Defender (association football)

In the sport of association football, a defender is an outfield player whose primary roles is to stop attacks during the game and prevent the opposing team from scoring goals. Centre backs are are in pairs, with 2 full-backs to their left and right, but can come in threes with no full backs There are four types of defenders: centre-back, full-back, wing-back; the centre-back and full-back positions are essential in most modern formations. The sweeper and wing-back roles are more specialized for certain formations. A centre-back defends in the area directly in front of the goal and tries to prevent opposing players centre-forwards, from scoring. Centre-backs accomplish this by blocking shots, intercepting passes, contesting headers and marking forwards to discourage the opposing team from passing to them. With the ball, centre-backs are expected to make long and pinpoint passes to their teammates, or to kick unaimed long balls down the field. For example, a clearance is a long unaimed kick intended to move the ball as far as possible from the defender's goal.

Due to the many skills centre-backs are required to possess in the modern game, many successful contemporary central-defensive partnerships have involved pairing a more physical defender with a defender, quicker, more comfortable in possession and capable of playing the ball out from the back. During normal play, centre-backs are unlikely to score goals. However, when their team takes a corner kick or other set pieces, centre-backs may move forward to the opponents' penalty area. In this case, other defenders or midfielders will temporarily move into the centre-back positions; some centre-backs have been known for their direct free kicks and powerful shots from distance. Brazilian defenders David Luiz and Naldo have been known for using the cannonball free-kick method, which relies more on power than placement. In the modern game, most teams employ three centre-backs in front of the goalkeeper; the 4–2–3–1, 4–3–3, 4–4–2 formations all use two centre-backs. There are two main defensive strategies used by centre-backs: the zonal defence, where each centre-back covers a specific area of the pitch.

The sweeper is a more versatile centre-back who "sweeps up" the ball if an opponent manages to breach the defensive line. This position is rather more fluid than that of other defenders who man-mark their designated opponents; because of this, it is sometimes referred to as libero. Though sweepers may be expected to build counter-attacking moves, as such require better ball control and passing ability than typical centre-backs, their talents are confined to the defensive realm. For example, the catenaccio system of play, used in Italian football in the 1960s, employed a purely defensive sweeper who "roamed" only around the back line; the more modern libero possesses the defensive qualities of the typical libero while being able to expose the opposition during counterattacks. Some sweepers move forward and distribute the ball up-field, while others intercept passes and get the ball off the opposition without needing to hurl themselves into tackles. If the sweeper does move up the field to distribute the ball, they will need to make a speedy recovery and run back into their position.

In modern football, its usage has been restricted, with few clubs in the biggest leagues using the position. The position is most believed to have been pioneered by Franz Beckenbauer, Gaetano Scirea, Morten Olsen and Elías Figueroa, although they were not the first players to play this position. Earlier proponents included Alexandru Apolzan, Ivano Blason, Velibor Vasović, Ján Popluhár. Other defenders who have been described as sweepers include Bobby Moore, Franco Baresi, Ronald Koeman, Fernando Hierro, Matthias Sammer, Aldair, due to their ball skills and long passing ability. Though it is used in modern football, it remains a respected and demanding position. Recent and successful use of the sweeper was made by Otto Rehhagel, Greece's manager, during UEFA Euro 2004. Rehhagel utilized Traianos Dellas as Greece's sweeper to great success, as Greece became European champions. Although this position has become obsolete in modern football formations, due to the use of zonal marking and the offside trap, certain players such as Daniele De Rossi, Leonardo Bonucci, Javi Martínez and David Luiz have played a similar role as a ball-playing central defender in a 3–5–2 or 3–4–3 formation.

Some goalkeepers, who are comfortable leaving their goalmouth to intercept and clear through balls, who participate more in play, such as René Higuita, Manuel Neuer, Edwin van der Sar, Fabien Barthez, Marc-André ter Stegen, Hugo Lloris, among others, have been referred to as sweeper-keepers. The full-backs take up the holding wide positions and traditionally stayed in defence at all ti

Uvs Lake Basin

Uvs Lake Basin is an endorheic basin located on the territorial border of Mongolia and Tuva, a republic of the Russian Federation. The basin is part of the Central Asian Internal Drainage Basin and is named after Uvs Lake, a large saline lake situated in the western part of its drainage basin. Uvs Lake is a shallow lake with an area of 3,350 km2, its entire basin, which includes several smaller lakes, is 70,000 km2. Uvs Lake Basin may refer to Ubsunur Hollow, the western part of the drainage basin, or to over 10,000 km2 of protected areas covering the lake and its surroundings; the hollow forms the northern part of the Great Lakes Depression, which has a surface of over 100,000 km2. The hollow, most of the drainage basin, are situated in the Khövsgöl, Zavkhan and Uvs Provinces of north-western Mongolia, the Mongun-Tayginsky, Tes-Khemsky and Erzinsky Districts of southern Tuva; the basin is part of a combination of raised lands and hollows located throughout the Tannu-Ola and Altai mountainous regions.

Here, the world's most northern desert meets the Northern Hemisphere's most southern tundra zone. An area of 10,560 km2, around three quarters of which lies in Mongolia, was designated Biosphere Reserve in 1997, a overlapping zone of around the same size was designated UNESCO World Heritage in 2003; the Mongolian part of the lake and its immediate surroundings were further adopted as Ramsar wetland in 2004. The Tannu-Ola mountains form the northern border of Ubsunur Hollow. Tere-Khol' Lake, the only freshwater lake of the basin, like Uvs Lake, on the Russian-Mongolian border; the more eastern part of the Uvs Lake drainage basin extends, in the north, to the Sengilen ridge of the Sayan Mountains, in the east, to the basin of Sangiin Dalai Lake. The southern part of the hollow is bordered by the basin of Khyargas Lake, with the Khan Khökhii mountains separating both basins of the Great Lakes Depression. More to the east, the Bulnai mountain range forms the southern border of Uvs Lake's drainage basin.

West of the Uvs Lake Basin lies the endorheic basin of Üüreg Lake, bordered by the Altai Mountains. The Tsagan-Shibetu ridge separates, in part, the Üüreg lake basins; the south-western tip of the Uvs Lake Basin covers most of the Türgen Uul range, includes the north-eastern slopes of Harhiraa mountain According to Greenpeace, Ubsunur Hollow counts 40,000 archaeological sites from nomadic Scythians, Turks and other tribes. A number of its archaeological artefacts remain unstudied. In Central Asia, it has the highest concentration of burial mounds, constituting around half of its archaeological sites, many of which are older than the Egyptian pyramids. Thousands of rock carvings and stone sculptures remain from medieval settlements and Buddhist temples. Archaeological searches carried out in 2007–2008 on the Por-Bazhyn ruins, which are situated on an islet in the Russian part of Tere-Khol' Lake, suggested that the enclosure was built around the middle of the second half of the 8th century, under the Uyghur Khaganate.

The population density is low in the Ubsunur Hollow. Populated exclusively by the nomadic Tuvan people, cattle breeders living in yurts, The lack of industry and the reliance of the inhabitants on traditional ways of life, such as nomadic pasturing, have had little impact on the landscape and have allowed the ecosystem to remain free from the negative effects that human presence can impose. Both the Russian and the Mongolian parts of the hollow are home to nomadic Tuvan cattle herders, who live in yurts and make up all of the population; the Hollow, located on the border between Mongolia and Russia, lies at the intersection of complex ecosystems. Its area is 10,688 km2; the terrain includes glaciers, desert, alpine tundra, sub alpine meadows, a vast mountain taiga areas. There are forested steppes, treeless steppes, semi-arid deserts, shifting sand dunes, it is a diversified natural habitat, producing an interaction of Euro-Siberian and Central Asian-Mongolian plant and animal life. Due to its location on the cusp of the Siberian and Central Asian-Mongolian terrains, the flora and fauna of the hollow exhibit a high biodiversity for mid-latitudes.

Animal species that inhabit both mountains and tundra, such as the Siberian roe deer, Altai snowcock, flourish here. The endangered snow leopard is present, as well as taiga dwellers such as the Caspian red deer and wolverine. Steppe dwellers include demoiselle crane and long-tailed Siberian squirrel. Desert inhabitants include the midday gerbil; the bird species alone number some 359. Since the hollow is a protected area, many ancient species extinct in other regions have found refuge here. In 1993 Russia protected the Tuvan parts of Ubsunur Hollow as the Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina State Nature Biosphere Reserve. In 1995 Greenpeace Russia prepared its proposal to nominate Ubsunur Hollow, in conjunction with Mongolia, as World Heritage Site, describing it as "one of the largest intact watersheds in Central Asia". Ubsunur Hollow Biosphere Reserve is a fragile mountain hollow or depression located on the territorial border of Mongolia and the Republic of Tuva in the Russian Federation among the mountains — Tannu-Ola Mountains, the Altay Mountains region — part of a combination of raised lands and depressions.

Here the world's most northern desert meets the world's most southern tundra zone. Ubsunur Hollow Reserve was awarded international Biosphere Reserve status in 1998, as a step toward protectin

Pac-Man Championship Edition 2

Pac-Man Championship Edition 2 is a downloadable arcade game in the Pac-Man series, released for PlayStation 4, Microsoft Windows, Xbox One on September 15, 2016. It was developed and published by Bandai Namco Entertainment, is a direct sequel to Pac-Man Championship Edition, making it an indirect follow-up Pac-Man Championship Edition DX. Pac-Man Championship Edition 2 builds upon the gameplay introduced in Championship Edition and Championship Edition DX, which add faster gameplay to the traditional Pac-Man formula. Taking control of Pac-Man, players go through various mazes collecting pellets while avoiding roaming ghosts. Gathering enough pellets reveals either a piece of fruit that sends Pac-Man to the next maze, or a Power Pellet that can be used to eat ghosts. Unlike previous iterations of Pac-Man, in which touching ghosts would kill Pac-Man, ghosts can now be bumped into up to three times in succession before they enter an Angry state, during which touching them will cause Pac-Man to lose a life.

Similar to Championship DX, passing by sleeping ghosts will add them to a trail behind the other ghosts, allowing for large point bonuses when eaten. Players can use jump pads to jump over parts of a maze and bombs to return to the start of a maze; the game features two main modes: Score Attack, in which players must try and rack up a high score within a time limit, Adventure, which requires players to clear several objectives, including fighting giant bosses. The Nintendo Switch'Plus' version features a co-op mode. Pac-Man Championship Edition 2 received "generally favorable" reviews from critics according to Metacritic. A retail disc for PlayStation 4 and Xbox One containing Pac-Man Championship Edition 2 compiled with three games from the Arcade Game Series was released for PlayStation 4 and Xbox One on November 1, 2016 in North America. Namco Museum Arcade Pac is a retail video game compilation for Nintendo Switch that includes Pac-Man Championship Edition 2 Plus along with all of the games included in Namco Museum for Nintendo Switch.

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