamberlain's government in 1940. Winston Churchill, on forming his government in 1940, created the office of Minister of Defence to exercise ministerial control over the Chiefs of Staff Committee and to co-ordinate defence matters; the post was held by the Prime Minister of the day until Clement Attlee's government introduced the Ministry of Defence Act of 1946. The new ministry was headed by a Minister of Defence; the three existing service Ministers—the First Lord of the Admiralty, the Secretary of State for War and the Secretary of State for Air—remained in direct operational control of their respective services, but ceased to attend Cabinet. From 1946 to 1964 five Departments of State did the work of the modern Ministry of Defence: the Admiralty, the War Office, the Air Ministry, the Ministry of Aviation, an earlier form of the Ministry of Defence.
These departments merged in 1964. The Ministers in the Ministry of Defence are as follows: The Chief of the Defence Staff is the professional head of the British Armed Forces and the most senior uniformed military adviser to the Secretary of State for Defence and the Prime Minister; the CDS is supported by the Vice Chief of the Defence Staff who deputises and is responsible for the day-to-day running of the armed services aspect of the MOD through the Central Staff, working alongside the Permanent Secretary. They are joined by the professional heads of the three British armed services and the Commander of Joint Forces Command. All personnel sit at OF-9 rank in the NATO rank system. Together the Chiefs of Staff form the Chiefs of Staff Committee with responsibility for providing advice on operational military matters and the preparation and conduct of military operations; the current Chiefs of Staff are as follows. Chief of the Defence Staff – General Sir Nick Carter Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff – General Sir Gordon Messenger First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff – Admiral Sir Philip Jones Chief of the General Staff – General Mark Carleton-Smith Chief of the Air Staff – Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier Commander of Joint Forces Command – General Sir Christopher Deverell The Chief of Staff is supported by several other senior military personnel at OF-8 rank.
Chief of Defence People – Lieutenant General Richard Nugee Deputy Chief of Defence Staff – Lieutenant-General Douglas Chalmers Deputy Chief of Defence Staff – Lieutenant-General Mark Poffley Chief of Joint Operations - Vice-Admiral Timothy Fraser Defence Senior Adviser Middle East - Lieutenant-General John LorimerAdditionally, there are a number of Assistant Chiefs of Defence Staff, including the Assistant Chief of the Defence Staff and the Defence Services Secretary in the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, the Assistant Chief of Defence Staff. Permanent Secretary and other senior officials The Ministers and Chiefs of the Defence Staff are supported by several civilian and professional military advisors; the Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Defence is the senior civil servant at the MOD. Their role is to ensure that it operates as a government department and has responsibility for the strategy, reform and the finances of the MOD; the role works with the Chief of the Defence Staff in leading the organisation and supporting Ministers in the conduct of business in the Department across the full range of responsibilities.
Permanent Under-Secretary of State – Stephen Lovegrove Director General Finance – Cat Little Director General Head Office and Commissioning Services – Julie Taylor Director General Nuclear – Julian Kelly Director General Security Policy – Peter Watkins MOD Chief Scientific Adviser – Professor Hugh Durrant-Whyte MOD Chief Scientific Adviser – Professor Robin Grimes Lead Non-Executive Board Member – Sir Gerry Gri
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
CGI Inc. more known as CGI, is a Canadian global information technology consulting, systems integration and solutions company headquartered in Montreal, Canada. In 1976, Serge Godin and André Imbeau founded CGI, which stood for “Conseillers en gestion et informatique”. After starting out as an IT consulting firm, the company soon began branching into new markets and acquiring other companies. CGI went public in 1986 with a primary listing on the Toronto Stock Exchange. CGI is a constituent of the S&P/TSX 60, has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. After doubling in size with the 1998 acquisition of Bell Sygma, CGI acquired IMRGlobal in 2001 for $438 million, which added "global delivery options" for CGI. Other significant purchases include American Management Systems for $858 million in 2004, which grew CGI's presence in the United States and Australia and led to the formation of the CGI Federal division. CGI Federal's 2010 acquisition of Stanley, Inc. for $1.07 billion doubled CGI's presence in the United States, expanded CGI into defense and intelligence contracts.
In 2012 CGI acquired Logica for $2.7 billion Canadian, making CGI the fifth-largest independent business processes and IT services provider in the world, the biggest tech firm in Canada. In 2016 CGI ranked No. 955 on the Forbes Forbes Global 2000. At the time CGI had assets worth CAD $20.9 billion, annual sales of $10.7 billion, a market value of $9.6 billion. As of 2017 CGI is based in forty countries with around 400 offices, employs 70,000 people. Canada made up 15% of CGI's client base revenue as of March 2015. 29% originated from the United States, while around 40% of their commissions came from Europe, the remaining 15% derived from locales in the rest of the world. Services provided by CGI as of 2015 include application services, business consulting, business process services, IT infrastructure services, IT outsourcing services, systems integration services, among others. CGI has customers in a wide array of markets, with many in financial services. CGI develops products and services for markets such as telecommunications, manufacturing and gas, posts and logistics and consumer services and utilities.
Clients include both private entities and central governments, state and local governments, government departments dealing with defense, space, human services, public safety, tax and collections. CGI Inc. was founded as an IT consulting company on June 15, 1976, in Quebec City, Québec, by Serge Godin. Within several months he was joined by co-founder André Imbeau, a 26-year-old entrepreneur from Quebec City, they ran the business from Godin's basement with a single phone. Starting with one client, as the company grew in size the co-founders moved to Montreal, by the end of their first year they had generated $138,000 in revenue. While CGI stands for "Conseillers en Gestion et Informatique" in French, the official English meaning would become "Consultants to Government and Industry." In years the company began to go to market as CGI. Throughout the 1970s CGI grew in size and continued to focus on the information technology services market, soon offering systems integration alongside consulting.
Near the end of the 1970s, the systems integration market began to shift to outsourcing, with CGI responding by branching into IT outsourcing as well. The company secured a number of government contracts, the UK Ministry of Defence brought in CGI around 1980 to act as a systems integrator, among other roles. CGI's annual revenue in 1986 was $25 million, that year the company began acquiring a number of smaller IT services companies. CGI went public with an initial public offering to fund the acquisitions, by the late 1980s CGI was expanding further, acquiring several business processes services companies and expanding beyond Canada; the CGI Management Foundation was formed in 1992 to manage CGI's "management frameworks and guidelines." CGI earned ISO 9001 certification for their "project management framework" in 1994, in doing so became the first IT consulting firm in North America to comply with the ISO quality standard. A year CGI's AMICUS library management software was first developed in collaboration with the National Library of Canada, in 1997 a customized version was commissioned by the British Library.
By the mid-1990s CGI had a client base both in Canada and internationally, was establishing the company's long-term "build and buy" growth strategy. In 1995 CGI entered into a commercial alliance with the large telecommunications company Bell Canada, with Bell Canada purchasing CGI shares valued at $18.4 million. By the end of 1996, CGI's annual revenue was $122 million. In April 1997, CGI acquired the company CDSL Holdings Limited for a purchase price of about $36.5 million. At the time CDSL was Canada's largest "independent provider of retail banking services and electronic commerce/switching services," and serviced the credit union industry in Canada. After the acquisition, CGI's employees in both Canada and internationally numbered 2,500. After various commercial relationships with Interac since the mid-1980s, in 1997 CGI became the first non-financial company in Canada to enable Interac money transfers for clients. In 1998 CGI acquired the Canadian company Bell Sygma, a Bell Canada subsidiary, which doubled CGI's size.
The deal was one of the largest Canadian outsourcing contracts of
Fujitsu Ltd. is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. In 2015, it was the world's fourth-largest IT services provider measured by IT services revenue. Fortune named Fujitsu as a Global 500 company. Fujitsu chiefly makes computing products, but the company and its subsidiaries offer a diversity of products and services in the areas of personal computing, enterprise computing, including x86, SPARC and mainframe server products, as well as storage products, telecommunications, advanced microelectronics, air conditioning, it has 140,000 employees and its products and services are available in over 100 countries. Fujitsu is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices. Fujitsu is the second oldest IT company after IBM and before Hewlett Packard, established on June 20, 1935, under the name Fuji Telecommunications Equipment Manufacturing, as a spin-off of the Fuji Electric Company, itself a joint venture between the Furukawa Electric Company and the German conglomerate Siemens, founded in 1923.
Despite its connections to the Furukawa zaibatsu, Fujitsu escaped the Allied occupation of Japan after the Second World War unscathed. In 1954, Fujitsu manufactured Japan's first computer, the FACOM 100 mainframe, in 1961 launched its second generation computers the FACOM 222 mainframe; the 1968 FACOM230 "5" Series marked the beginning of its third generation computers. Fujitsu offered mainframe computers from 1955 until at least 2002 Fujitsu's computer products have included minicomputers, small business computers and personal computers. In 1955, Fujitsu founded Kawasaki Frontale as a company football club. In 1967, the company's name was changed to the contraction Fujitsū. Since 1985, the company fields a company American football team, the Fujitsu Frontiers, who play in the corporate X-League, have appeared in 7 Japan X Bowls, winning two, winning two Rice Bowls. In 1971, Fujitsu signed an OEM agreement with the Canadian company Consolidated Computers Limited to distribute CCL's data entry product, Key-Edit.
Fujitsu joined both ICL who earlier began marketing Key-Edit in the British Commonwealth of countries as well as in both western and eastern Europe. Mers Kutt, inventor of Key-Edit and founder of CCL, was the common thread that led to Fujitsu’s association with ICL and Gene Amdahl. In 1986, Fujitsu and The Queen's University of Belfast business incubation unit established a joint venture called Kainos, a held software company based in Belfast, Northern Ireland. In 1990, Fujitsu acquired 80% of the UK-based computer company International Computers Limited for $1.29 billion. In September 1990, Fujitsu announced the launch of a new series of mainframe computers which were at that time the fastest in the world. In July 1991, Fujitsu acquired more than half of the Russian company KME-CS. In 1992, Fujitsu introduced the world's first 21-inch full-color plasma display, it was a hybrid, based upon the plasma display created at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and NHK STRL, achieving superior brightness.
In 1993, Fujitsu formed a flash memory manufacturing joint venture with Spansion. As part of the transaction, AMD contributed its flash memory group, Fab 25 in Texas, its R&D facilities and assembly plants in Thailand and China. From February 1989 until mid-1997, Fujitsu built the FM Towns PC variant, it started as a proprietary PC variant intended for multimedia applications and computer games, but became more compatible with regular PCs. In 1993, the FM Towns Marty was released. Fujitsu agreed to acquire the 58 percent of Amdahl Corporation that it did not own for around $850 million in July 1997. In April 1997, the company acquired a 30 percent stake in GLOVIA International, Inc. an El Segundo, Calif. manufacturing ERP software provider whose software it had begun integrating into its electronics plants starting in 1994. In June 1999 Fujitsu's historical connection with Siemens was revived, when the two companies agreed to merge their European computer operations into a new 50:50 joint venture called Fujitsu Siemens Computers, which became the world's fifth-largest computer manufacturing company.
In April 2000, Fujitsu acquired the remaining 70% of GLOVIA International. In April 2002 ICL re-branded itself as Fujitsu. On March 2, 2004, Fujitsu Computer Products of America lost a class action lawsuit over hard disk drives with defective chips and firmware. In October 2004, Fujitsu acquired the Australian subsidiary of Atos Origin, a systems implementation company with around 140 employees which specialized in SAP. In August 2007, Fujitsu signed a £500 million, 10-year deal with Reuters Group under which Reuters outsourced the majority of its internal IT department to Fujitsu; as part of the agreement around 300 Reuters staff and 200 contractors transferred to Fujitsu. In October 2007, Fujitsu announced that it would be establishing an offshore development centre in Noida, India with a capacity to house 1,200 employees, in an investment of US$10 million. In October 2007, Fujitsu's Australia and New Ze
HMS Queen Elizabeth (R08)
HMS Queen Elizabeth is the lead ship of the Queen Elizabeth class of aircraft carriers, the largest warships built for the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom and capable of carrying up to 60 aircraft. She is named in honour of the first Queen Elizabeth, a renowned World War I era super-dreadnought, which in turn was named after Queen Elizabeth I; this latest Queen Elizabeth will carry her namesake's honours, as well as her Tudor rose-adorned crest and motto. The ship began sea trials in June 2017, was commissioned on 7 December 2017, her first Commanding Officer was Commodore Jerry Kyd, who had commanded the carriers Ark Royal and Illustrious. Queen Elizabeth has no catapults or arrestor wires and is instead designed to operate V/STOL aircraft; the air wing will consist of F-35B Lightning II multirole fighters and Merlin helicopters for airborne early warning and anti-submarine warfare. The design emphasises flexibility, with accommodation for 250 Royal Marines and the ability to support them with attack helicopters and large troop transports such as Chinooks.
She is the second Royal Navy vessel to bear the name Queen Elizabeth and is based at HMNB Portsmouth. On 25 July 2007, the Defence Secretary Des Browne, announced the order for two new carriers. At the time of approval the first carrier was expected to enter service in July 2015 and the budget was £4.085b for two ships. The financial crisis led to a political decision in December 2008 to slow production, delaying Queen Elizabeth until May 2016; this added £1.560b to the cost. By March 2010 the budget was estimated at £5.900b and in November 2013 the contract was renegotiated with a budget of £6.200b. The in-service date was further extended to 2020 in the Strategic Defence and Security Review in October 2010. Construction of Queen Elizabeth began in 2009; the assembly took place in the Firth of Forth at Rosyth Dockyard from nine blocks built in six UK shipyards: BAE Systems Surface Ships in Glasgow, Babcock at Appledore, Babcock at Rosyth, A&P Tyne in Hebburn, BAE at Portsmouth and Cammell Laird at Birkenhead.
Two of the lower main blocks, together weighing more than 6,000 tonnes and forming part of the base of the ship, were assembled and joined into one piece on 30 June 2011. On 16 August 2011, the 8,000-tonne Lower Block 03 of Queen Elizabeth left BAE Systems Surface Ships' Govan shipyard in Glasgow on a large ocean-going barge. Travelling 600 miles around the northern coast of Scotland, the block arrived at Rosyth on the evening of 20 August 2011. On 28 October 2012, an 11,000-tonne section of the carrier began a lengthy journey around the south coast of England, avoiding bad weather from the shipbuilding hall at Govan to the Rosyth dockyard; the forward island was constructed at BAE Portsmouth and attached on 14 March 2013. The ski jump was added in November 2013, leaving just the elevators and radar to be lifted into place. By September 2013 Queen Elizabeth was 80% complete internally, she is three times the size of the Invincible-class, has the ability to carry three times as many aircraft. Despite this, Queen Elizabeth has marginally fewer crew than the Invincible-class.
She is three times as large as the former HMS Ocean. The ship has two superstructures, or islands, one for navigation and ship's operations and the other for flight control and aerial operations; the islands can take on each other's function in an emergency. Queen Elizabeth was named at Rosyth on 4 July 2014, by Elizabeth II, who said that the warship "marks a new phase in our naval history". Instead of smashing the traditional bottle of champagne on the hull, she used a bottle of whisky from the Bowmore distillery on Islay; the ceremony was attended by the Duke of Edinburgh, Admiral George Zambellas, senior naval officers from the United States and France, by politicians including David Cameron and Gordon Brown and Alex Salmond. The official piece of music HMS Queen Elizabeth March, composed by WO2 Bandmaster John Morrish, was performed at the naming ceremony by HM Royal Marines Band, Scotland; this piece of music is a competition winning march chosen by the Carrier Alliance Group and recorded by the Royal Marines Massed Bands.
The ceremony featured a fly-past by the Red Arrows and a second comprising Royal Navy, Royal Air Force and British Army helicopters. Illustrious was berthed adjacent to Queen Elizabeth during the ceremony; the ship was floated out of dry dock on the morning of 17 July 2014. Fitting out was completed at the end of 2015 and the crew moved aboard in May 2016. On 24 May 2016, Commodore Jeremy Kyd assumed command of the ship from Captain Simon Petitt, the Senior Naval Officer since October 2012; as Commanding Officer of Queen Elizabeth, Kyd wore the Royal Navy rank of Captain, while retaining the substantive rank of Commodore. Sea trials were planned beginning in March 2017 with delivery expected in May 2017, but technical issues delayed her trials. Prior to her departure from Rosyth, an extensive survey was carried out of the Firth of Forth by Gleaner and 42 Regiment, Royal Engineers to gather information on the tides, the depth of the river bed, the height of the three river crossings; this was necessary.
Queen Elizabeth sailed on 26 June 2017 to undergo sea trials. The first stage of the operation was to move the ship from inside the fitting out basin, via one of the access gates, into the Firth of Forth itself, before taking her under the three Forth bridge crossings. Once this was accomplished, the ship took
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world. Following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history. In particular, it played a large part in the Second World War where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain; the RAF's mission is to support the objectives of the British Ministry of Defence, which are to "provide the capabilities needed to ensure the security and defence of the United Kingdom and overseas territories, including against terrorism. The RAF describes its mission statement as "... an agile and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission". The mission statement is supported by the RAF's definition of air power.
Air power is defined as "the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events". Today the Royal Air Force maintains an operational fleet of various types of aircraft, described by the RAF as being "leading-edge" in terms of technology; this consists of fixed-wing aircraft, including: fighter and strike aircraft, airborne early warning and control aircraft, ISTAR and SIGINT aircraft, aerial refueling aircraft and strategic and tactical transport aircraft. The majority of the RAF's rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces. Most of the RAF's aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. Although the RAF is the principal British air power arm, the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm and the British Army's Army Air Corps deliver air power, integrated into the maritime and land environments. While the British were not the first to make use of heavier-than-air military aircraft, the RAF is the world's oldest independent air force: that is, the first air force to become independent of army or navy control.
Following publication of the "Smuts report" prepared by Jan Smuts the RAF was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service. At that time it was the largest air force in the world. After the war, the service was drastically cut and its inter-war years were quiet, with the RAF taking responsibility for the control of Iraq and executing a number of minor actions in other parts of the British Empire; the RAF's naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in 1924 but handed over to Admiralty control on 24 May 1939. The RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War; the RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War. Under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed "Article XV squadrons" for service with RAF formations.
Many individual personnel from these countries, exiles from occupied Europe served with RAF squadrons. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations approximately a quarter of Bomber Command's personnel were Canadian. Additionally, the Royal Australian Air Force represented around nine percent of all RAF personnel who served in the European and Mediterranean theatres. In the Battle of Britain in 1940, the RAF defended the skies over Britain against the numerically superior German Luftwaffe. In what is the most prolonged and complicated air campaign in history, the Battle of Britain contributed to the delay and subsequent indefinite postponement of Hitler's plans for an invasion of the United Kingdom. In the House of Commons on 20 August, prompted by the ongoing efforts of the RAF, Prime Minister Winston Churchill eloquently made a speech to the nation, where he said "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few".
The largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command. While RAF bombing of Germany began immediately upon the outbreak of war, under the leadership of Air Chief Marshal Harris, these attacks became devastating from 1942 onward as new technology and greater numbers of superior aircraft became available; the RAF adopted night-time area bombing on German cities such as Hamburg and Dresden, developed precision bombing techniques for specific operations, such as the "Dambusters" raid by No. 617 Squadron, or the Amiens prison raid known as Operation Jericho. Following victory in the Second World War, the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, as technological advances in air warfare saw the arrival of jet fighters and bombers. During the early stages of the Cold War, one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in 1948 and the Berlin Airlift, codenamed Operation Plainfire. Between 26 June and the lifting of the Russian blockade of the city on 2 May, the RAF provided 17% of the total supplies delivered du
Airbus Defence and Space
Airbus Defence and Space is a division of Airbus responsible for defence and aerospace products and services. The division was formed in January 2014 during the corporate restructuring of European Aeronautic Defence and Space, comprises the former Airbus Military and Cassidian divisions, it is the world's second largest space company after Boeing and one of the top ten defence companies in the world. Airbus Defence and Space has its corporate headquarters in Ottobrunn, is led by Dirk Hoke, the Chief Executive Officer; the company has four programme lines: Military Aircraft, Space Systems, Communication-Intelligence-Security, Unmanned Aerial Systems. With its presence in 35 countries, the company employs 40,000 people from 86 nationalities and contributes to 21% of Airbus revenues. In 2017 Airbus ranked 94th on the Fortune Global 500 list, was one of the "World's Most Admired Companies"; as early as 1995 the German aerospace and defence company DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and its British counterpart British Aerospace were said to be eager to create a transnational aerospace and defence company.
The two companies envisaged including the French company Aérospatiale, the other major European aerospace company, but only after its privatisation. The first stage of this integration was seen as the transformation of Airbus from a consortium of British Aerospace, DASA, Aérospatiale and Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA into an integrated company. However, the merger faltered, British Aerospace abandoned the DASA merger in favour of purchasing its British rival, Marconi Electronic Systems, the electronics division of General Electric Company; the merger of British Aerospace and MES to form BAE Systems was announced on 19 January 1999 and completed on 30 November. DASA and the Spanish aircraft company Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA agreed to merge on 11 June 1999. On 14 October 1999 DASA agreed to merge with Aérospatiale-Matra to create the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company. 10 July 2000 was "Day One" for the new company which became the world's second-largest aerospace company after Boeing and the second-largest European arms manufacturer after BAE Systems.
In January 2001 Airbus Industrie was transformed from an inherently inefficient consortium structure to a formal joint stock company, with legal and tax procedures being finalised on 11 July. On 16 June 2003 EADS acquired BAE's 25 % share in Astrium, the satellite and space system manufacturer, to become the sole owner. EADS paid £84 million, however due to the lossmaking status of the company BAE invested an equal amount for "restructuring", it was subsequently renamed EADS Astrium, had the divisions Astrium Satellites, Astrium Space Transportation and Astrium Services. On 1 July 2003 EADS Defence & Security Systems was founded with the merger of the activities of missile systems, defence electronics, military aircraft and telecommunications of the EADS Group. Tom Enders became the first CEO of the new division; the predecessor company was established in January 1999 as the Airbus Military Company SAS to manage the Airbus A400M project, taking over from the Euroflag consortium. In May 2003, the company was restructured as Airbus Military Sociedad Limitada prior to the execution of the production contract.
The Military Transport Aircraft Division was a division of EADS which designs and commercialises EADS-CASA light and medium transport aircraft, headquartered in Madrid, Spain. In 1999 was Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA in the EADS Group incorporated. In Spain it was still referred to as EADS-CASA; the EADS-CASA division Military Transport Aircraft Division was responsible for the development and sales of the leichten- and medium Transport and utility aircraft within the EADS Group. On 16 December 2008, EADS announced that the Military Transport Aircraft Division and Airbus Military SL as a new business unit in the Airbus SAS integrated. Airbus Military was formally created in April 2009 by the integration of the former Military Transport Aircraft Division and Airbus Military Sociedad Limitada into Airbus; the division manufactured tanker and mission aircraft including Airbus A330 MRTT, Airbus A400M, CASA C-212 Aviocar, CASA/IPTN CN-235 and EADS CASA C-295. After the merger, it acquired the production of Eurofighter Typhoon, earlier under Cassidian.
Eurocopter, earlier under Airbus Military, was reorganized as Airbus Helicopters. Astrium was formed in 2000 by the merger of Matra Marconi Space with the space division of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG and Computadores Redes e Ingeniería SA. Henceforth Astrium was a joint venture between BAE Systems. On 16 June 2003 the minority shareholder, BAE Systems, sold its 25% share to EADS, making EADS the sole shareholder. Astrium became EADS Astrium Satellites and in a wider restructuring became the major constituent of EADS Astrium, which included EADS Astrium Space Transportation and EADS Astrium Services. In this restructuring the former Astrium Space Infrastructure division merged with EADS Launchers & Vehicles division to form EADS SPACE Transportation, which became EADS Astrium Space Transportation. Paradigm Secure Communications created by Astrium in the frame of the Skynet 5 contract for the UK Ministry of Defence became the major constituent of EADS SPACE Services. CASA Espacio became part of EADS Astrium on 1 January 2004.
EADS Astrium was the sole shareholder of Infoterra Ltd. On 1 July 2006, the French subsidiary of EADS Astrium, EADS Astrium SAS, merged with o