The arms industry known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry which manufactures and sells weapons and military technology. It consists of a commercial industry involved in the research and development, engineering and servicing of military material and facilities. Arms-producing companies referred to as arms dealers, defence contractors, or as the military industry, produce arms for the armed forces of states and for civilians. Departments of government operate in the arms industry and selling weapons and other military items. An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition - whether or publicly owned - are made and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination. Products of the arms industry include guns, ammunition, military aircraft, military vehicles, electronic systems, night-vision devices, holographic weapon sights, laser rangefinders, laser sights, hand grenades and more; the arms industry provides other logistical and operational support. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute estimated military expenditures as of 2012 at $1.8 trillion.
This represented a relative decline from 1990, when military expenditures made up 4% of world GDP. Part of the money goes to the procurement of military hardware and services from the military industry; the combined arms-sales of the top 100 largest arms-producing companies amounted to an estimated $395 billion in 2012 according to SIPRI. In 2004 over $30 billion were spent in the international arms-trade. According to SIPRI, the volume of international transfers of major weapons in 2010–14 was 16 per cent higher than in 2005–2009; the five biggest exporters in 2010–2014 were the United States, China and France, the five biggest importers were India, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Pakistan. Many industrialized countries have a domestic arms-industry to supply their own military forces; some countries have a substantial legal or illegal domestic trade in weapons for use by their own citizens for self-defence, hunting or sporting purposes. Illegal trade in small arms occurs in many regions affected by political instability.
The Small Arms Survey estimates that 875 million small arms circulate worldwide, produced by more than 1,000 companies from nearly 100 countries. Governments award contracts to supply their country's military; the link between politics and the arms trade can result in the development of what U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower described in 1961 as a military-industrial complex, where the armed forces and politics become linked to the European multilateral defence procurement. Various corporations, some publicly held, others private, bid for these contracts, which are worth many billions of dollars. Sometimes, as with the contract for the international Joint Strike Fighter, a competitive tendering process takes place, with the decision made on the merits of the designs submitted by the companies involved. Other times, no bidding or competition takes place. During the early modern period, United Kingdom and some states in Germany became self-sufficient in arms production, with diffusion and migration of skilled workers to more peripheral countries such as Portugal and Russia.
The modern arms industry emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century as a product of the creation and expansion of the first large military-industrial companies. As smaller countries could no longer produce cutting-edge military equipment with their indigenous resources and capacity, they began to contract the manufacture of military equipment, such as battleships, artillery pieces and rifles to foreign firms. In 1854, the British government awarded a contract to the Elswick Ordnance Company of industrialist William Armstrong for the supply of his latest breech loading rifled artillery pieces; this galvanised the private sector into weapons production, with the surplus being exported to foreign countries. Armstrong became one of the first international arms dealers, selling his weapon systems to governments across the world from Brazil to Japan. In 1884, he opened a shipyard at Elswick to specialise in warship production—at the time, it was the only factory in the world that could build a battleship and arm it completely.
The factory produced warships for many navies, including the Imperial Japanese Navy. Several Armstrong cruisers played an important role in defeating the Russian fleet at the Battle of Tsushima in 1905. In the American Civil War in 1861 the North had a distinct advantage over the south as it relied on using the breech-loading rifle against the muskets of the south; this began the transition to industrially produced mechanised weapons such as the Gatling gun. This industrial innovation in the defence industry was adopted by Prussia in 1866 & 1870-71 in its defeat of Austria and France respectively. By this time the machine gun had begun entering into the militaries; the first example of its effectiveness was in 1899 during the Boer War and in 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War. However, Germany were leaders in innovation of weapons and used this innovation nearly defeating the allies in World War I. In 1885, France decided to capitalize on this lucrative form of trade and repealed its ban on weapon exports.
The regulatory framework for the period up to the First World War was characterized by a laissez-faire policy that placed little obstruction in the way of weapons exports. Due to the carnage of World War I
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true; the term graduate thesis is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, the required minimum study period may thus vary in duration; the word "dissertation" can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term "thesis" is used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work; the term "thesis" comes from the Greek θέσις, meaning "something put forth", refers to an intellectual proposition. "Dissertation" comes from the Latin dissertātiō, meaning "discussion".
Aristotle was the first philosopher to define the term thesis. "A'thesis' is a supposition of some eminent philosopher that conflicts with the general opinion...for to take notice when any ordinary person expresses views contrary to men's usual opinions would be silly". For Aristotle, a thesis would therefore be a supposition, stated in contradiction with general opinion or express disagreement with other philosophers. A supposition is a statement or opinion that may or may not be true depending on the evidence and/or proof, offered; the purpose of the dissertation is thus to outline the proofs of why the author disagrees with other philosophers or the general opinion. A thesis may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a monograph, with or without appended papers though many graduate programs allow candidates to submit a curated collection of published papers. An ordinary monograph has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters, a bibliography or a references section.
They differ in their structure in accordance with the many different areas of study and the differences between them. In a thesis by publication, the chapters constitute an introductory and comprehensive review of the appended published and unpublished article documents. Dissertations report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic; the structure of a thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the previous research literature impinging on the topic of the study, the methods used, the findings of the project. Most world universities use a multiple chapter format: a) an introduction, which introduces the research topic, the methodology, as well as its scope and significance. Degree-awarding institutions define their own house style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document. In addition to institution-specific house styles, there exist a number of field-specific and international standards and recommendations for the presentation of theses, for instance ISO 7144.
Other applicable international standards include ISO 2145 on section numbers, ISO 690 on bibliographic references, ISO 31 on quantities or units. Some older house styles specify that front matter must use a separate page number sequence from the main text, using Roman numerals; the relevant international standard and many newer style guides recognize that this book design practice can cause confusion where electronic document viewers number all pages of a document continuously from the first page, independent of any printed page numbers. They, avoid the traditional separate number sequence for front matter and require a single sequence of Arabic numerals starting with 1 for the first printed page. Presentation requirements, including pagination, layout and color of paper, use of acid-free paper, paper size, order of components, citation style, will be checked page by page by the accepting officer before the thesis is accepted and a receipt is issued. However, strict standards are not always required.
Most Italian universities, for example, have only general requirements on the character size and the page formatting, leave much freedom for the actual typographic details. A thesis or dissertation committee is a committee. In the US, these committees consist of a primary supervisor or advisor and two or more committee members, who supervise the progress of the dissertation and may act as the examining committee, or jury, at the oral examination of the thesis. At most universities, the committee is chosen by the student in conjunction with his or her primary adviser after completion of the comprehensive examinations or prospectus meeting, may consist of members of the comps committee; the committee members are doctors in their field (whether a PhD or other des
National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens and institutions, is regarded as a duty of government. Conceived as protection against military attack, national security is now understood to include non-military dimensions, including the security from terrorism, economic security, energy security, environmental security, food security, cyber security etc. National security risks include, in addition to the actions of other nation states, action by violent non-state actors, narcotic cartels, multinational corporations, the effects of natural disasters. Governments rely on a range of measures, including political and military power, as well as diplomacy to enforce national security, they may act to build the conditions of security regionally and internationally by reducing transnational causes of insecurity, such as climate change, economic inequality, political exclusion, nuclear proliferation. The concept of national security remains ambiguous, having evolved from simpler definitions which emphasised freedom from military threat and from political coercion.
Among the many definitions proposed to date are the following, which show how the concept has evolved to encompass non-military concerns: "A nation has security when it does not have to sacrifice its legitimate ínterests to avoid war, is able, if challenged, to maintain them by war.". "The distinctive meaning of national security means freedom from foreign dictation." "National security objectively means the absence of threats to acquired values and subjectively, the absence of fear that such values will be attacked." "National security is the ability to preserve the nation's physical integrity and territory. "National security... is best described as a capacity to control those domestic and foreign conditions that the public opinion of a given community believes necessary to enjoy its own self-determination or autonomy and wellbeing." "National security is an appropriate and aggressive blend of political resilience and maturity, human resources, economic structure and capacity, technological competence, industrial base and availability of natural resources and the military might."
" measurable state of the capability of a nation to overcome the multi-dimensional threats to the apparent well-being of its people and its survival as a nation-state at any given time, by balancing all instruments of state policy through governance... and is extendable to global security by variables external to it." " may be understood as a shared freedom from fear and want, the freedom to live in dignity. It implies social and ecological health rather than the absence of risk... a common right." Potential causes of national insecurity include actions by other states, violent non-state actors, organised criminal groups such as narcotic cartels, the effects of natural disasters. Systemic drivers of insecurity, which may be transnational, include climate change, economic inequality and marginalisation, political exclusion, militarisation. In view of the wide range of risks, the security of a nation state has several dimensions, including economic security, energy security, physical security, environmental security, food security, border security, cyber security.
These dimensions correlate with elements of national power. Governments organise their security policies into a national security strategy; some states appoint a National Security Council to oversee the strategy and/or a National Security Advisor. Although states differ in their approach, with some beginning to prioritise non-military action to tackle systemic drivers of insecurity, various forms of coercive power predominate military capabilities; the scope of these capabilities has developed. Traditionally, military capabilities were land- or sea-based, in smaller countries they still are. Elsewhere, the domains of potential warfare now include the air, space and psychological operations. Military capabilities designed for these domains may be used for national security, or for offensive purposes, for example to conquer and annex territory and resources. In practice, national security is associated with managing physical threats and with the military capabilities used for doing so; that is, national security is understood as the capacity of a nation to mobilise military forces to guarantee its borders and to deter or defend against physical threats including military aggression and attacks by non-state actors, such as terrorism.
Most states, such as South Africa and Sweden, configure their military forces for territorial defence. Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver, Jaap de Wilde and others have argued that national security depends on political security: the stability of the social order. Others, such as Paul Rogers, have added that the equitability of the interna
Defence Housing Authority, Karachi
Defence is a neighbourhood located within Clifton Cantonment of Karachi, Pakistan. Although part of Karachi City District, Defence is governed directly by the Clifton Cantonment Board; the neighbourhood is divided into several subdivisions or "phases". It was established for military personnel by the Armed Forces of Pakistan Welfare Department in 1980. Today Defence serves as one of Karachi's most affluent neighbourhoods. Defence is sometimes incorrectly referred to as Defence Housing Authority; the DHA serves as the administrative authority only. Defence was established by retired servicemen from the armed forces in the mid-1950s as a cooperative housing society; the office was inaugurated by Rear Admiral Haji Mohammad Siddiq Chaudhry, the first Pakistani Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistani Navy. In 1981, under the orders of President Gen Zia-ul Haq, it was taken over by the government and was put under the control of the Corps Commander Karachi; the authority came into existence through Presidential Order No. 7 of 1980 and was approved by the National Assembly of Pakistan.
The authority provides civic facilities to millions of residents. The efforts to develop DHA have been fruitful, signified by growth oriented high class living values The housing projects are planned to cover every aspect of healthy living and contain parks, educational institutions and clubs; the organizational matters are attended by Secretary, Chief Engineer, Directors and a committed and work force to ensure smooth running of the organization. The functioning of the authority is vested in the two bodies: the governing body headed by Secretary Ministry of Defence and Executive Board headed by the Corps Commander posted at Karachi; the Executive Board exercises all administrative and financial powers. The Administrator is the executive head and exercises all executive powers, delegation or otherwise, in accordance with the policy laid down by the governing body and the directions or decisions of the executive board. Defence is divided into 8 subdivisions, which each phase being subdivided further into blocks and sectors.
Each phase has a central commercial area to cater to the local community. Housing construction began from Defence I and proliferated east and south towards what is today Defence VIII. Housing plots range from five marla to 2 kanals; the Karachi Defence Housing Authority building is located at 2-B, East Street, Defence I. Korangi Road/National Highway: connects DHA to Shahrah-e-Faisal near the Finance and Trade Centre, Karachi on one side and Korangi Industrial Area on the other, it runs in Phase I and Phase II. Sunset Boulevard: Sunset Boulevard connects DHA to Mai Kolachi on one side and meets Korangi Road on the other side. Sunset Boulevard runs in Phase II. Khayaban-e-Shamsheer: meets Gizri Boulevard on one end and Beach Avenue on the other, it runs perpendicular to Khayaban-e-Hafiz. Landmarks on Shamsheer include the Saudi Embassy, it runs in Phase V. Khayaban-e-Ittehad: meets Korangi Road on one side and Seaview Road on the other. Khayaban-e-Ittehad curves shortly after its intersection with 5th street and from that point onwards, runs at an angle of 45 degrees from the vertical.
It meets most of the roads that run in DHA. It runs in Phase VI, Phase VII & Phase VIII. Khayaban-e-Hafiz: continuous with Chaudri Khaliq-uz-Zaman Road on one side and goes deep into Phase VIII on the other side. Landmarks on Hafiz include the Sultan Masjid. Hafiz runs in Phase V, Phase VI and Phase VIII. Khayaban-e-Shaheen: runs parallel to Hafiz, it is continuous with Zamzama Boulevard on one side and passes through'Creek City' on the other side. Landmarks on Shaheen include Shaikh Zaid's'Mehel'. Shaheen runs in Phase V, Phase VI and Phase VIII. Gizri: a commercial road, continuous with Khayaban-e-Hafiz on one side and Chaudry Khaliq-uz-Zaman Road on the other. Landmarks include the'Submarine Chowk', it has its own system of streets and lanes, known as the'Gizri Streets' and'Gizri Lanes'. It runs in Phase IV. Zamzama: a commercial road, continuous with Khayaban-e-Shaheen on one side and ends at'Two Talwar' on the other side, it has its own system of streets and lanes, known as'Commercial lanes' and'Zamzama streets'.
It runs in Phase V. Zamzama street is home to Karachi's most elite designer shops for clothes and accessories, it has high end restaurants and coffee shops which are popular spots for the rich and the fashionable residing in the posh neighborhoods of DHA. Khayaban-e-Bahria: runs perpendicular to Khayaban-e-Hafiz, it meets up with Seaview Road on the other. Landmarks include the Sultan Masjid, it runs in Phase V and Phase VII. 26th street: runs parallel to Khayaban-e-Hafiz. It meets up with Abdullah Shah Ghazi road/Shahrah-e-Firdousi on one side and goes deep into Phase VIII on the other. 26th street runs in Phase V, Phase VI and Phase VIII. Seaview Road/Beach Avenue: runs along the sea, it goes deep into Phase VIII on the other side. Seaview Road runs in Phase V, Phase VI and Phase VIII. Commercial Avenue: runs parallel to Khayaban-e-Hafiz, it meets up with Khayaban-e-Jami on one side and Khayaban-e-Ittehad on the other, has its own system of streets and lanes, known as'Commercial Streets' and'Commercial Lanes'.
Commercial Avenue is known as the'naalay walee sarak' because a drain runs through the middle of the road. Landmarks include the DHA School Phase IV branch. Commercial Avenue runs through Phase
La Grande Arche de la Défense is a monument and building in the business district of La Défense and in the commune of Puteaux, to the west of Paris, France. It is known as the Arche de la Défense or as La Grande Arche. A 110 meter high cube, La Grande Arche is part of the perspective from the Louvre to Arc de Triomphe; the distance from La Grande Arche to Arc de Triomphe is 4 km. A great national design competition was launched in 1982 as the initiative of French president François Mitterrand. Danish architect Johan Otto von Spreckelsen and Danish engineer Erik Reitzel designed the winning entry to be a late-20th-century version of the Arc de Triomphe: a monument to humanity and humanitarian ideals rather than military victories; the construction of the monument began in 1985. Spreckelsen resigned in July 1986 and ratified the transfer of all his architectural responsibilities to his associate, French architect Paul Andreu. Reitzel continued his work until the monument was completed in 1989; the Arche is in the approximate shape of a cube.
It has a prestressed concrete frame covered with glass and Carrara marble from Italy and was built by the French civil engineering company Bouygues. La Grande Arche was inaugurated in July 1989, with grand military parades that marked the bicentennial of the French Revolution, it completed the line of monuments. The Arche is turned at an angle of 6.33° about the vertical axis. The most important reason for this turn was technical: with a métro station, an RER station, a motorway all situated directly underneath the Arche, the angle was the only way to accommodate the structure's giant foundations. In addition, from an architectural point of view, the turn emphasizes the depth of the monument and is similar to the turn of the Louvre at the other end of the Axe historique. In addition, the Arche is placed so that it forms a secondary axe with the two of the highest buildings in Paris at the time, the Tour Eiffel and the Tour Montparnasse; the two sides of the Arche house government offices. The roof section was housing the Musée de l'Informatique.
The roof, when it was open to the public, was popular for its views of Paris. However, after an accident without injury in the elevators in April 2010, the Department of Ecology, owner of the roof of the Grande Arche, decided to permanently close the computer museum and viewing deck. Access to the roof was still possible via the elevators in the north and south walls, but they were closed to the public. A reopening was planned for May 2017; the rooftop is now open to the public and includes a restaurant and an exhibition area dedicated to photojournalism. Organizations headquartered in the Grande Arche include the Bureau d'Enquêtes sur les Événements de Mer, the French marine accident investigation agency, in the southern portion. List of tallest buildings and structures in the Paris region François Chaslin et Virginie Picon-Lefebvre, La Grande Arche de La Défense Electa-Moniteur, 1989 Erik Reitzel Le Cube ouvert. Structures and foundations International conference on tall buildings. Singapore, 1984.
ISBN 9971840421 Erik Reitzel Les forces dont resultent quelques monuments Parisiens de la Fin du XXe siècle Le pouvoir et la ville à l'époque moderne et contemporaine, Sorbonne 2001. ISBN 2747526100 Grande Arche Satellite image from Google Maps Panorama during a storm Grande Arche ERI.dk Grande Arche pictures in Art Days
A defence mechanism is an unconscious psychological mechanism that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or harmful stimuli. Defence mechanisms may result in healthy or unhealthy consequences depending on the circumstances and frequency with which the mechanism is used. In psychoanalytic theory, defence mechanisms are psychological strategies brought into play by the unconscious mind to manipulate, deny, or distort reality in order to defend against feelings of anxiety and unacceptable impulses and to maintain one's self-schema or other schemas; these processes that manipulate, deny, or distort reality may include the following: repression, or the burying of a painful feeling or thought from one's awareness though it may resurface in a symbolic form. In psychoanalytic theory, repression is considered as the basis for other defence mechanisms. Healthy persons use different defences throughout life. An ego defence mechanism becomes pathological only when its persistent use leads to maladaptive behaviour such that the physical or mental health of the individual is adversely affected.
Among the purposes of ego defence mechanisms is to protect the mind/self/ego from anxiety or social sanctions or to provide a refuge from a situation with which one cannot cope. One resource used to evaluate these mechanisms is the Defense Style Questionnaire; the concept of id impulses comes from Sigmund Freud's structural model. According to this theory, id impulses are based on the pleasure principle: instant gratification of one's own desires and needs. Freud believed that the id represents biological instinctual impulses in humans, such as aggression and sexuality. For example, when the id impulses conflict with the superego, unsatisfied feelings of anxiousness or feelings of anxiety come to the surface. To reduce these unpleasant feelings, the ego might use defence mechanisms. Freud believed that conflicts between these two structures resulted in conflicts associated with psychosexual stages. Freud proposed three structures of the psyche or personality: Id: The id is the unconscious reservoir of the libido, the psychic energy that fuels instincts and psychic processes.
It is a selfish, pleasure-oriented part of the personality with no ability to delay gratification. Superego: The superego contains internalised societal and parental standards of "good" and "bad", "right" and "wrong" behaviour, they include conscious appreciations of rules and regulations as well as those incorporated unconsciously. Ego: The ego acts as a moderator between the pleasure sought by the id and the morals of the superego, seeking compromises to pacify both, it can be viewed as the individual's "sense of time and place". In the ego, there are two ongoing processes. First, there is the unconscious primary process, where the thoughts are not organised in a coherent way. There is no time line. Lust is important for this process. By contrast, there is the conscious secondary process, where strong boundaries are set and thoughts must be organised in a coherent way. Most conscious thoughts originate here. Id impulses are not appropriate in a civilised society, so there is societal pressure to modify the pleasure principle in favour of the reality principle.
The superego forms as the child learns parental and social standards. The superego consists of two structures: the conscience, which stores information about what is "bad" and what has been punished, the ego ideal, which stores information about what is "good" and what one "should" do or be; when anxiety becomes overwhelming, it is the ego's place to protect the person by employing defence mechanisms. Guilt and shame accompany anxiety. In the first definitive book on defence mechanisms, The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence, Anna Freud introduced the concept of signal anxiety; the signalling function of anxiety is thus seen as crucial, biologically adapted to warn the organism of danger or a threat to its equilibrium. The anxiety is felt as an increase in bodily or mental tension, the signal that the organism receives in this way allows for the possibility of taking defensive action regarding the perceived danger. Defence mechanisms work by distorting the id impulses into acceptable forms, or by unconscious or conscious blockage of these impulses.
The list of defence mechanisms, with no theoretical consensus on the exact number. Classifying defence mechanisms according to some of their properties has been attempted. Different theorists have different conceptualizations of defence mechanisms. Large reviews of theories of defence mechanisms are available from Paulhus and Hayes and Cramer; the Journal of Personality published a special issue on defence mechanisms. In 1936, Anna Freud enumerated the ten defence mechanisms that appear in the works of her father, Sigmund Freud: repression, reaction formation, undoing, introje
Haganah was a Jewish paramilitary organization in the British Mandate of Palestine, which became the core of the Israel Defense Forces. The evolution of Jewish defense organisations in Palestine and Israel went from small self-defense groups active during Ottoman rule, to larger and more sophisticated ones during the British Mandate, leading through the Haganah to the national army of Israel, the IDF; the evolution went step by step from Bar-Giora, to Hashomer, to Haganah, to IDF. The Jewish paramilitary organisations in the New Yishuv started with the Second Aliyah; the first such organization was Bar-Giora, founded in September 1907. It consisted of a small group of Jewish immigrants. At no time did Bar-Giora have more than 100 members, it was converted to Hashomer in April 1909, which operated until the British Mandate of Palestine came into being in 1920. Hashomer was an elitist organization with narrow scope, was created to protect against criminal gangs seeking to steal property. During World War I, the forerunners of the Haganah/IDF were the Zion Mule Corps and the Jewish Legion, both of which were part of the British Army.
After the Arab riots against Jews in April 1920, the Yishuv's leadership saw the need to create a nationwide underground defense organization, the Haganah was founded in June of the same year. The Haganah became a full-scale defense force after the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine with an organized structure, consisting of three main units—the Field Corps, Guard Corps, the Palmach strike force. During World War II the successor to the Jewish Legion of World War I was the Jewish Brigade, joined by many Haganah fighters. During the 1947–48 civil war between the Arab and Jewish communities in what was still Mandatory Palestine, a reorganised Haganah managed to defend or wrestle most of the territory it was ordered to hold or capture. At the beginning of the ensuing 1948–49 full-scale conventional war against regular Arab armies, the Haganah was reorganised to become the core of the new Israel Defense Forces. After the 1920 Arab riots and 1921 Jaffa riots, the Jewish leadership in Palestine believed that the British, to whom the League of Nations had given a mandate over Palestine in 1920, had no desire to confront local Arab gangs that attacked Palestinian Jews.
Believing that they could not rely on the British administration for protection from these gangs, the Jewish leadership created the Haganah to protect Jewish farms and kibbutzim. The first head of the Haganah was a 28 year-old named a veteran of the Jewish Legion. In addition to guarding Jewish communities, the role of the Haganah was to warn the residents of and repel attacks by Palestinian Arabs. In the period between 1920 -- 1929, the Haganah lacked coordination. Haganah "units" were localized and poorly armed: they consisted of Jewish farmers who took turns guarding their farms or their kibbutzim. Following the 1929 Palestine riots, the Haganah's role changed dramatically, it became a much larger organization encompassing nearly all the youth and adults in the Jewish settlements, as well as thousands of members from the cities. It acquired foreign arms and began to develop workshops to create hand grenades and simple military equipment, transforming from an untrained militia to a capable underground army.
Many Haganah fighters objected to the official policy of havlagah that Jewish political leaders had imposed on the militia. Fighters had been instructed to only defend communities and not initiate counterattacks against Arab gangs or their communities; this policy appeared defeatist to many. In 1931, the more militant elements of the Haganah splintered off and formed the Irgun Tsva'i-Leumi, better known as "Irgun". During the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, the Haganah worked to protect British interests and to quell Arab rebellion using the FOSH, Hish units. At that time, the Haganah fielded 10,000 mobilized men along with 40,000 reservists. Although the British administration did not recognize the Haganah, the British security forces cooperated with it by forming the Jewish Settlement Police, Jewish Supernumerary Police and Special Night Squads, which were trained and led by Colonel Orde Wingate; the battle experience gained during the training was useful in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. By 1939, the British had issued the White Paper, which restricted Jewish immigration to Palestine angering the Zionist leadership.
David Ben-Gurion chairman of the Jewish Agency, set the policy for the Zionist relationship with the British: "We shall fight the war against Hitler as if there were no White Paper, we shall fight the White Paper as if there were no war." In reaction to the White Paper, the Haganah built up the Palmach as the Haganah's elite strike force and organized illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine. 100,000 Jews were brought to Palestine in over one hundred ships during the final decade of what became known as Aliyah Bet. The Haganah organized demonstrations against British immigration quotas. In 1940 the Haganah sabotaged the Patria, an ocean liner being used by the British to deport 1,800 Jews to Mauritius, with a bomb intended to cripple the ship; however the ship sank, killing 267 people and injuring 172. In the first years of World War II, the British authorities asked Haganah for cooperation again, due to the fear of an Axis breakthrough